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lows the Targum nicely. But note that the Hebrew text has only one word, mZicd.t,indicating brevity, whereas the Targum has two such terms, zCyrand sybhd, in the phrase pwn zcyr dyn dytb' bbyt' sybhd. Accordingly, in Beattie's translation (see above) "but a short time" should be italicized. Though not directly relevant to McIvor's main task, one of his comments is somewhat disconcerting. I refer to his statement that in Genesis Laban "appears as a rather wily Oriental" (p. 43). This characterization reflects Western mores which see guile as a negative trait. The ancient Mediterranean world, however, had a different standard of values, and it is improper to impose our mores on the biblical portrayal of Laban. (See further C. H. Gordon, The Ancient Near East [New York: W. W. Norton, 19651 106.) Nothing can replace a scholar's firsthand interaction with an ancient text in the original language. But insofar as this volume and the series as a whole can serve as a catalyst to direct attention to the targumim, they represent a worthy effort. Gary A. Rendsburg Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-2502

The Old English Version of the Gospels. Vol. 1, Text and Introduction, ed. by R. M. Liuzza. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. Pp. h i i + 202. $49.95.
This will be the standard edition of the Old English Gospels for the foreseeable future. The detailed seventy-eight-page introduction describes all of the Old English manuscripts, demonstrates their relationships to one another, and indicates the editorial procedures used in preparing the edition. The bulk of the volume comprises the running text of the four Gospels in Old English, with an apparatus indicating places of variation among the surviving manuscripts. A plate of Corpus Christi College M S 140, fol 45r, serves as a frontispiece. The forthcoming second volume will present notes and commentary on the text and a glossary. Bart D. Ehrman University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599

Lexical Tools to the Syriac Neu; Testament, by George Anton Kiraz. JSOT Manuals 7.
Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1994. Pp. vi + 137. 25.00/$37.50 (paper). Derived from data collected for his magnificent Concordance to the Syriac New Testament (6 vols.; Leiden: Brill, 1993), and modeled on Bruce Metzger's Lexical Aids for Students of New Testament Greek (published by Metzger and distributed by the Theological Book Agency, Princeton, 1969), this soft-cover, comb-bound (similar to spiral-bound) volume will be a useful tool and valuable acquisition for students of Syriac, a language of special importance for the study of the NT and early Christianity. The volume is divided into ten sections. The first three are Syriac word lists, given in declining order of frequency. The British and Foreign Bible Society's 1920 edition of the Peshitta is the base text; since the Peshitta (the Syrian "Vulgate") lacks 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, and Revelation, these have been supplied from the Philoxenian and Harclean versions. The first section is a list of Syriac words, the second contains proper nouns, and the third gives Greek loanwords. The information is presented in five columns: (1)an


lournal of Biblical Literature

identifying number (for cross-referencing), (2) the vocalized Syriac word in Serta (also known as Jacobite) script, (3) the part of speech, (4) a short definition (usually a word or two), (5)the number of occurrences in the Syriac NT. In the complex Syriac verb system (which is similar to Hebrew), forms sometimes vary widely; Kiraz anticipates the problems a student may encounter and identifies variant forms (e.g., word x is the pacel of root y). The fourth section lists homographs, this time in alphabetical order (the fivecolumn presentation is identical with that in sections 1-3). Sections 5 and 6 present the verb system. Section 5 sets the categories ("strong with final guttural," etc.) and offers examples; the reader is then referred to the appropriate paradigm (of which there are fifty) in section 6. Section 7 is a reverse dictionary (English to Syriac), which uses the cross-reference numbers to direct one to the equivalent Syriac word(s). Section 8 is a Syriac word list in alphabetical order, with definitions given by means of the crossreference numbers. Section 9 is a ten-page "Skeleton Syriac Grammar" compiled by Sebastian Brock, the noted Orientalist of Oxford. Section 10 is a bibliography of editions of the NT in Syriac, of translations into English and Latin, as well as tools, lexica, grammars, and specific studies of the Syriac version of the NT. Evaluating this volume is not difficult. While it cannot substitute for a Syriac grammar (something for which it was not intended), it is a useful supplement, just as Metzger's word lists complement a Greek grammar. The lists speed vocabulary acquisition by presenting the most frequently used words first. The homograph list is, to my knowledge, unique, and a most useful aid. Brock's "Skeleton Grammar" will not replace Robinson, Thackston, or Muraoka; its function in the context of Kiraz's word lists is to provide the paradigms for the many suffix pronouns which Syriac appends to both nouns and verbs, and to list the principal forms for both nouns and verbs. For verbs, these forms are given not only via the usual paradigms, but also via alphanumeric "patterns": for example, the pCalform is 12a3 or 12e3, while the paccelform is la22e3. The placement of vowels is not always obvious from the script in Syriac; this alphanumeric system is a simple yet clear means of stipulating the position. This volume can be recommended to students as an aid for vocabulary studies. The more advanced scholar will find it a handy reference work. The reverse dictionary (English to Syriac) is especially useful when investigating possible orthographic slips by scribes. The language of Aphrahat and Ephrem, of The Acts of Thornns and the Syriac Sinaiticus (the other-but equally old [or, according to U B S ~ ' ~ V even , older!]-"Codex Sinaiticus": SyrSLn) is not only beautiful but also useful. It is to be hoped that tools such as this will lead more students to study Syriac and explore the terrain that it opens. William L. Petersen Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802

The Apocnjphon oflnnnes andJnnzbres the hlngicinns: P. Chester Beatty X171 (with New
Editions of Papyrus Vindobonensis Greek inv. 29456 + 29828 verso and British Library Cotton Tiberius B. v f. 87); Edited with Introduction, Translation and Commentary with Full Facsimile of All Three Texts, by Albert Pietersma. Religions in the Graeco Roman World (EPRO) 119. Leiden: Brill, 1994. Pp. xviii + 349. G 170,00/$97.25. This book is the happy result of a project begun in 1971 when Professor Pieterslna