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Meaning of Biology - from Greek words:
a) bios – life
b) logos – study
- hence, biology is the study of living things
Importance of Biology a) understand ourselves and our surrounding
b) understand the interaction between living things
and the environment.
c) Appreciate and be thankful for the diverse
variety of living things.
Application a) in the field of medicine and public health
- to create new medicine to cure diseases
- to invent modern medical equipment and
procedures to treat patients
- to invent new vaccines to prevent or treat
- to improve one’s health and well-being
b) in agriculture
- to produce high quality agricultural products
- to clone plants and animals of good strains
- to control and overcome the problem of pests
c) in industry
- to produce nutritious foods
- in food processing and preservations
d) in research
- in genetic engineering
- in conservation and preservation of endangered
Fields of Biology a) genetics – study of heredity
b) virology – study of viruses
c) entomology – study of insects
d) anatomy – study of the structure of organisms
e) ecology – study of the environment and its
relationship with organisms
f) botany – study of plants
g) zoology – study of animals
h) embryology – study of embryonic development
i) taxonomy – study of classifications of plants
and animals
j) histology – study of tissues
k) bacteriology – study of bacteria
l) physiology – study of biochemical processes in
the body

Biology, Form 4,
Scientific skills a) science process skills
- promote thinking in a critical, creative, analytical
and systemic manner
- eg: observing, classifying
b) manipulative skills
- are psychomotor skills acquired through
conducting experiments in scientific
Scientific Method a) identifying the problems
b) forming a hypothesis
c) planning an experiment
d) controlling variables
e) conducting the experiment
f) collecting data
g) analysing data
h) interpreting data
i) drawing conclusions
j) writing a report

Cell structure and cell organisation…

Biology, Form 4,
Function of cell - carry out life processes such as respiration,
excretion, growth and division
Protoplasm Cytoplasm and nucleus

Differences between Animal cell Differences Plant cell

animal cell and plant …
cell No fixed SHAPE Fixed shape
Absent CELL WALL Present

Absent CHLOROPLA Present which

STS contain
Usually VACUOLE Has large
exists as vacuoles
vacuoles in
lower animal
Glycogen GRANULES Starch
granules granules
Similarities between a) plasma membrane
animal cell and plant b) cytoplasm
cell c) nucleus
d) mitochondria
e) Golgi apparatus
f) Endoplasmic reticulum

Organelles Specialised structures which are each surrounded by

its own membrane and perform specific functions
a) nucleus
b) rough endoplasmic reticulum and smooth
endoplasmic reticulum
c) mitochondria
d) Golgi apparatus
e) Lysosomes
f) Ribosomes
g) Centrioles
h) Vacuole

Biology, Form 4,
Biology, Form 4,
Cellular Structures Functions
Plasma membrane - thin , semi- permeable -control the movement of
membrane substances in and out of the
Cell wall - thick layer outside - maintains the shape of
the plasma plant cells
membrane - provide support for plant
- made up of body
cellulose and fully
Cytoplasm - jelly-like substance - acts as a medium for
that contains water metabolic reactions
and mineral salts - supplies the substances
- contains organelles required by organelles

Nucleus - spherical with a - controls and regulates all

double membrane the activities of the cells
- contain nucleolus, - contains hereditary
chromosomes, factors (genes)
nucleoplasm and responsible for the traits
nuclear of the animal and plant
Ribosomes - small particles - synthesis of protein
consisting of RNA
(ribonucleic acid)
- exists freely in the
cytoplasm or on
the surface of the
Mitochondria - rod-shaped with a - known as the ‘power
double membrane house’ of the cell
- outer membrane - releases energy as it is
is smooth and the site for aerobic
regular while the respiration
inner membrane
is folded to form
Golgi apparatus - vacuolar region - receives protein and
surrounded by a lipids from endoplasmic
complex meshwork reticulum and modify
of vesicles budding them to form specific
off at its end secretions such as
enzymes and hormones
- pack the secretion
formed into secretory
vesicles and transport
them to the plasma
membrane to be
- controls the secretory
activity of the cells
- formation of lysosomes

Biology, Form 4,
Lysosomes - membrane-bound - contains enzymes which
vesicles found in control breakdown of
animal cells protein and lipids
- contain enzymes that
digest aged or defective
cell components or
materials taken in by the
cell from its environment
such as food particles or
Chloroplasts - disc-shaped - carry out photosynthesis
organelles with a
double membrane
- consist of an
arrangement of
grana with the
stroma. Each
granum contains
Centrioles - consists of two - formation of spindle
cylindrical body during cell division
structures arranged
at right angles to
one another
- found only in
animal cells
Vacuoles - cavities filled with - contains water, sugar
cell sap surrounded and dissolved minerals
by a semi- - maintains turgidity of
permeable cells in plants
membrane called
the tonoplast
Endoplasmic - a system of - transport system for
reticulum membrane- protein and lipids within
enclosed tubules the cell
closely packed - rough endoplasmic
together and reticulum transport the
continuous with the proteins synthesised by
nuclear membrane the ribosomes to other
- rough parts of the cell
endoplasmic - smooth endoplasmic
reticulum has reticulum stimulates the
ribosomes while synthesis of lipids and
the smooth cholesterol and transport
endoplasmic them within the cell
reticulum does
not have
Relationship - Sperm cells – have many mitochondria to provide
between the energy for the sperm to swim towards an ovum and
density of fertilise it.
organelles - Flight muscle cells – enable the animals to move
their wings during flight. These muscle cells have a
high density of mitochondria.
- Cells in meristems - actively involved in cell
division to produce new cells for growth. Cell division
requires energy.
Unicellular Single-cell organisms such as Amoeba sp. and
organism Paramecium sp. Biology, Form 4,