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Input data

Specification

%

from AR to AD (Kcak/kg)

TM

total moisture

11.0%

AR value

6000

IM

inherent moisture

2.0%

AD value

6607

Ash

ash

12.0%

from AR to DB (Kcak/kg)

VM

volatile matter

30.0%

AR value

6000

FC

fixed carbon

47.0%

DB value

6742

S

sulphur

1.0%

Calorific Value

Kcal/kg

from AD to AR (Kcak/kg)

AR

as received

6000

AD value

6607

AD

air dried

6607

AR value

6000

DB

dry basis

6742

from AD to DB (Kcak/kg)

DAF

dry ash free

 

AD value

6607

 

DB value

6742

from DB to AR (Kcak/kg)

DB value

6742

AR value

6000

from DB to AD (Kcak/kg)

DB value

6742

AD value

6607

Coal Calculations (SGS)

THE FOLLOWING ARE SOME OF THE INTERESTING PROTOCOLS AND CALCULATIONS REGULARLY USED BY SGS COAL AND COKE SPECIALISTS.

1. Bases Conversion Factors:

Ref: ASTM D3180 / ISO 1170 - Conversion to different moisture bases

a. Dry factor (converts AD to Dry) (100-ADM)/100 Dry = AD / ((100-ADM)/100)

b. AR factor (converts Dry to AR (100-TM)/100

AR = Dry x ((100-TM))/100)

c. DAF factor (converts Dry to DAF) (100-Dry Ash)/100 DAF = Dry / ((100-Dry Ash)/100)

Where:

TM is Total Moisture ADM is Air Dried Moisture (Moisture in the Analysis Sample) AR is As Received Basis AD is As Determined (Air Dried) Basis Dry is Dry Basis DAF is Dry Ash Free Basis

2. Two Stage Total Moisture Formula (Refer to ASTM / ISO) Two stage total moisture determination is used when the coal sample is too wet to divide or crush without the potential of losing significant amounts of moisture. TMar, % = [RMad, % x (100 - FMad, %) / 100] + FMad % M = Total moisture; FM = Free Moisture; RM = Residual moisture

3. Calorific Value Conversion Factors:

MJ/kg = kcals/kg / 238.846 MJ/kg = Btu/lb / 429.923 kcal/kg = MJ/kg x 238.846 kcal/kg = Btu/lb / 1.8 Btu/lb = MJ/kg x 429.923 Btu/lb = kcals x 1.8

4.

CO2 Emission Factor:

t/CO2/TJ = As Received Carbon x 3.667 x [10,000/NCV(p)] in kJ/kg= As Received Carbon x 3.667 x [2388.46/NCV(p)] in kcal/kg

5. Fuel Ratio = Fixed Carbon / Volatile Matter

6. Hydrogen in Coal: Refer to ASTM 3180 / ISO 1170 Hydrogen values may be reported if they occur in water (moisture) contained in the sample. There are alternative conversion procedures, reported below:

Use the following conversions to report H including or excluding H in moisture:

Total Hydrogen as-determined (ad): includes H in the analysis moisture

7. Hydrogen (excluding H in moisture) H(dry base) = [Total Hydrogen(ad)-(AMx0.1119)] x (100/(100-AM))

8. Hydrogen (including H in moisture) H(ar) = [Total Hydrogen(db) x ((100-TM)/100)]+(0.1119*TM)

9. ISO 1170 reports H air-dried basis excluding H in the as analyzed moisture. H(air-dried) = Total Hydrogen(as-determined) - (Analysis Moisture x 0.1119)

Hydrogen and Oxygen Factors based on the atomic weight of H20 Hydrogen = Moisture X 0.1119 Oxygen = Moisture X 0.8881

10. Net Calorific Value (NCV) Conversion Factors:

Ref: Net Calorific Value (ASTM D5865-03)

The heat produced by combustion of a substance at a constant pressure of 0.1 Mpa (1 Atm), with any water formed remaining as vapor.

ISO 1928-1995 at constant volume Qv, net,m,J/g =( Q gr,v,d - 206.0 [ wHd ] ) x (1-0.01xMT) - (23.05x MT) Qv, net,m,kcal/kg = ( Q gr,v,d - 49.20 [ wHd ] ) x (1-0.01xMT) - (5.51x MT)

ISO 1928-1995 at constant pressure Qp, net,m,J/g =

{ Q gr,v,d - 212.2 [ wHd ] - 0.8 x [wOd + wNd] } x (1- 0.01MT) - 24.43 x MT

Qp, net,m,kcal/kg =

{ Q gr,v,d - 50.68 [ wHd ] - 0.191 x [wOd + wNd] } x (1- 0.01MT) - 5.84 x MT

[ wHd ] = H content of the sample less Hydrogen present in the moisture w(H)d = w(H) x 100/100-MT MT= Total Moisture

ASTM 5865/3180 at constant pressure Qp(net)ar,J/g = Qvar(gross) - (215.5 x Har) Qp(net)ar,Btu/lb = Qvar(gross) - (92.67 x Har) Qp(net)ar,kcal/kg = Qvar(gross) - (51.47 x Har) Har = total hydrogen where hydrogen includes hydrogen in Sample Moisture Har = [(Had-0.1119xMad) x (100-Mar)/(100-Mad)] + 0.1119 x Mar

11. Seyler’s Formula:

Various parameters of coal can be estimated from the Ultimate Analysis and Calorific Value determinations, using Seyler's formula, and other similar calculations (e.g. Dulong's formula).

Reference:

* COAL -Typology -Physics -Chemistry -Constitution D.W. Van Krevelen (third edition 1993) Page 47 VMdaf = 10.61Hdaf - 1.24Cdaf + 84.15 Hdaf = 0.069 (Qdaf/100+VMdaf) - 2.86 Cdaf = [0.59 (Q,daf/100 - 0.367VMdaf) + 43.4]

** ISO 1928-1995 Part E.3.3 Estimate of the hydrogen content, calculated using Seyler's Formula wH = 0.07 x w(V) + 0.000165 x qv,gr,m - 0.0285 x [ 100 - MT - w(A) w(H) - is the H content of sample less H contained in moisture, as % mass w(V) - is the VM content of sample with moisture content MT, as % mass w(A) - is the ash content of sample with moisture content MT, as% mass

qv,gr,m - is the gross CV of sample with moisture content MT, in joules/g

Note.1** Only valid when the calculated Hdb is greater than 3% Note.2* Only valid when the Odaf content is less than 15% Note.3 Can give erroneous results if coal shipments are a blend of low and high rank coals

12. Dulong's Formula GCV(db) = 333xC(db) + 1442(H(db) - O(db) / 8) + 93xS(db) GCV is in (kJouls/kg dry basis). C, H, O, S as percent on a dry basis

CoalConversion

Facts

Basis of Analysis

CoalConversion Facts Basis of Analysis
CoalConversion Facts Basis of Analysis
CoalConversion Facts Basis of Analysis

Definitions

As Received (ar):

includes Total Moisture (TM)

Air Dried (ad):

includes Inherent Moisture (IM) only

Dry Basis (db):

excludes all Moisture

Dry Ash Free (daf):

excludes all Moisture & Ash

The Proximate Analysis of any coal i.e. the % content of Moisture, Ash (A), Volatile Matter (VM), Fixed Carbon (FC) – also Sulphur (S) and Calorific Value (CV) – can be expressed on any of the above bases.

Conversions

To obtain:-

- multiply

Air Dry

 

Dry Basis

As Received

     

ar by:

100 - IM% 100 - TM%

 

100

 

ad by:

 
100 - TM% 100
100
- TM%
100

100

- TM%

 

100

- IM%

100

- IM%

db by:

100 - IM%

 

100

- TM%

100

 

100

[For daf, multiply db by 100/(100-A)]

 

Example:

ar

ad

 

db

daf

TM

11.0

-

-

-

IM

2.0

2.0

 

-

-

Ash

12.0

13.2

13.5

-

VM

30.0

33.0

33.7

39.0

FC

47.0

51.8

52.8

61.0

Sulphur

1.0

1.1

1.12

-

Mass

Units:

Metric ton (t) = tonne = 1000 kilograms (= 2204.6 lb) Imperial or long ton (lt) = 1016.05 kilograms (= 2240 lb) Short (US) ton (st) = 907.19 kilograms (= 2000 lb)

Conversions:

From long ton to metric ton multiply by 1.016 From short ton to metric ton multiply by 0.9072

Mt

million tonnes

Mtce

million tonnes of coal equivalent (= 0.697 Mtoe)

Mtoe

million tonnes of oil equivalent

Calorific Values (CV)

Units:

kcal/kg – kilocalories per kilogram MJ/kg* – Megajoules per kilogram

Btu/lb

– British thermal units per pound

* 1 MJ/kg = 1 Gigajoule/tonne (GJ/t)

Gross & Net Calorific Values

Gross CV or ‘higher heating value’ (HHV) is the CV under laboratory conditions.

Net CV or ‘lower heating value’ (LHV) is the useful calorific value in boiler plant. The difference is essentially the latent heat of the water vapour produced.

Conversions – Units

From kcal/kg to MJ/kg multiply kcal/kg by 0.004187 From kcal/kg to Btu/lb multiply kcal/kg by 1.8

From MJ/kg to kcal/kg multiply MJ/kg by 238.8 From MJ/kg to Btu/lb multiply MJ/kg by 429.9

From Btu/lb to kcal/kg multiply Btu/lb by 0.5556 From Btu/lb to MJ/kg multiply Btu/lb by 0.002326

Conversions – Gross/Net (per ISO, for As Received figures)

kcal/kg: Net CV = Gross CV - 50.6H - 5.85M - 0.191O

MJ/kg:

Net CV = Gross CV - 0.212H - 0.0245M - 0.0008O

Btu/lb:

Net CV = Gross CV - 91.2H - 10.5M - 0.34O

– where M is % Moisture, H is % Hydrogen, O is % Oxygen (from ultimate analysis*, also As Received).

*Ultimate analysis determines the amount of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen & sulphur.

For typical bituminous coal with 10% M and 25% Volatile Matter, the differences between gross and net calorific values are approximately as follows:

260 kcal/kg

1.09 MJ/kg

470 Btu/lb

Power Generation

1 MWh = 3600 MJ

1 MW

1 MW (thermal power) [MW th ] = approx 1000 kg steam/hour

1 MW (electrical power) [MWe] = approx MW (thermal power)

= 1 MJ/s

3

A 600 MWe coal-fired power station operating at 38% efficiency and 75%

overall availability will consume approximately:

– Bituminous coal (CV 6000 kcal/kg NAR*): 1.5 Mt/year

– Brown coal

Sources: GWC Coal Handbook & IEA Clean Coal Centre

(CV 2250 kcal/kg NAR*): 4.0 Mt/year *Net As Received

WORLD COAL INSTITUTE

info@worldcoal.org

August 2007

www.worldcoal.org

* N e t A s R e c e i v e d WORLD COAL