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1031. 672. 1066.

-b +- sq. rt(b^2 - 4ac) / 2a "Either/Or" (# of favorable outcomes) / (# of possible outcomes) (amount of change) / (original amount) (As an adolescent/ while in adolescence) , John suffered from tonsillites (n-1)! (sum of bases)(height) / 2 (total A) / (total B) (total distance) / (total time) (x-n(n)y-n) ** Don't expend too much effort (at/ on) this document ** The sculpture was estimated (to be/ at) worth much more than the base price. ****Important**** **Important Note** **Important**

Quadratic formula At least one of the two, possibly both - a conditional relationship is at the heart of this construction. Simple probability Percent increase = ? As an adolescent/ a teenager/ a child



1055. 1041. 1077.

Circular permutation: The number of ways to arrange n distinct objects along a fixed circle is? Formula for area of a Trapezoid Average Rate: Average A per B Average Rate: Average speed Set Problems formula expend on - spend on estimated to be


1035. 887.



Stimuli containing causal reasoning are often followed by strengthen, weaken, assumption, or flaw in the reasoning questions. Whenever you take a contrapositive of a statement with multiple terms in the sufficient or the necessary condition, "and" turns into "or," and "or" turns into "and" if a stimulus contains a paradox where two items are similar, then an answer that explains a difference between the two cannot be correct. Similarily if a stimulus contains a paradox where two items are different, then an answer that explains a similarity cannot be correct. 'contrast with' - contrast is used as verb; denotes the actual act of contrasting two things




**John is contrasting his working style with that of Jacob **John's working style is a contrast to Jacob's **My problem is identical (with /to) yours A = P(1 + r) ^n =7^3 | A union B| = |A| + |B| - |A intersect B| $11, 025 0.15n + 0.08(5) = 0.1(n+5) 0/1 =


'a contrast to' - contrast is used as noun; mainly used to show the dissimilarities between two things identical with Simple Interest Formula (remember this is the total amount of money in the bank after the interest is earned) 343 Intersecting Sets If $10,000 is invested at 10% annual interest, compounded semi-annually, what is the balance after 1 year? How many liters of a solution that is 15% salt must be added to 5 liters of a solution that is 8% salt so that the resulting mixture is 10% salt? 0 (any fraction with 0 on top is 0)



1106. 1042.




1071. 1090.

1 1 - P(E) 1. A and B < A or B 2. A or B > Individual probabilities of A, B 3. P(A and B) = P(A) x P(B) <-- "fewer options" 4. P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) <-- "more options" 1. Find total number of possible outcomes. 2. Find the number of desired outcomes. 1. Start by writing each number as a product of primes. 2. Write so that each new prime factor begins in the same place. 3. Lowest common multiple is found by multiplying all factors in either list. 1. Start by writing each number as product of primes. 2. Write so that each new prime factor begins in the same place. 3. Greatest Common Factor is found by multiplying all factors appearing in BOTH lists 1.4 1.7 1) Assuming a causal relationship on the basis of the sequence of events. 2) Assumes that there is a causal relationship when only a temporal relationship exists. 3) Failure to consider an alternate cause of the effect, or an alternate cause for both the cause and effect. 4) Failure to consider that the events might be reversed. 1) Lack of Evidence is taken to mean that the position taken is false. 2) Lack of Evidence against the position is taken to mean the position is true. 3) Some evidence against the position is taken to proove the position is false. 4) Some evidence that supports the position is taken to mean that the position is true. 1/16 2 steps 3 Quirks of Assumption Answer Choices

0! = ? Combined Events: Not E = P(not E) = ? Probability of multiple events rules.



Multiple event probability Lowest Common Multiple 60: 2 x 2 x 3 x 5 72: 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 LCM: 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 x 5



Prime Factorization to find Greatest Common Factor

1033. 1034. 648.

sq. rt(2) sq. rt(3) Mistaken Cause and Effect


Errors in the use of Evidence

1060. 1086. 782.

(1/4)^2 In general, medium questions require how many steps to solve? 1) watch for answers starting with the phrases "at least one," or "at least some." A large majority of the time these are the correct choice, 2) avoid answers that claim an idea was the most important consideration for the author - use phrases such as "the primary purpose," "the top priority," or "the main factor." and 3) watch for the use of "not" or negatives in assumption answer choices - always check these, they could be defender answer choices phrased to thrown you off Three triangle length patterns Multiples of 3 Undefined Volume of a sphere

1029. 1020. 1105. 1075.

3-4-5, 5-12-13, 9-12-15 3, 6, 9, 12 4/0 = 4/3 TT r ^3

1010. 1048. 1070.

12.5% 12^3 14 liters 16.6% 22 30-60-90 30:60:90 Right Triangle (Lenghts) 83.3% 180(n-2) 347

1/8 = what % 3^3 x 4^3 = ? How many liters of a solution that is 10% alcohol by volume must be added to 2 liters of a solution that is 50% alcohol by volume to create a solution that is 15% alcohol by volume? 1/6 = what % The average of 5 numbers is 2. After one number is deleted, the new average is -3. What number was deleted? often formed from equilateral triangles 1: sq rt 3:2 x:x^(1/3):2x

1011. 1076. 312.


1012. 1006. 1079.

5/6 = what % What does the Sum of the angles in a Regular Polygon formula look like? Number of integers from A to B inclusive = B - A + 1 How many consecutive integers are there from 73 through 419, inclusive?


Abate Absolute value equations

To lessen, reduce, suppress, or (in some cases) cancel completely. The word is used in different areas of law, emergency management and other business matters. (1) Isolate the expression within the absolute value brackets (2) Remove the absolute value brackets and solve for the equation in 2 cases. Case 1: x=a (x is positive). Case 2: x=-a (x is negative) (3) Check to see whether each solution is valid by putting each one back into the original equation and verifying that the two sides of the equation are in fact equal. Ansolute value of x-y can be interpreted as the distance between x and y. For example, rephrase the absolute value of x-3<4 as "the distance between x and 3 is less than 4" Conclusion The person in charge of particular customers, departments, or employees. Amounts owed by a business for purchases made on credit. These amounts are paid by the business after a period of time (which can differ from business to business, but is usually 30 days) referred to as "Days Payable Outstanding (DPO)." This term is also often used to refer to the accounting/billing department in a company (for example, "We got the bill today - send it straight to Accounts Payable and they'll handle it."). Amounts due the business from customers for merchandise or services purchased on credit. The business does not receive payment for these amounts immediately; the delay before payment is referred to as "Days Sales Outstanding (DSO)." Like Accounts Payable, this might also refer to the department responsible for billing customers. seem to be



Absolute value of a difference Accordingly Account Manager Accounts Payable

519. 31.



Accounts Receivable The accused seemed (to be/ like) hiding something Active Resolution Actuary



the correct answer will actively resolve the paradox, that is allow both sides to be factually correct, and will either explain how the situation came into being, or will add a piece of information that shows how the two ideas or occurences can coexist. Someone who is experienced in the analysis, evaluation and management of statistical information.



Add/Subtract a multiple with a nonmultiple Add/Subtract Decimals Add/Subtract Odds & Evens

result is a nonmultiple Multiple of 3 + Nonmultiple of 3 = Nonmultiple of 3 Line up the decimal points! ODD +_ EVEN = ODD ODD + _ ODD = EVEN EVEN + _ EVEN = EVEN results is a multiple Multiple of 3 + Multiple of 3 = Multiple of 3 results can be multiple or nonmultiple Line up the decimal points and proceed as usual When multiplying two terms with the same base, combine exponents by adding Multiply both fractions to get a common denominator add or subtract as usual Add or subtract the numbers on top and keep the same denominator a premise added to the argument that supports the conclusion, but is sometimes nonessential to the conclusion Furthermore, moreover, besides, in addition, what's more result from combining multiple statements through a common term and then deducing a relationship that does not include the common term. These are often the correct answer choices in formal logic problems. always choose answer choices that conform to the specifics of the stimulus. Do not be lured by reasonable solutions that do not quite meet the stated facts. A loan with an interest rate that changes periodically in keeping with a current index, such as one-year treasury bills. An individual whose job it is to assess losses and settle policyholder claims. Counter-Premise Method In online retail, a website that will steer traffic to an alternative site for a percentage of sales. Marketing targeted at a specific audience that shares common interests connected to a product. Also, a campaign sponsored through cooperation between different companies. Additional Premise/Counter-Premise A person who sells insurance. The correct answer must produce responses where one speaker would say "I agree, the statement is correct" and the other speaker would say, "I disagree, the statement is incorrect." If those two responses are not produce, then the answer is incorrect. invests with

265. 223.


Add/Subtract two multiples Add/Subtract two nonmultiples Adding and Subtracting Decimals Adding Exponents Adding or subtracting fractions with different denominators Adding or subtracting fractions with the same denominator Additional Premise Additional Premise Indicators Additive Inference

212. 1132. 243. 1129.



748. 586.


Address the facts Adjustable-Rate Mortgage (ARM) Adjuster Admittedly The advertisement proceeds by Affiliate Affinity Marketing After All Agent Agree/Disagree Test


74. 535. 376. 32.


530. 75. 726.


The agreement invests the vicechairman __ the authority to act on the chairman's behalf in certain conditions Agreement of Sale Aiesha responds to Adam's argument by All


A contract where a seller agrees to sell and a buyer agrees to buy, under specific terms and conditions spelled out in writing and signed by both parties. Method 1st



682. 577. 939.

all All (Numerically) All his troubles originate (in/ from) his mind All of the following weakens the politician's argument EXCEPT? All the time I dream (about/ of) football Although always try to factor Amortization

Sufficient 100 originate in Weaken X dream about Counter-Premise always try to factor Paying off debt with installments, where the installments can be either a series of equal payments or, more commonly, a calculated schedule of payments that includes accumulation of interest. This calculation process is also often used to determine usage and depreciation on assets. gradual extinction of a monetary obligation by periodic payments that usually includes interest, the reduction of the value of an asset by prorating its cost over a period of years Net post hoc ergo propter hoc in statistics



537. 1052. 3.


Amortization the amount after deductions A and B don't have to follow each other; if they are commonly seen together, then one must have caused the other Angles of a Triangle

1044. 621.


(1) The sum of the three angles of a triangle equals 180 degrees (2) Angles correspond to their opposite sides. The largest angle is opposite the longest side and vice versa. If two sides are equal, their opposite angles are also equal (isosceles). The interest percentage of a loan, including all finance charges and other payments and credits, averaged over the course of a year. A life insurance product that pays regular income benefits for a specific amount of time. There are two basic types of annuities: deferred and immediate. Deferred annuities allow assets to grow taxdeferred over time before being converted to payments to the annuitant. Immediate annuities allow payments to begin within about a year of purchase. Legal document that provide specific information about flexible annuity contracts. Must be accessible to every prospective buyer. The cost of an annuity, determined by factors such as the age and gender of the person buying the policy. 5^(1/3) Evaluate


Annual Percentage Rate (A.P.R.) Annuity



Annuity Prospectus Annuity Purchase Rate (APR) Another way to write cube root 5 The answer to which one of the following questions would contribute most to an evaluation of the argument? The answer to which one of the following questions would most help in evaluating the columnist's argument? Any any Any multiplication involving an even number creates an even product.






697. 683. 1081.

1st Sufficient Odd and Even rule.

1147. 1146. 1148.

Any number to the 0 power is? Any number to the first power is? Any number to the negative power (y) is equal to? Anyone an appeal to someone who has no special knowledge in the area being discussed; used to overawe us and make us reluctant to challenge that authority's viewpoint Apportionment Appraisal

one (1) itself The reciprocal of the same number to the positive power (y). (eg 3^-2 = 1/(3^2) = 1/9) 1st faulty appeal to authority

696. 606.


The separating of a loss to a proportionate degree among two or more insurers that cover the same loss. A process of evaluating, estimating or determining the value of property or assets. This term is often used when discussing property values and asset evaluation. In addition, a "performance appraisal" is a common term for regular overviews of an employee's work in a company, which frequently impact salary and bonuses. the classification of someone or something with respect to its worth The process where two parties consent to resolve a claim dispute by agreeing to a decision made by a third party. localized in A= pi r^2 pr^2 Base * Height Find the fraction of the circle the sector represents and multiply by the area of the circle. (Base x Height) / 2 (b*h)/2 Base x Height Length x Width (Diagonal 1 x Diagonal 2) / 2 Diagonals are always perpendicular bisectors (cut each other in half at a 90 degree angle) in a rhombus [(Base 1 + Base 2) x Height] / 2 Average of two bases multiplied by the height Assumption Method Method Flaw Method circular reasoning You can add and subtract remainders as long as you correct excess or negative remainders


107. 80.

Appraisal Arbitration Are international charities becoming more localized ___the economic crisis? Area of a circle Area of a circle? Area of a parallelogram? Area of a sector Area of a Triangle Area of a triangle? Area of Parallelogram Area of Rectangle Area of rhombus


320. 1111. 1115. 321.

297. 1110. 300. 298. 301.


Area of Trapezoid The argument assumes which one of the following? The argument derives its conclusion by The argument employs which one of the following reasoning techniques? The argument is flawed because it The argument proceeds by an argument which says "P is true because Q is true, and Q is true because P is true" Arithmetic with remainders


453. 455.

373. 452. 610.


517. 508. 81.

As A Result As Indicated By Asset-Backed Securities (ABS) Assets Assigned Risk Plans Assume Assumes that there are only two courses of action available when in reality there may be others. Assumption

Conclusion Premise Bonds that represent groups of loans of similar types, duration and interest rates. Property possessed by a company, usually comprised of stocks, bonds and real estate. For insurance companies, this also includes the value of the loans and policies they have issued or now own. A plan through which people can buy insurance if they are unable to purchase insurance in the regular or voluntary market, because of their high risk or other factors. premise False Dilemma



552. 649.


The correct answer to an assumption question is a statement the author must believe in order for the conclusion to make sense. Can be considered minimalist answers - cannot contain extraneous information. an unstated premise - what must be true in order for the argument to be true. Can have a great effect on the validity of an argument. Occurs while the argument is being made. Works almost identically to strengthen and causality questions. a) eliminate any alternate cause for the stated effect, b) show that when the cause occurs the effect occurs, c) show that when the cause does not occur the effect does not occur, d) eliminate the possibility that the stated relationship is reversed, and e) show that the data used to make the causal statement are accurate, or eliminate possible problems with the data To help decide between contenders - a) logically negate the answer choices under consideration (largely consists of adding or removing a not from a sentence), b) the negated answer choice that attacks the argument will be the correct answer 1) The stem uses the word "assumption," "presupposition," or some variation, 2) the stem never uses the word "if" or any other sufficient condition indicator - it may, however, contain a necessary condition indicator ask you to identify a statement that the argument assumes or supposes. An assumption is simply an unstated premise - what must be true in order for the argument to be true. It is what is necessary for the argument to be true. 1) if you encounter linked statements and an assumption question, be prepared to supply the missing link or the contrapositive of that link, 2) if you see a conditional conclusion and then are asked an assumption question, immediately look for an answer that confirms that the necessary condition is truly necessary, or that eliminates possible alternatives to the necessary condition. In general, difficult questions require how many steps to solve? 1) find an alternate cause for the stated effect, 2) show that even when the cause occurs, the effect does not occur, 3) show that although the effect occurs, the cause did not occur, 4) show the stated relationship is reversed, and 5) show that a statistical problem exists with the data used to make the causal statement Attacking The Person (Ad Hominem)


Assumption Assumption and Causality



Assumption Negation Technique Assumption Question Stem Features Assumption Questions




Assumptions and Conditionality

1087. 665.

at least 3 steps Attack a Causal Conclusion (Weaken)


attacking an opponent's character, or his motives for believing something, instead of disproving his argument Attribute


A feature of a product that makes it distinct or attractive.


The average of a set of evenly spaced consecutive numbers is the average of the smallest and largest numbers in the set. B2B

The average of consecutive numbers


"Business-to-business". This refers to an exchange between businesses, where one business is the "customer". Frequently used in association with e-commerce and advertising, when targeting businesses as opposed to consumers. an act of giving financial assistance to a failing business Think of averages as what? The average of 3, 4, 5, and x is 5. What is x? 3 is 2 less than 5 4 is 1 less than 5 5 is the average x=5+3=8 An ad on an internet Web page that is usually connected to the advertiser's web site. number of outcomes you want/total number of possible outcomes Premise To find 10% of any number, just move the decimal point to the left one place Additional Premise They hide the original sign of the base. Any base raised to an even power will result in a positive answer indicate that each term is both sufficient and necessary for the other - the arrow points both ways. In insurance, the proof in writing that a policy will be issued. In real estate, this is the amount of money applied as a security against the buyer's forfeit. In real estate, coverage for different kinds of property at a specific location or a specific property at different locations. In general, it refers to insurance that covers a number of entities that are not necessarily related. A mortgage or trust deed that covers more than one lot or parcel of real property, and often an entire subdivision. As individual lots are sold, a partial re-conveyance or release from the blanket mortgage is usually obtained. seem like Both X and Y enough to

108. 1074.

Bailout Balancing

35. 1116. 500. 279. 527. 241.

Banner Basic probability formula? Because Benchmark Values: 10% Besides Beware of even exponents biconditional Binder Blanket Insurance





Blanket Mortgage


The boss seemed ___ a nice person when I met him Both John __ Jack are coming for dinner The boy was not tall enough to reach the window The boy was short enough not to reach the window Brand

819. 877.


A name, term, sign or symbol utilized for discovery and classification purposes of products or services. A brand can be both a physical and emotional trigger that causes a relationship to be formed between consumers and the product or service. Practical or emotional connections that are associated with a brand by its customers and potential customers. The amount of worth in both tangible assets and intangible assets that a brand adds to a product or service. Utilizing an already established brand to sell or promote new products or services. The commitment of a customer to one particular brand, such that they will purchase it even if the price is higher or other options exist.


Brand Attributes Brand Equity Brand Extension Brand Loyalty


40. 41.


Brand Management Brand Positioning Brand Repositioning Broadcasting Broker

The handling of a company's brand to maximize the equity in the brand and the increase in value of the associated assets. The effort put into making sure a specific brand is easily identified by customers, and also the presence that brand has in the marketplace. The attempt to try to change a consumer's viewpoint of a specific brand. Advertising services or products to a large audience through television, radio, or the internet. A person who acts as the liaison between the customer and the insurance company. The separating of a loss to a proportionate degree among two or more insurers that cover the same loss.


44. 45. 86.


Business Owners Policy/BOP Business Valuation

A policy that combines property, liability and business interruption coverage for small- to mediumsized businesses. An appraisal of a business with prepared and agreed upon terms of evaluation. A business valuation looks at all aspects of a company, from their equipment and building to their employees and intangible assets, and comes up with a total "value" for the company as a whole. Sales made directly to the end user, rather than through another business entity. Counter-Premise What "word-of-mouth" marketing is called, where customers communicate about the product to other potential customers. drawn upon - used up


46. 531. 47.

Business-to-Consumer (B2C) But Buzz By the end of the contest the boxer had drawn (on/ upon/ at/ to) all the energy he had Call Center Call to Action Can you make yourself indifferent _____ someone you love? Can you permit me ___ the door please cannot Capacity Captive Agent Cash Dividend Option Cash Flow



An inbound telephone office in a company that handles inquiries, technical support calls, product orders, or other communications with customers. The point in a promotion or advertisement where a customer is encouraged to do something, such as purchase a product, sign up for a service, or fill out a form. indifferent towards




permit (someone) through may signal conclusion The resource of insurance accessible to meet demand. An individual that represents a specific insurance company and by agreement cannot submit business to any other company, unless it is first abandoned by the agent's company. A payment option where the insurer sends the policy owner a check in the amount of the policy dividend, retaining the face value of the policy in the account. Revenue or expense streams that change a cash account over a given period. Cash inflows arise from one of three activities: financing, operations and investing. Cash flow can also be negative, if a business spends more money than it takes in during a given period of time. One of the nonforfeiture selections incorporated in life insurance policies that permit a policy owner to be given the cash surrender worth of a life insurance policy or an annuity contract in one imbursement. Also known as cash surrender option. For life insurance, the quantity that the owner is able to get if the policy does not remain in force until the insured's death. For annuities, the amount of a deferred annuity's accrued value that the contract holder is able to get if the policy is relinquished during its accumulation period. ability to see

546. 88. 89.




Cash Payment Option


Cash Surrender Value


Cats have the ability (to see /of seeing) in the dark


Causal Reasoning (Strengthen)

a) eliminate any alternate causes for the stated effect, b) show that when the cause occurs the effect occurs (can occur as an example), c) show that when the cause does not occur, the effect does not occur (can occur as an example), d) eliminate the possibility that the stated relationship is reversed, and e) show that the data used to make the causal statement is accurate, or eliminate possible problems with the data the reasoning is flawed the argument may be flawed, but not because of the causal statement caused by, because of, responsible for, reason for, leads to, induced by, promoted by, determined by, produced by, product of, played a role in, was a factor in, in an effect of - causal indicators are active, almost powerful words Chief Communication Officer date from - to have existence that extends from a particular time


Causal Statement in the Conclusion Causal Statement in the Premises Cause and Effect Relationship Indicators



111. 848.

CCO These CDs date (from/ on/ at) the early 70s Central Assumption


when a LSAT speakers concludes that one occurrence causes another, that speaker also assumes that the stated cause is the only possible cause of the effect, and that consequently the stated cause will always produce the effect the corporate executive responsible for the operations of the firm necessary to

112. 931.

CEO The CEO deemed it necessary ___ask the employee to resign The CEO has attributed the loss ___the economic recession earlier in the year The CEO is likely___arrested today The CEO is responsible ___ meeting the assigned targets Certificate of Title CFO The chairman approves __ the new marketing plan The chairman claimed that he was speaking ___ his experience


X is attributed to Y


likely to be


responsible for


A document issued by a title company, registrar, or attorney stating that the ownership of a piece of property is vested as stated on the document. the corporate executive having financial authority to make appropriations and authorize expenditures for a firm approves of

113. 800.


speaking from


changing or exaggerating an opponent's position or argument to make it easier to refute changing the meaning of a word in the middle of an argument Check each prime number up to the approximate square root of the number. If you haven't found a number less than or equal to the square root of the number, then the number is prime. Chemical Mixtures

straw man


Equivocation How to check for a prime number.



Set up a mixture chart with the substance labels in rows and "original," "change" and "new" in the columns. This way you can keep track of various components and their changes. asked for grow into reluctant to independent from In sales, the practice of getting consumers to purchase more than they need to, or unnecessary sales made solely to generate income. Can also refer to the general turnover in a client base. Circle is a set of points in a plane that are equidistant from a fixed center point. A line segment connecting the center point to a point on the circle is the radius. Any line segment connecting two points on a circle is a chord. Any chord that passes through the center of the circle is a diameter. A diameter is two times the radius. GMAT tests: (1) circumference and (2) area of whole and partial circles, (3) surface area and (4) volume of cylinders an arc is a portion of the circle rather than the whole. Arc length can be determined by what fraction the arc is of the entire circumference The distance around a circle. C=2 pi r pi= approx 3.14 C=d pi A full revolution of a wheel is equivalent to the wheel going around once 2pr Method

808. 899.

The child asked __a glass of water The child grew (into/ to be/ as) tall handsome teenager The child was reluctant (to attend / about attending) the class The children have been independent (to/ of) their parents since childhood Churning





Circles & cylinders


Circumference and arc length Circumference of a circle


1112. 462.

Circumference of a circle? The claim that humans are still biologically adapted to a diet of wild foods plays which one of the following roles in the nutritionist's argument? The claim that people have positive or negative responses to many nonsense words plays which one of the following roles in the argument? claiming something is true simply because nobody has yet given any evidence to the contrary




proof by lack of evidence


Clarification of which one of the following issues would be most important to an evaluation of the skeptics' position? Classic Combination



When a stimulus that contains conditional reasoning is combined with a must be true question stem, immediately look for a repeat or contrapositive in the answer choices When there is conditional reasoning in the stimulus, and a weakening question immediately look for an answer that attacks the necessary condition. Conclusion When a viewer clicks on an ad on a website to go to the advertiser's linked site. The click-through rate is a way of measuring the frequency of viewer response and action. The process of executing legally binding documents, such as deeds and mortgages commonly associated with the purchase of real estate and borrowing money to assist in the purchase. Also known as "escrow" or "settlement." potential to manage with Any answer that results from combining two or more statements of the stimulus will be correct Start with the number of permutations, that is the numerator(top). The Denominator is the number of combinations (eg 432*1) GMAT often asks to solve for a combination of variables, for example: x+y In these cases do no isolate and solve for the individual variables until all other methods have been exhausted. Instead try to isolate the combination on one side. 4 manipulations (MADS): M: Multiply or divide the whole equation by a certain number A: Add or subtract a number on both sides of the equation D: Distribute or factor an expression on ONE side of the equation S: square or unsquare both sides of the equation Occur most frequently in data sufficiency: manipulate the equation so that the combo is one one side. If a value is on the other side, it's sufficient. If a variable expression is on the other side it is not sufficient.


Classic Combination Clearly Click-Through

520. 50.




The coach thinks Jack has the potential __ play at the national level The college has been asked to manage __the funds that it has Combination Answers Combinations: single source, order doesn't matter Combo problems: manipulations







Definition1: The fee paid for a service, often based on results or on a percentage of the sales or profits. Definition2: A committee (often official) dedicated to a specific aspect of business. Many will feature a structure that places the conclusion at the beginning or in the middle of the stimulus to throw you off. Key multiples: 6-8-10 9-12-15 12-16-20 10-24-26 ... attack, undermine, refute, argue against, call into question, cast doubt, challenge, damage, counter


Common Main Point Structure Common Right Triangles: 3-4-5


308. 309. 654.

Common Right Triangles: 5-12-13 Common Right Triangles: 8-15-17 Common Weaken Synonyms


Common Weakening Scenarios

1) Incomplete Information - the author fails to consider all of the possibilities, or relies on evidence that is incomplete. This flaw can be attacked by bringing up new possibilities or information. 2) improper comparison - the author tries to compare two or more items that are essentially different 3) Qualified Conclusion - the author qualifies or limits the conclusion in such a way as to leave the argument open to attack A number (some, many, etc) of people believe (claim, propose, etc) that... The use of this device to start a stimulus almost always leads to the introduction of an opposing view speak for Cross Multiply Cross multiply the fractions and put each answer by the corresponding numerator For example: 7/9 vs. 4/5 (7 x 5) = 35 (4 x 9) = 36 Put 35 next to corresponding 7/9 and 36 next to corresponding 4/5. Since 36 is larger than 35, 4/5 > 7/9 Estimate values using benchmarks. For example: What is 10/22 of 5/18 of 2000? If you recognize that 10/22 is nearly 1/2 and 5/18 is approx. 1/4 then it is easier to determine. Try to make rounding errors cancel by rounding some numbers up and other numbers down analogy


Commonly Used Construction for Complex Argument with 2 viewpoints The company's astounding profits speak ___ themselves Comparing Fractions




Comparing Fractions using Benchmark Values


comparing two items with each other when the items are the same in one or more respects Complex Abs Value with more than one expression Complex Absolute Value


an absolute value with more than one expression but only one variable and one or more constants is usually easier solved with an algebraic approach For a problem with two different variables, generally without constants, are more easily solved using a conceptual approach rather than algebraic. Try picking and testing numbers, specifically positives, negatives and zero Conclusion post hoc ergo propter hoc a statement or judgement that follows from one or more reasons. To identify ask, "What does the author want me to believe?" "Why should I believe this argument?" Justify


522. 620.

Conclude That concluding that since A happened before B, then A must have caused B Conclusion The conclusion above follows logically if which one of the following is assumed? The conclusion above is properly drawn if which one of the following is assumed? The conclusion cited does not follow unless








Conclusion Identification Method

Take the statements under consideration for the conclusion and place them in a way that forces one to be the conclusion, and the other(s) to be the premise(s). Use premise and conclusion indicators to achieve this end. Once the pieces are arranged determine if the pieces make logical sense. If not rearrange until a logical order is produced. Assumption Assumption


The conclusion in the passage above relies on which of the following assumptions? The conclusion in the passage above relies on which one of the following assumptions? Conclusion Indicators Conclusion/Premise indicator form



thus, therefore, hence, consequently, so, as a result, accordingly, clearly, must be that, shows that, follows that, conclude that, for this reason placing conclusion and premise indicators back to back, separted by a comma. The presence of the comma creates a clause that, due to the premise indicator, will be a premise. The end of the premise clause will be indicated with a second comma, and then what follows will be the conclusion genetic fallacy



condemning an argument because of where it began, how it began, or who began it Conditional Reasoning Consequently Consider work done in one hour. Inverse of the time it takes everyone working together = Sum of the inverse of the times it would take each person working individually. Contract Contractor Contrapositives


a broad name given to logical relationships composed of sufficient and necessary conditions. Conclusion Work problem rule

516. 1019.

115. 116. 576.

a binding agreement between two or more persons that is enforceable by law someone (a person or firm) who contracts to build things There is NO contrapositive for some and most statements. Only all arrow statements have contrapositives. Some and Most do not necessarily encompass a whole group, so they do not. centers on a document granting exclusive right to publish and sell literary or musical or artistic work a business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts All flawed arguments contain an error of assumption. The correct answer in an evaluate the argument question reveals that error. costs associated with draw attention to aka adversatives, bring up points of opposition or comparison. Gives the author a chance to directly attack arguments of opponents. But, yet, however, on the other hand, admittedly, in contrast, although, even though, still, whereas, in spite of, despite, after all


The conversation ceters (around/ on) Mozart's contribution to music Copyright Corporation Correct Answer The costs associated (to/ wtih) setting up a factory are prohibitive Could I draw attention (to/ at) this slide? Counter-Premise Counter-Premise Indicators





865. 751.



Counting Integers for consecutive integers (how many integers from x to y?) Counting Integers for consecutive multiples (how many integers from x to y?) The country's mind is preoccupied ___ soccer Criminals cannot distinguish right from wrong Criminals cannot distinguish between right and wrong CTO Customer Service Cylinders and Surface Area

Add one before you are done For example, how many integers between 6 and 10? Count 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or just subtract 10-6 + 1 (Last - First + 1) (Last - First) / Increment + 1



preoccupied with distinguish X from Y distinguish between X and Y


119. 51. 324.

CHIEF technology OFFICER Making sure the customers have a pleasant and positive experience when purchasing a product. A cylinder is two circles and a wrapped up rectangle. The length of the rectangle is equal to the circumference of the circle (2pi r) and the width of the rectangle is equal to the height of the cylinder, h. Area of the rectangle is 2pi r x h Surface Area= 2 circles + rectangle SA= 2( pi r^2) + 2pi rh The only information needed to find SA is the radius of the cylinder and the height. V=pi r^2h Only need the radius of the cylinder and height of the cylinder Two cylinders can have the same volume but different shapes If you have to guess in a problem, which ones should you guess? Especially if you have to plug numbers. Rephrasing: You should be able to rephrase the equation to have one equation with one variable. If you are unable to do this, the stem is not sufficient. The process of using technology to identify patterns and prospects from large amounts of information. A form of liability that represents money borrowed from banks or other institutions, or any money owed to another party. A comparison between the company's total assets and its short- and long-term debts. This ratio is often used to measures a company's ability to borrow and repay money, or its future prospects. A formal written agreement by which title to real property is transferred from one owner to another. defender assumptions protect the argument by eliminating ideas that could weaken the argument. If there is no obvious weakness in the argument and it is an assumption question, expect to see a defender answer choice. Linear sequences are in the form kn+x, where k equals the difference between successive terms. Each term is equal to the previous term plus a constant k. Exponential sequences are in the form of x(k^n) where x and k are real numbers. Each term is equal to the previous term times a constant k. d^2=x^2+y^2+z^2 where x, y and z are the sides of the rectangular solid and d is the main diagonal Data that portrays specific characteristics of a group of people (e.g., sex, race, age, geographic location). Used as a noun, it means a set of people who are grouped because of their similarity in one or more aspects.


Cylinders and volume


D or E Data Sufficiency strategy Data-mining Debt Debt-to-Equity Ratio Deed Defender Role








Defining rules for Sequences


Delux Pythagorean Theorem Demographics




Definition 1: The recognition of part of an asset's cost as an expense during each year of its useful life. This expense can be calculated either by straight-line depreciation (the same dollar amount is assigned to each year) or by one of several accelerated methods in which the dollar amounts are weighted and/or cumulative. Definition 2: Any loss in value, whether due to market changes or wear and tear over time. Unless you are working in an accounting office, this is the meaning you will most often come across. prized as, prized for Counter-Premise Point at Issue


Designer corals have been prized ___ jewelry ___nearly 5000 years Despite The dialogue above lends the most support to claim that Sherrie and Fran disagree with each other about which one of the following statements? The dialogue most supports the claim that Tony and Raoul disagree about whether Difference between Justify and Assumption Answers Direct Marketing Direct Proportion Functionality Types The director depicted the actor (as/ to be) a mutant Disguised + or - questions dismissing someone's viewpoint on an issue because he himself is inconsistent in that very thing Distance between 2 points Distance Formula? Distributing Exponents Divide 4999 by 15 => 333 integers Dividing Decimals Dividing Fractions Divisible by 2 if Divisible by 3 if Divisible by 4 if Divisible by 5 if Divisible by 6 if Divisible by 8 if Divisible by 9 if Divisible by 10 if

542. 487.


Point at Issue


Justify answers often contain extraneous information, while assumption answers only contain the information necessary for the unstated premise All the different ways in which a company can advertise products or services, or broadcast information in general, directly to the consumer. Set up ratios fir the before and after cases and then set the ratios equal to each other depicted as Whenever you see >0 or <0, think Positives & Negatives tu quoque


352. 856.

230. 605.


Calculate using the pythagorean theorem. Draw a right triangle between the two points. Rate * Time = Distance (Hint: Draw a chart) When several #s are inside parenthesis, the exponent outside the parentheses must be distributed to all the #s within (4y)^2 = ((4)^2)((y)^2) = (4^2) * (y^2) = 16y^2 to determine the number of integers less than 5000 that are evenly divisible by 15...? Move the decimal to the right on both numbers until there is nothing to the right of the decimal Invert (reciprocal) the second fraction and multiply Even Sum of the integer's digits are divisble by 3 integer is divisible by 2 twice or the last two digits are divisible by 4 integer ends in 5 or 0 integer is divisible by both 2 and 3 Integer is divisible by 2 three times or if the last three digits are divisible by 8 sum of the integer's digits are divisble by 9 integer ends in 0

1164. 1139.

1051. 1134.

1131. 201. 202. 203. 204. 205. 206. 207. 208.


Do not expose the film__ direct sunlight The document has been dated (at being/ at/ as being) 100 years old Does (x^2 + y^2 + z^2)/(x^2 + y^2) = z^2? Does my dress conform (with/ to) your regulation? Does x^2 + x^3 = x^5? Does x^6 - x^2 = x^4? The dogs fled __ their kennel The dogs fled ___ their cruel master The donation will enable the college __ buy a new projector Double arrow

expose to dated at NO conform to NO NO flee to flee from - run away enable X to Y Typically introduced by 1) the phrase "if and only if," 2) use of the phrase "vice versa," and 3) by repeating and reversing the terms Indicates that two terms cannot occur together. One or the other could occur, or neither could occur A decline in profitability or business activity. Premise Marketing and sales that are done through the internet. 1st Flaw X




1140. 1141. 894. 893. 874.



Double Not-Arrow Downturn Due To E-Commerce/E-Marketing Each Each of the following describes a flaw in the psychologist's reasoning EXCEPT Each of the following precepts is logically consistent with the columnist's conclusion EXCEPT Each of the following principles is logically consistent with the columnist's conclusion EXCEPT Each of the following, if true, strengthens the toxicologist's argument EXCEPT Each of the following, if true, supports the claim above EXCEPT Each of the following, if true, supports the claim above EXCEPT: Each of the following, if true, weakens the argument EXCEPT Each of the following, if true, would strengthen the argument EXCEPT Earnings before Interest and Taxes (EBIT)

123. 509. 55. 703. 384.


Cannot PR


Cannot PR


Strengthen X


Strengthen X Strengthen X Weaken X Strengthen X Net income before income tax expense and interest expense is deducted. This is a common way to compare the earning power of companies because it eliminates the impact of capital structure and effective tax rates, two non-operating factors.






Easement Rights Economic Indicators

A right-of-way granted to a person, organization, or government authorizing access to or over the owner's land. Statistics that provide information about the performance of the economy and its position in the business cycle. or Technical measures analysts use to forecast events in economic systems; for example, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Consumer Price Index (CPI). access to Must Be True



The editor has access __ the entire manuscript The educators' reasoning provides grounds for accepting which of the following statements? Eliminating Roots: Square both sides Entrepreneur The environmentalist's conclusion would be properly drawn if it were true that the Equation for a line? Equilateral Triangle



To solve variable square roots, square both sides of the equation. Be sure to check the solution in the original equation since squaring can introduce an extraneous solution. someone who organizes a business venture and assumes the risk for it Justify

126. 431.


y=mx+b where b is the y-intercept (the point which crosses the y-axis) m is the slope of the line, and x & y are the coordinates of some point on that line Can be split ito two 30-60-90 triangles. Therefore it has a base of length S and a height of length S sq.rt.3 / 2. Area of an equilateral triangle therefore is S^2 sq.rt.3 / 4 All three sides equal and therefore all angles equal to 60 degrees Ownership in a corporation in the form of common or preferred stock. It also refers to total assets minus total liabilities, in which case it is referred to as shareholder's equity, net worth or book value. fallacy


311. 11.

Equilateral triangles Equity


an error in logic; a place where someone has made a mistake in his thinking Escrow Estimating Decimal Equivalents


Funds paid by one party to another to hold until the occurrence of an event, after which the funds are released to a designated individual. 1) Make the denominator the nearest factor of 100 or another power of 10. 2) Change the numerator or denominator to make the fraction simplify easily. 3) Make percent adjustments by seeing how much you approximately changed the denominator and applying that percent to the final answer. If there is no coefficient in front you may estimate by figuring the two closest perfect squares on either side of it. If you want to estimate a square root with a coefficient, simply estimate the square root and then multiply by the coefficient. Or combine the coefficient with the root. A philosophical concept that determines the definition of "right" and "wrong", especially when applied to interactions between people. almost always use the word "evaluate," or synonyms such as "judge," or "assess" ask you to consider the question, statistic, or piece of information that would best help determine the logical validity of the argument presented in the stimulus. In other words, you must select the answer choice that decides whether the argument is good or bad defined as



Estimating Roots of Imperfect Squares


Ethics Evaluate question stems Evaluate the Argument Questions Evaporation is defined (as/ in/ to be) the process in which water changes into vapor Evaporation refers ___ a scientific term

729. 727.



refer to

1036. 1098. 1100. 917.

Even even + even = even + odd = Even as a young boy he was (known to/ known as wanting to) explore different ways of doing things Even exponent equations: 2 solutions Even integer. Neither positive nor negative. Multiple of every number. Not a factor of any number. Even Though even x even = even x odd = Evenly Spaced Sets

2n, 2n+2, 2n+4 even odd known to


Even exponents hide the sign of the base and therefore can have positive and negative solutions. This is often the case even for equations with some odd exponents and some even exponents. Properties of 0


538. 1095. 1097. 233.

Counter-Premise even even All sets of consecutive integers are sets of consecutive multiples. All sets of consecutive multiples are evenly spaced sets. All evenly spaced sets are fully defined if the 3 parameters are known: (1) first and last numbers in the set, (2) the increment, (3) the number of items in the set 1st Sufficient take information from the stimulus, and then stretch that information to make a broader statement that is not supported by the stimulus. This type of answer is often paraphrased making it very attractive. 1st Necessary One of any number of high-level positions in an organization, with the power to make (or "execute") decisions on behalf of all stakeholders. The President, Director, CEO, and CFO are all examples of titles for executives. Economic costs that a business incurs through its operations in order to gain revenue. In order to get the best profits, businesses must attempt to reduce expenses without cutting into revenues. Any nonzero base raised to the power of zero is equal to 1 When you see a base without an exponent, write in an exponent of 1 subtract the bottom exponents from the top exponents (3^6 / 3^2 = 3^4) add their exponents (6^2 *6^3 = 6^5) Multiply the exponents (4^3)^2 = 4^(3*2) = 4^6 1) Simplify or factor any additive or subtractive terms 2) Break every non-prime base down into prime factors 3) Distribute the exponents to every prime factor 4) Combine the exponents for each prime factor and simplify

704. 681. 560.

Every every Exaggerated Answers

707. 692. 128.

Except except Executive



248. 247. 1137.

An exponent of 0 An Exponent of 1 Exponents - Dividing numbers with same base Exponents - Multiplying numbers with same base Exponents - Raising a power to a power Exponents Strategy





Exterior angle d is equal to the sum of the two remote interior angles a and b Exterior angles of a triangle

Triangle abc with d on the outside with a line. What does d = ?


an exterior angle of a triangle is equal in measure to the sum of the two non-adjacent (opposite) interior angles of the triangle. Tested frequently on the GMAT In particular look for exterior angles within more complicated diagrams. Perhaps try isolating the triangle. Solve factor counting problems by writing the prime factorization in exponential form, adding 1 to all of the exponents and multiplying (x-y)^2 (x+y)(x-y) (x+y)^2 Because it is a product of all the integers from 1 to N, any factorial N! must be divisible by all integers from 1 to N. N! is a multiple of integers from all the integers from 1 to N x^2-y^2 =(x+y)(x-y) x^2+2xy+y^2= (x+y)(x+y) = (x+y)^2 x^2-2xy+y^2 = (x-y)(x-y) = (x-y)^2 All perfect squares have an odd number of total factors. Vice versa so if a integer has an odd number of total factors it must be a perfect square (1) the average of an ODD number of consecutive integers will always be an integer (2) the average of an EVEN number of consecutive integers will never be an integer correlate with An insurance contract in which FHA insures that the named lender will recover a specific percentage of the loan amount from the insurer in the event that the loan goes bad. Unrestricted ownership of property, in which the owner has complete control, though the property is still subject to taxes. Factors divide into an integer and are therefore less than or equal to that integer. Positive multiples on the other hand multiply out from an integer and are therefore greater than or equal to that integer To determine multiple-event probability where each individual event must occur in a certain way.


Factor Counting Factor x^2-2xy+y^2 Factor x^2-y^2 Factor x^2+2xy+y^2 Factorials and Divisibility Factoring: three Special Products

1163. 1161. 1159. 218.



Factors of perfect squares Facts about sums and averages of evenly spaced sets The facts dont correlate (to/ with) her story Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Guarantee Fee Simple Fewer Factors More Multiples







Figure out the probability for each individual event. Multiply the individual probabilities together. Fill in the Blank Questions


Almost always Main Point questions. When not main point questions they are must be true questions. The blank is always at the very end of a stimulus, and you are asked to fill in the conclusion of the argument. A general term meaning "involving money." Even non-profit corporations have a financial aspect to them. How to find all divisors of a number Compound interest rule The 12-month period, not necessarily coinciding with the calendar year, chosen to be a single year for financial reporting and taxes of a business. A loan that carries an unchangeable interest rate over its entire term, typically a period of 15-30 years.


Financial Find all prime factors Find simple interest then look for the answer that is a little bigger Fiscal Year Fixed-Rate Mortgage

1082. 1016.




The flaw would either be a Mistaken Reversal, or Mistaken Negation. Confusing a Nessesary condition with a Sufficiant condition or vice versa. The flawed pattern of reasoning in the argument above is most similar to that in which one of the following? The flawed reasoning in which one of the following is most similar to that in the commentator's argument? Floor Plan Loan

Errors of Conditional Reasoning


Parallel Flaw


Parallel Flaw


A special type of loan that is used to extend credit to a company for inventory that they have available for immediate sale. This loan is paid down by the company every time they sell one of the inventory items. Acronym standing for "Free On Board," which indicates that the seller of an item will pay for the shipping costs as far as the port. This always refers to the cost of shipping by boat, and is followed by the name of the port city. A selected group of current or potential customers who are interviewed about a new or existing product in order for the company to make a decision about that product. Conclusion Premise Since Mieko's average speed was 3/4 of Chan's, her time was 4/3 as long.




Focus Group

523. 502. 1049.

Follows That For For a fixed distance, the average speed is inversely related to the amount of time required to make the trip. For centuries, people have been using herbs ___ remedies for the different diseases For Example For some people, laptops are just a means __ an end For the Reason That For This Reason Forecasting Foreclosure Formal Logic Fraction Operations:Funky Results


used X as Y Premise a means to Premise Conclusion The process of estimating future financial performance or activity. A proceeding to take away all rights, title, and interest of the owner of property in order to sell the property to satisfy a lien against it. A standard way a translating relationships into symbols, and then making inferences from those symbolized relationships. For proper fractions: Adding Fractions --> Increases the value Subtracting Fractions --> Decreases the value Multiplying Fractions --> Decreases the value Dividing Fractions--> increases the value While most positive numbers increase when raised to a higher exponent, numbers between 0 and 1 decrease Within the exponent fraction, the numerator tells us what power to raise the base to, and the denominator tells us which root to take indicate to elected as

504. 785.

505. 524. 134. 16.




Fractional Base Exponents Fractional Exponents Fred indicated his assent to me Freddie was elected (as/ to be/ to act as ) the president of our club


909. 871.

17. 339.

Full Disclosure Function Graphs and Quadratics

In real estate, disclosing all the known facts that may affect the decision of a buyer or tenant. Quadratic functions look like: ax^2 +bx+c and take the form of a parabola. Positive value of a --> parabola curves upward Negative value of a--> parabola curves downward Large abs. value of a-->narrow curve Small abs. value of a-->wide curve Most likely questions asked are how many x-intercepts and what are they? The parabola touches the x-axis at those values of x that make f(x)=0 Sometimes you have to use the quadratic formula. If you do, the discriminant (b^2-4ac) located under the radical sign will tell you how many solutions the equation has.

525. 135.

Furthermore General Partnership

Additional Premise An association between two or more people who agree to be co-owners of an organization in which each owner, or partner, will be equally and personally responsible for the debt and liability of the organization. Fallacy of Hasty Generalization


generalizing about a class based upon a small or poor sample Given That Gold jewelry has been prized ___ thousands of years Gross Margin Gross Profit = Selling Price Cost Gross Sales Group 1 + Group 2 + Neither Both = Total He had to choose between yoga (and/ or) dance He is asking __ trouble He prized his only child ____ everything else in the world He was trained (to become/ as) an athlete ever since he was a child Heavy Division Shortcut

507. 949.

Premise prized for Net sales minus cost, often expressed as a percentage of sales. Also called "gross profit margin." Gross Profit formula The total amount of income received and expected in return for goods sold or services performed during a certain time period. Formula for Mixed Group problems (involving Both/Neither) between x and y asking for prized above trained to

136. 1022.




809. 947.



Used for large numbers. Example: What is 1,530,794 / (31.49 x 10^4) to the nearest whole number? Step 1: Set up the division problem in fraction form Step 2: Rewrite the problem, eliminating powers of 10: 1,530,794 / 314,900 Step 3: The goal is to get a single digit to the left of the decimal in the denominator. Just remember whatever you do to the denominator, to do to the numerator. 1,530,794 / 314,900 = 15.30794 / 3.14900 Now you have the single digit 3 to the left of the decimal in the denominator Step 4: Focus only on the whole number parts and solve. 15.30794 / 3.14900 is approx 15/3 which = 5 Conclusion




Her will power is starting to dwindle away His reasoning was flawed, and appeared to be independent (to/of) any logic Homeowner's Insurance The house is beautiful and perfect except __ one thing the price How do you find the median of a set of numbers? How do you find the mode of a set of numbers? how do you find the range of a set of numbers? How do you find the slope of a line? How do you tell if it's a permutation or combination? How do you unfactor a quadratic equation? (x+2)(x+5) How to Strengthen an Argument However HUD Human Resources

dwindle away - become less or smaller independent of



Real estate insurance protecting against loss caused by fire, some natural causes, vandalism, etc., depending on the terms of the policy. except for



arrainge #s from least to greatest and take the middle number or the average of the two middle #s Pick the # that occurs most frequently subtract the smallest number from the greatest number Difference in the y-coordinates over the difference in the x coodinates Permutations ask for "arraingements" Combinations ask for "Groups"






FOIL X^2+7x+10


1) identify the conclusion, 2) personalize the argument, 3) look for weakness in the argument, 4) if the argument contains surveys or analogies look for an answer choice that strengthens their validity, 5) remember that the correct answer can strengthen a little or a lot. Counter-Premise U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. This federal department is responsible for the major housing programs in the United States, such as FHA. The department (perhaps just a single person) in a company that is in charge of personnel. The responsibilities of the HR department usually include hiring, discipline, training, termination, and employee benefits. agree to concerned about = worried about expect from - to be waiting for something from someone so much as - can mean 'but rather' more... than not so much X as Y from X to Y

533. 19.



I agree (to/ with) your proposal of buyout I am concerned (with/ about) my brother's health I am expecting parcel __ my brother I am looking at him ____ I am studying his jacket I am more clever than my brother I am not so much sad ___perplexed I am travelling from New York to London







1001. 815. 829. 824. 836.

I am worried ___ my parents I believe John's version (as/ to be) the truth I can't concieve of you (to be/ as) a scientist I chose an interesting gift __ anniversary I consider myself (none/ as/ to be) a close firend of the rockstar I disagree ___ you on this subject I disaprove __ the use of cheating to pass the test I discouraged them (from filing/ to file ) a complaint I do not subscribe ___ the view that John is guilty I doubt (that/ whether) his venture will succeed I expected better __ John I have always regarded you ___ my brother I have got as (many/ much) books as you can I hope I do not fail (in/ on) the test I hope that this will result ___ the police finding your car I persuaded Tim ___ complete my assignment I sacrificed a lot for money __ visit Europe I think my earlier request escaped your notice I will have either ice-cream or pastry I will have tea ____ coffee I will speak ___ John about this problem I would have not tea ____ coffee I'm delighted (to/ at) make your acquaintance

worried about believe to be concieve of X as choose X for Y consider X Y disagree with (person/ idea) - same as agree with disapprove of discourage from subscribe to doubt that expected X of Y - to anticipate that someone will do something regard as many fail in - you will fail in something result in persuade X to Y sacrifice to escape notice - to go unnoticed either X or Y X instead of Y speak with not X but rather Y delighted to = glad to

859. 801. 861. 988. 864. 885.

958. 807. 891. 969. 944. 971. 879. 870. 1003. 986. 936. 853.


Identifying Justify Question Stems

1) the stem uses the word "if" or another sufficient condition indicator, 2) the stem uses the phrase "allows the conclusion to be properly drawn," or "enables the conclusion to be properly drawn," and 3) the stem does not lessen the degree of justification (100% most justifies or does the most to justify question stems are not justify questions) 1st Sufficient multiplication principle

695. 678. 1065.

If if if a first object may be chosen in m ways and a second object may be chosen in n ways, then there are mn ways of choosing both objects If a point is chosen at random within a space with an area, volume, or length of Y and a space with a respective area, volume, or length of X lies within Y, the probability of choosing a random point within Y is the area, volume, or length of X divided by the area, volume, or length of Y. If all of the statements above are true, which one of the following must be true? If and only if If the information above is correct, which one of the following conclusions can be properly drawn on the basis of it? If the information above is correct, which one of the following conclusions can be properly drawn? If the outcome of one event affects the outcome of the other event. If the statements above are true, each of the following could be true EXCEPT If the statements above are true, which one of the following CANNOT be true? If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true? If the statements above are true, which one of the following must be false? If you raise a negative number to an even power, what happens to the number? If you raise a negative number to an odd power, what happens to the number? If you raise a positive fraction that is less than 1 to a power, what happens to the fraction? Immediately try factoring/simplifying when possible Immediately UNFACTOR or vice versa Implies Impressions In Addition In Argentina, Maradona is often compared (to/with) God


Probability and Geometry.


Must Be True 1st and second, double arrow Must Be True

715. 389.


Must Be True Dependent events: When are two events said to be dependent events? Cannot Be True Cannot Be True Must Be True Cannot Be True It becomes positive It gets smaller It gets smaller What to do with equations that have fractions When you see an equation in factored form in a question? conclusion A customer's exposure to a product or to a specific point in the sales process. Additional Premise compared to









1014. 1073. 550. 57.

528. 826.

553. 536. 685. 541. 506. 635.

in as much as In Contrast in order to In Spite Of In That In this fallacy appeal is made to the hypocrisy of the opponent for saying one thing and for doing something different. This happens when in trying to show that they are not at fault, a speaker points out that their opponent is as bad as they are. Income Statement

premise Counter-Premise Sufficient Counter-Premise Premise You too fallacy (Tu Quoque)


A financial report showing a company's performance over a period of time by subtracting expenses from revenue to obtain net income. Sometimes known as a profit and loss statement (P&L) or earnings report. Dual Agreement or Dual Disagreement - incorrect answer choices will supply statements that both speakers will agree with, or that both speakers will disagree with. The View of One Speakers is Unknown - this answer only has the view of one speaker known. In these instances the view of the speaker is unknown because the speaker's comments did not address the issue in the answer choice. 1) Opposite Answers, 2) Shell Game Answers - used to attack a conclusion that is similar to, but slightly different from the one presented in the stimulus, and 3) Out of Scope Answers - miss the point of the argument, and raise issues that are not related to the argument a) opposite answers, b) shell game answers - they strengthen an argument that is slightly different from the stimulus' argument, and c) out of scope answers 1) Could be true or likely to be true, 2) exaggerated answers, 3) New Information Answers, 4) The Shell Game, 5) The Opposite Answer, 6) The Reverse Answer Ethical vs. Factual situations - when a stimulus addresses an issue that is ethical in nature, answer choices that are factual in nature cannot be true. The reverse is also true but rarely seen. Protection from future loss, either by repayment or a promise to not require repayment. A workers who is self-employed; these are either individuals or other businesses that provide needs outside of the operations of an organization. modeled after conclusion the item that must be true based on the information presented in the argument (a conclusion - occurs after the argument)


Incorrect Answer 2


Incorrect Answer 3


Incorrect Answer Choices


Incorrect Answer Types


Incorrect Answers


Incorrect Answers 1


Indemnity Independent Contractor



The Indian constitution is modeled ____ the British constitution Indicates Inference

549. 757.


The information above most closely conforms to which one of the following principles? The information above provides the LEAST support for which one of the following? Inherent Inferences

Strengthen PR


Must Be True X


follow from a single statement, and are inferences that are known to be true simply from the relationship between the two variables. If all A's are B's, then it must also be true that most A's are B's and some A's are B's. Since some A's are B's is reversible, then it must also be true that Some B's are A's. If one of the sides of an inscribed triangle is a diameter of the circle, then the triangle must be a right triangle. Vice versa. An inscribed angle has a vertex on the circle itself. An inscribed angle is equal to half of the arc it intercepts Adherence to a set of professional values, where a person (or corporation) tells the truth, keeps their promises, and treats others fairly. See also: Ethics. Creative works such as designs, logos, slogans, music, writing, and ideas that have commercial value. a point where a line interescts a coordinate axis is called an intercept. X-intercept is where the line intersects the x-axis and y-intercept is where the line crosses the y-axis. The x-intercept is the point on the line in which y=0 The y-intercept is the point on the line in which x=0. To find the x-intercept, plug in 0 for y. Do the same technique to find the y-intercept. The cost of borrowing money, shown as a percentage. Interest rates can be fixed (you pay the same percentage throughout the life of the loan) or variable. If two lines in a plane intersect in a single point, the coordinates of that point solve the equations of BOTH lines. If two lines in a plane do not intersect, then the lines are parallel and there is no pair of numbers that satisfies both equations at the same time. An entrepreneur that works inside a corporate structure, so that they can provide the same drive and energy in turning ideas into profitable finished products through confident and researched risk taking and innovation, without having to worry about their personal funds and budget. red herring


Inscribed triangles Inscribed vs. central angles Integrity Intellectual Property Intercepts of a line






Interest Rate Intersection of Two Lines





the introduction of an irrelevant point into an argument Invoice is evidence that Is the novel as great as is being reported in the media? Is this shirt promised __ anyone? Isosceles Triangles


An itemized bill for services rendered or products ordered. Also used as a verb to describe the act of billing. premise as great as promise to Most popular is the 90 degree: 45-45-90 1:1: sq rt. 2 x:x:x sq rt 2 Important bc it is half of a square responsibility to

555. 805.




It is the CEO's responsibility ___ meet the assigned targets

968. 838.

It will be interesting to see what results ___ the police's efforts Jack is contending (that/ with) Jerry for the award Jack prefers tea (to/over) coffee Jack works out everyday (so as to/ in order to) build his stamina Jacol likes to associate (with/ among) honest people Jeanne has inherited her complexion ___ her mother Jenna is contrasting her casual jeans (with/ to) a formal top Jenny sought ____ a helper for her mother Jerry is capable (for/ of) great feats of strength Jerry is so soft-spoken ___ one can barely hear him speak Jerry is training for six hours with the aim of winning the marathon Jerry mad me as (many/ much) as fifteen mistakes in the test Jerry was drawn (to/ at) the sports car The job requires John (to/ none) supervise the entire operations of the assembly line The job requires that John (to/ none) supervise the entire operations of the assembly line John always associates coke (with/ to) pizza John and Tina agree (on/ with) the need to hire a trainer John cant decide (among/ between) a laptop, a mobile phone and a media player John cares a lot (of / for/ about) his family John contends (with/ that) his friend is innocent John demands (that he be given a raise/ for a raise) John enquired the rates ___ apple John forbid his driver (to enter/ from entering) the house John has been (accused of/ accused with/ accused to have committed ) theft John has invested 6 weeks __ preparing for the test John has very strong opinions (on/ about) censorship John is a native (of/to) the US John is comparing a BMW (with/ to) Mercedes John is confirming the plan __Jack John is fascinated (by/ with) his boss John is in danger of contracting malaria John is unable to decide whether__ go to Harvard or Stanford John mistook a Ferrari (as/ for/ to be) a Lamborghini John narrated the entire sequence __events to the cops John permitted his son __ drive to college John said the would (try to come/ try and come) on time John thinks ___ Jack ___ is best friend

results from contend with - compete with someone prefer X to Y in order to associate with inherited from contrasing with seek out capable of so X that Y with the aim of 'verb'ing many drawn to - attracted to require X to requires that X associate X with Y agree on = agree upon among cares about = cares for contends that - claim/ state John demands that he be given a raise rates for forbid to accused of invested in opinions on native of - use for human compare with confirm with fascinated by in danger of verb +ing whether to mistake X for Y sequence of permit X to Y try to think of X as Y

945. 980. 810. 911. 840. 972. 820. 981. 1000. 806. 866. 962. 961.

811. 795. 798. 821. 837. 854.

955. 896. 789. 913. 938. 929. 827. 833. 892. 903. 999. 925. 977. 941. 995. 993.


John wants to know what is required (of/for) him in this job John was required to supervise the entire operations of the assembly line John's grades are so poor (as to/ in order to) lead to his expulsion from the school Joint Venture Just as Katy is a champion swimmer, __ is Angie Justify Formula Justify Stimuli Justify the Conclusion Questions

required of


require to


so X as to Y - denote cause and effect cannot replace "in order to"


A partnership between two or more business entities who agree to share the investment, liability, and profit in a specific project. Just as X, so Y (to point similarities) Premises + Answer Choice = conclusion Most Justify stimuli either use conditional reasoning or contain numbers and percentages ask you to strengthen the argument so powerfully that the conclusion is made logical. The answer to a justify question must strengthen the conclusion so that it is 100% proven; anything less and the answer choice is incorrect.These answers will be sufficient to prove the conclusion when added to the premises amount of increase/original amount = x/100 (Then cross multiply to find x) Action: resolve, explain, reconcile. Problem: paradox, discrepancy, contradiction, conflict, puzzle Compliments, praise, or other expressions of approval. From the Greek word meaning "fame" or "renown." prohibit X from Y


771. 774. 764.


Key to percent increase/decrease Key word indicators



Kudos The landlord has prohibited John ___ coming late in the night The landlord owes me an apology - he as good as coled me a thief. Language structure is partly determined (by/ from) social structure Lapse Larew and Mendota disagree about whether The Last digit Shortcut



as good as = nearly


determined by


The termination of an insurance policy due to the fact that a renewal premium is not paid by the conclusion of the grace period. Point at Issue When asked to find the units digit, just look at the units digit of the product. For example: What is the units digit of (7^2)(9^2)(3^3)? Step 1: 7 x 7 = 49 - Drop all except units digit - 9 Step 2: 9 x 9 = 81 - Drop all except units digit - 1 Step 3: 3 x 3 x 3 = 27 - Drop all except units digit - 7 Step 4: 9 x 1 x 7 = 63 The units digit of the final product is 3




Last two digits are multiple of 4 or the number can be divided by 2 twice. Lead Lease Lets try to agree (upon/ with) a date for the vacation Liabilities

How to check whether a number is a multiple of 4.

58. 20.

A prospective customer who has shown interest in a product or service. An agreement by which an owner of real property gives the right of possession to another for a specified period of time and payment. agree upon = agree on Bank loans, accounts payable, accrued expenses, and any other monies owed by a business to another entity. Although liabilities show as negative amounts on a spreadsheet, having liabilities many not necessarily be a negative in the financial world. lead to An acronym meaning an entity formed and governed within its jurisdiction, with similarities to both a corporation and sole proprietorship. A business organization where the individual partners have varying degrees of input and control over decisions, profit-sharing, and risk, usually related to the amount of money each partner has invested. Financing offered to businesses by banks or other financial providers to help the business with short-term financial needs. This term is often used in the real estate business, as well. The level of ease a company has in quickly generating cash by selling assets without losing value. These assets are often called "liquid assets." negate the necessary condition only. what is the logical relationship of the pieces of the argument, and how well do the premises, if accepted, prove the conclusion. Much more important than the actual truthfulness of statements. A list of customers or prospective customers that can be used to mail announcements or product information. Main Point Start by looking at the ends of chains - variables that are linked in only one relationship are "open" variables and are easier to analyze An agreement among an insurer and specific suppliers to give health care at a reduction to members of an insured group. view X as Y




A life of sin will inevitably lead ___ suffering Limited Liability Corporation (LLC) Limited Partnership Line of Credit Liquidity Logical Negation of Conditional Statements LSAT validity Mailing List The main point of the argument is that Making Formal Logic Inferences Step 1 Managed Care The management views the problem (as/ to be) an opportunity Margin Market Position Market Share Market Value market value Marketing Communications Mass Marketing The match has been posponed as a result of rain












154. 61. 741.

A set financial boundary for pricing or yield, or the amount required as security on a loan. The relative ranking of a brand, product, or company, as reflected by sales and customer recognition. The proportion of a market that a company controls. The market share can be measured either in terms of revenues (sales) or units sold. The price that a home will get on the market, based on comparisons to similar homes that have sold recently in the area. price sold for by retailer (after markup) All communication or media tools that a company employs to correspond with customers and prospective customers. Sometimes abbreviated to "MarComm". The use of any medium to sell to a wide variety of consumers at once. as a result of = because of


1058. 60.

62. 802.


Maturity Date Maximum area of parallelogram or triangle

The date on which an insurer will pay the face amount of a policy to the policy owner if the insured is still alive. Another common optimization problem involves maximizing the area of a triangle or parallelogram with given side lengths. If you are given two sides of a triangle or parallelogram and you want to maximize the area, establish those sides as the base and height and make the angle between them 90 degrees. In other words, if you are given two sides of a triangle or parallelogram, you can maximize the area by placing those two sides perpendicular to each other.



Maximum Area of Quadrilateral

Question may be asked explicitly or implicitly (such as Is the area of rectangle ABCD less than 30?) Typically maximizing the area of a quadrilateral (usually a rectangle) with a fixed perimeter. Of all quadrilaterals with a given perimeter, the SQUARE has the largest area. Of all quadrilaterals with a given area, the SQUARE has the minimum perimeter. premise link new elements in the premises and conclusion, and ignore elements common to both A nonbinding process in which a third party attempts to settle a problem between two other parties. A United States combined federal and state public assistance program created in 1965 for people who are unable to pay for health care because of inadequate income and resources. insisted that

554. 775.

May be derived from Mechanistic Approach to Solving Justify Questions Mediation Medicaid The members insisted ___ the speaker be removed from his post Merger The method of the argument is to Minor arc = 2(inscribed angle) Misconception #1

96. 97.


155. 451.

The combining of two companies into one. Regulatory officials are likely to be part of the process. Method Inscribed Angle, Minor Arc Increasing percentages automatically lead to increasing numbers. If the overall total stays the same or increases the numbers will increase, but if the percentage increases but the corresponding number decreases, then the overall total must have decreased. Decreasing percentages automatically lead to decreasing numbers. If the percentage decreases, but the corresponding number increases then the overall total must have increased. Increasing numbers automatically lead to increasing percentages. If the number increases, but the corresponding percentage decreases, then the overall total must have increased Decreasing numbers automatically lead to decreasing percentages. If the number decreases, but the corresponding percentage increases then the overall total must have decreased large numbers automatically mean large percentages, and small numbers automatically mean small percentages Large percentages automatically mean large numbers, and small percentages automatically mean small numbers Just because there are 3 variables does NOT mean 3 equations are necessary. For example, if they are only asking for one variable it may be possible to determine from only 2 equations. Follow through with the algebra to determine if the solution can be found. Be on the look out for exponents. 2 variables with 2 equations may not be solvable if there are exponents present. MASTER RULE for determining whether 2 equations involving 2 variables will be sufficient to solve: (1) If both of the equations are linear and there are no squared terms or xy terms, the equations will be sufficient unless two equations are mathematically identical (2) If there are any non-linear terms there will USUALLY be two or more different solutions for each of the variables and the equations will not be sufficient.




Misconception #2 Misconception #3 Misconception #4 Misconception #5 Misconception #6 Mismatch Problems







Modern mobile phones can (act as/ act like) cameras Monarch declared all fundamental rights (none/ as/ to be) unconstitutional The more the price rise, the ____ the demand increases Moreover Mortgage Mortgage Broker Mortgage Insurance Most

act as declared (takes nothing)



the more/ greater X, the more/ greater Y Additional Premise A lien on real property that is given by the buyer to the lender as a security for money borrowed. A person or company who negotiates mortgages for another person or company in order to receive a commission. Insurance written by an independent mortgage insurance company that protects the mortgage lender against loss experienced by a mortgage default. a majority, possibly all. To diagram simply place most between two elements, and place an arrow under the word pointing to the second element 51-100 (a majority) the majority are not, possibly all are not. To diagram place the word most between two elements, place an arrow under the word most pointing at the second element, and negate the second element 0-49 most, a majority, more than half, almost all, usually, typically aid in fining debate about/ on/ over - discuss in detail Much as You can multiply remainders as long as you correct excess remainders at the end. For example, if x has a remainder of 4 upon division by 7 and z has a remainder of 5 upon division by 7, then 4 x 5 gives 20. Two additional 7's can be taken out of this remainder, so xz will have remainder 6 upon division by 7. Ignore the decimal point until the end. Just multiply the numers as if they were whole numbers. Then count the total number of digits to the right of the decimal point in the factors. In the factors, count all the digits to the right of the decimal point--then put that many digits to the right of the decimal point in the product If multiplying a very large number and a very small number, move the decimals in the opposite direction the same number of places. How do you multiply roots together.

526. 22.




578. 574.

Most (Numerically) Most are not

580. 575.

Most Are Not (Numerically) Most Relationship Indicators


The motorist need aid (in finding/ to find) their way out The MPs debate (about/ over/ on/ for) the bill tomorrow Much as Lola needed the car, she had no refuse Multiplication with remainders





Multiply Decimals


multiply or divide the numbers outside the radical signs, then the numbers inside the radical signs


Multiply/Divide Odds & Evens Multiplying & Dividing Signed Number multiplying decimals

ODD x ODD = ODD EVEN x EVEN = EVEN (and divisible by 4) ODD x EVEN = EVEN the result will be positive if you have an EVEN number of negative numbers in the collection. The result will be negative if you have an ODD number of negative numbers. ignor decimal points and multiply the two numbers, then count the digits to the right of the decimal points in the original numbers and place the decimal so there are the same number of digits to the right of the decimal Multiply the numerators and put the product over the product of the denominators 2nd Necessary may signal conclusion Premise conclusion Correct answer can be a paraphrase of part of the stimulus, or can be a logical consequence of one or more parts of the stimulus no less ... than



1130. 714. 689. 545. 503. 543. 556.

Multiplying Fractions Must must must Must Be That must be that Must Be True My achievement is no less than his achievement My car is better (than/ from) yours My friend referred me ___ a specialist My house is similar ___ yours My problem is less serious than yours Myopia differs from hypermetropia I am very different from my twin sister Her hobbies are different than mine n! / (n - r)! Necessary Condition Necessary Condition Indicators Needs Negative Amortization Negative Exponents Nested Exponents Never split the denominator



better than refer to similar to less X than Y differs/ different from





1025. 668.

Permutations: Order Matters an event or circumstance whose occurence is required in order for a sufficient condition to occur. If a necessary condition occurs it is possible, but not certain that the sufficient condition will occur then, only, only if, must, required, unless, except, until, without 2nd A circumstance that occurs when a loan payment is less than the principal and interest due on a loan. Raising a number to a negative exponent is the same as raising the number's reciprocal to the equivalent positive exponent When raising a power to a power, combne exponents by multiplying The numerator may be split, but never split the denominator.


712. 25. 246.

245. 274.


The new ad for lawnmower is targeted ___ gardeners New Information Answers

target at To avoid incorrectly eliminating a new information answer be sure to 1) examine the scope of the argument to make sure the new information does not fall within the sphere of a term or concept in the stimulus, 2) examine the answers to make sure it is not a consequence of combining stimulus elements



Newton is credited (with the discovery of/ as discovering / to having discovered/ for discovering the laws of) gravity Niche Market Niche Marketing No addition or subtraction shortcuts with fractions No city seems better served by a motorway beltways than Madrid No=if Non-Reversible Relationships None (Numerically) Not All

credited with

156. 63. 271.

Marketing that focuses on a very specific category of customers within a larger market. Marketing that focuses on a very specific category of customers within a larger market. 1)find a common denominator 2) change each fraction so that it is expressed using this common denominator 3) add up the numerators only better served by X than by Y 1st All, most 0 Equivalent to some are not. To diagram simply place the word some between the two elements, and negate the second element not only X but also Y A written notice required by insurance companies directly after an accident or other loss, if a claim will be filed. How to check whether a number is a multiple of 6 The number of ways independent events can occur together.


699. 584. 582. 571.


Not only is he very intelligent, ____ very humble Notice of Loss Number is a multiple of 3 and 2 the number of ways independent events can occur together can be determined by multiplying together the number of possible outcomes for each event. Numerator and denominator rules for positive numbers


1067. 1023.


As numerator goes up, the fraction increases. As denominator goes up, the fraction decreases. Adding the same number to both numerator and denominator brings the fraction closer to 1 regardless of the fraction's value. If the fraction is originally smaller than 1, the fraction increases in value as it approaches 1. if the fraction is originally larger than 1, the fraction decreases in value as it approaches 1. 1) If the stimulus contains percentage or proportion information only, avoid answers that contain hard numbers, 2) if the stimulus contains only numerical information, avoid answers that contain percentage or proportion information, 3) if the stimulus contains both then any answer choice with either or both may be correct 2n+1, 2n+3, 2n+5 even


Numerical and MBT Combination Tips

1037. 1099.

Odd odd + odd =

1039. 1096. 226. 1120. 1119. 371.

odd numbers only have odd factors odd x odd = Odds / evens with multiple variables Odds that at least one thing will happen? Odds that something doesn't happen? Of the following, which one most accurately expresses the main point of the argument? On the basis of their sentiment, Logan and Mendez are committed to disagreeing over whether On The Other Hand On which one of the following assumptions does the argument rely? Only only Only if only if Only when Operating Income Opposite Answer

Odd Factors odd Approach by testing different odds/evens for each variable Will = 1 - Won't Won't = 1 - Will Main Point Point at Issue


534. 440.

Counter-Premise Assumption 2nd Necessary 2nd Necessary 2nd Sales revenue less the cost of sales and operating expenses. Also known as operating profit, operating earnings, and income from operations. Provides an answer that is completely opposite from the stated facts in the stimulus. These appear frequently in strengthen and weaken questions In e-commerce, when a user signs up to receive e-mails about products and services that are of interest to them; also used to refer to the mailing list itself. PEMDAS (parenthesis, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition, Subtraction) Some GMAT word problems involve groups with distinct "either/or" categories (male/female, blue collar/white collar, etc.) The key is to do what with the information? Subcontracting work outside of the company, often for things that don't require full time staffing, such as yearly tax preparation or one-time projects. Expenses incurred in the daily operation of a business such as rent, salaries, and insurance, which are not directly related to the making of a product or a service. Premise essential to Combined Events: E or F Combined Events: E and F Trial Problems: look at the probability of NOT OCCURRING Percent Formula The number of times an internet page is pulled up on a screen, or "viewed".

709. 687. 710. 688. 711. 157.



Opt-in Order of operations Organize into a grid.




Outsourcing Overhead Owing To Oxygen is essential (to/ for) life P(E) + P(F) - P(E and F) P(E)P(F) P(event NOT occurring) = 1 - P(event occurring) p/100 = is/of Page Views


510. 880. 1091.



1008. 65.


Parallel lines cut by a transversal

GMAT makes frequent use of diagrams that include parallel lines cut by a transversal All acute angles (less than 90 degrees) are equal All obtuse angles (greater than 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees) are equal Always be on the look out for parallel lines and extend lines and label the acute and obtuse angles. You might also label the parallel lines with arrows. Opposite sides and opposite angles are equal Always will be correct for this answer choice. Sometimes seem too obvious, but test your ability to discern the author's exact meaning. A type of business where the profits and losses are shared by each of the people involved. Rules for partnerships vary from country to country, and from industry to industry. See also: General partnership The legal right given to an inventor that allows them to control the use of their invention for a specified period of time. Parallel Flaw

289. 557.

Parallelogram Paraphrased Answers Partnership



Patent The pattern of reasoning displayed in the argument above is most closely paralleled by that in which one of the following arguments? Payroll Pension people who Percent Increase and decrease



The total wages, not including benefits, paid out by a business during each fiscal year. The term "on the payroll" means "employed by." A program that supplies employees with retirement income after they meet minimum age and service obligations. Sufficient Use the percent table however adjust it for change instead of part. Change/Original = Percent/100 Also can do so with following equations: ORIGINAL x (1+% increase/100) = NEW ORIGINAL x (1-% decrease/100) = NEW


684. 280.

277. 286.

Percent problems Percent shortcuts

The key is to make them concrete by picking real numbers with which to work When trying to find a more complicated percentage, break it into easy to find chunks. For example: 23% of 400: 10% of 400 is 40 therefore 20% is 2 x 40 = 80. 1% of 400 is 4 and 3% is 3 x 4 or 12. Putting it together, we get 80+12=92 Part/Whole = Percent/100 Fill in the table, set up as a proportion, cancel cross-multiply and solve The boundaries of a sector of a circle are formed by the arc and two radii (like a slice of pizza--the arc is the crust and the center of the circle is the tip of the slice). If you know the length of the radius and the central angle, you can find the perimeter of the sector Multiply the # of choices for each of the spots--but the number of choices keeps getting smaller Multiply the # of choices for each of the spots--but the number of choices keeps getting smaller, stop when all the places are taken Forms a 90 degree angle with the segment and divides the segment in half. Has a negative reciprocal slope. In order to find a point on the perpendicular bisector, remember that it passes through the midpoint of the original line segment. Thus solve for the midpoint and that will provide you a point on the line of the perpendicular bisector. Use the midpoint as a point on the line to plug into the equation in order to find the y-intercept.


Percents as Fractions Perimeter of a sector



Permutations: single source, order matters Permutations: single source, order matters BUT only for a selection Perpendicular bisectors of line segments




The phrase, "certain traits like herding ability risk being lost among pedigreed dogs" serves which one of the following functions in the argument? A plant grows ___ a seed Please disclose the details to me at once Please stop (acting like/ acting as) a kid Point at Issue Questions


898. 860. 791. 722.

grow from disclose to - reveal acting like Feature two speaker stimuli where you are directed to choose the answer that describes the point of disagreement between the two speakers, or to identify a statement that the two speakers would disagree is true seek after lead away A guideline or plan that directs the actions taken in a company. Policies can be very specific within a single organization, or can be global rules that are followed by all companies. Area refers to the space inside the polygon measured in square units Sum of Interior Angles of a polygon = (n-2) x 180 Triangle has 3 sides and 180 degrees Quadrilateral has 4 sides and 360 degrees Pentagon has 5 sides and 540 degrees Hexagon has 6 sides and 720 degrees Another way to find the sum is to divide the polygon into triangles Perimeter is the distance around a polygon and equals the sum of all sides Assumption (0.04)^3 = 0.000064 --> (0.04)^3 has 2 places so 2 places x power of 3 = 6 places in the final answer (0.000000008) ^(1/3) = 0.002 --> (0.000000008)^(1/3) has 9 places so 9 places /power of 3 = 3 places in the final answer


The police continue to seek ___ the thief who stole John's car The police led the criminal ___ from the other accused. Policy



296. 294.

Polygons and Area Polygons and Interior Angles

295. 437.

Polygons and perimeter The position taken above presupposes which one of the following? Powers and Roots



Powers of 10- divide by positive power of 10

Move decimal backward (left) to make the positive number smaller. For example: 4169.2 / 10^2 = 41.692 (move backwards 2 spaces) 89.507 / 10 = 8.9507 (move backwards 1 space) Move decimal forward (right) to make the positive number larger. For example: 3.9742 x 10^3 = 3974.2 (move decimal forward 3 spaces) 89.507 x 10 = 895.07 (move decimal forward 1 space) Add zeros if needed: 2.57 x 10^6 = 2,570,000 14.29 / 10^5 = 0.0001429 Negative powers reverse the process. Ex: 6782.01 x 10^-3 = 6.78201 (Moving the decimal forward by negative 3 spaces means moving it backward by 3 spaces) 53.0447 / 10^-2 = 5304.47 (Moving the decimal backward by negative 2 spaces means moving it forward by 2 spaces) a fact, proposition, or statement from which a conclusion is made. To identify ask, "What reasons has the author used to persuade me?" "Why should I believe this argument?" because, since, for, for example, for the reason that, in that, given that, as indicated by, due to, owing to, this can be seen from, we know this by The cost of an insurance policy, usually paid monthly.


Powers of 10- multiply by positive power of 10


Powers of 10-negative powers




Premise Indicators Premium



Price to Earnings Ratio (P/E) Primary Objective #3

The market value of a company's stock divided by the company's net income. If the stimulus contains an argument, determine whether the argument is strong or weak. Ask yourself - do the given facts support the conclusion? Read closely and know precisely what the author said. Do not generalize! Determine whether the stimulus contains an argument or if it is only a set of factual statements If the stimulus contains an argument, identify the conclusion of the argument. If the stimulus contains a fact set, examine each fact. the prime factorization of a perfect square contains only even powers of primes. Vice versa. The interest rates that banks charge to their most creditworthy customers. The prime rate is an important reference number, because loans to all other customers are connected to it on a percentage basis. Compound interest formula Simple Interest formula (remember this is only the interest earned, not the total amount of money present in the bank after interest earned) Strengthen PR Must PR seek from Insurance that is part of a mortgage contract to protect the lender. The process of releasing a government owned and operated business to the private sector. Advantage gained by title, position, or relationship. The measurement and likeliness of an event to occur. another area test makers test your reading skills. Expect to be tested on how closely you are reading if you see the following: must, will, always, not always, probably, likely, should, would, not necessarily, could, rarely, never 2nd Rule of Probability: P(E) = 1 - P(not E) 3rd Rule of Probability: Conditional Probability 1st Rule of Probability: Basic Rule is what? 4th rule of Probability



Primary Objective #4 Primary Objective 1 Primary Objective 2




Prime Factorization Factors Prime Rate


1017. 1007.

Principal (1 + interest/number times compounded)^(t)(n) principle (interest rate - in decimal form) (time - in years)


The principle above conforms most to which of the following? The principle above, if established, would justify which one of the following judgments? The prisoner seeks pardon ___ the victim Private Mortgage Insurance/P.M.I. Privatization Privilege Probability Probability Indicators


973. 26.


167. 168. 761.


The probability of an event occurring plus the probability of the event not occurring = 1 the probability of event A AND event B occurring is the probability of event A times the probability of event B, given that A has already occurred. The probability of event A occurring is the number of outcomes that result in A divided by the total number of possible outcomes. The probability of event A OR B occurring is the probability of event A occurring plus the probability of event B occurring minus the probability of both events occurring. P(A or B) = P(A) +P(B) - P(A and B)




1117. 1118. 1121.

Probability that A and B will both happen? Probability that A or B will happen? Problem that asks you to choose a # of items to fill specific spots, when each spot is filled from a different source? Product Placement Products of Consecutive Integers and Divisibility Professionalism Profit & Loss Statement (P&L)

A*B (Multiply both probabilities) A+B (Add both probabilities) Multiply the # of choices for each of the spots


Showing a product in a popular television show or movie to entice the viewer to want to buy the product. the product of n consecutive integers is divisible by n! Having the knowledge, ethical standards, regulation compliance, and concern for primary stakeholders and customers. A financial report that details a company's performance over a specific period of time by subtracting expenses from revenue to obtain net income; also known as an income statement. (1) Mean and the median are equal, (2) mean and median of the set are equal to the average of the FIRST and LAST terms, (3)the sum of the elements in the set equals the arithmetic mean x number of items in set (1) Interior angles formed by intersecting lines form a circle so the su, of the angles is 360 degrees (2) Interior angles that combine to form a line sum to 180 degrees (3) Angles found opposite each other where these two lines intersect are equal-vertical angles (GCF of m and n) x (LCM of m and n) = m x n The GCF of m and n cannot be larger than the difference between m and n. For exmaple, assume the GCF of m and n is 12. Thus m and n are both multiples of 12. Consecutive multiples of 12 are 12 units apart on the number line and therefore cannot be less than 12 units apart have a GCF of n. For example, 8 and 12 are consecutive multiples of 4. Thus 4 is a common factor of both numbers. But 8 and 12 are exactly 4 units apart. Thus 4 is the greatest possible common factor of 8 and 12 A plan or offer coming from a seller to a buyer, giving the details that the buyer will need to make a decision. Privately owned and controlled. This can refer to a property, concept or process. The owner is given with exclusive rights. A formal proposal that contains a specific plan for a security or stock offering, designed to attract investors. The process by which a company communicates with its stakeholders and investors, and with the public. Used to maintain a decent public image. price purchased for by wholesaler A right triangle (with a 90 degree angle) is composed of two legs and a hypotenuse (side opposite the right angle). The sum of the square of two legs equals the square of the hypotenuse. a^2 + b^2 = c^2 3:4:5 -- 5:12:13 -- 7:24:25 four sided shapes trapezoids, parallelograms and special parallelograms such as rhombuses, rectangles and squares





Properties of Evenly Spaced Sets


Properties of Intersecting Lines

213. 214.

Property of GCF and LCM Property of GCF and LCM


Property of GCF-consecutive multiples


Proposal Proprietary Prospectus Public Relations Purchase price Pythagorean Theorem




1057. 306.

1107. 288.

Pythagorean Triples (lengths)? Quadrilaterals


Quant Quantitative Analyst Quantity Indicators Question Stem Features Question Type Characteristics

Colloquialism for a quantitative analyst, someone who does numerical analysis to predict market action. A person who is responsible for analyzing financial data and identifying trends that can be useful for other efforts in the business. Where makers try to get you to screw up - examples: all, every, most, many, some, several, few, sole, only, not all, none 1) an indication that the answer choices should be accepted as true, 2) key words that indicate your task is to resolve a problem Combination of seconds and third family - 1) the information in the stimulus is suspect, so you should search for the reasoning error present, 2) the answer choices are accepted as given even if they contain "new" information. Your task is to determine which answer choice best helps determine the validity of the argument Flaw Parallel Flaw






A questionable aspect of the reasoning above is that it The questionable reasoning in the argument above is most closely paralleled by that in which one of the following? Queue Rampant cutting of trees is a danger to ecology Range of possible remainders


177. 904.

A group of events waiting to occur in order. danger to + noun When you divide an integer by 7, the remainder could be any number between 0 and 6 inclusive. Notice that you cannot have a negative remainder or remainders larger than 7. There are exactly 7 possible remainders. Also called "real property," it is land and anything permanently attached to the land, such as buildings, fences and items that are attached to the buildings. A middleman or agent who purchase and puts up for sale real estate for a company, firm or individual in order to receive a commission. The term for a professional real estate broker who is a member of a national association of realtors and who follows its rules and regulations. Flaw Flaw Flaw



Real Estate Real Estate Broker Realtor The reasoning above is flawed because it fails to recognize that The reasoning in the argument is fallacious because the argument The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the ground that the argument The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that the argument The reasoning in the astronomer's argument is flawed because this argument Receipts Recession Rectangle repeating a message loudly and very often in the hope that it will soon be believed









Flaw A generic term for cash coming in, ranging from one invoice to the whole company's payments received over a certain period. A period of time when economic activity is on the decline. All angles are 90 degrees and opposite sides are equal repetition


179. 290. 628.


Repeating Decimals Representing Evens and Odds Algebraically required Requires Retention Return On Assets ROA Return on Investment ROI

divide any number by 9 and it becomes a repeating decimal. For example: 4/9 = 0.44444444 forever. 3/11 = 27/99 = 0.272727272727 forever Even numbers can be written as 2n Odd numbers can be written as 2n+1 or 2n-1 Necessary 2nd The ability to keep repeat customers buying your product or services. Net income for a specific time divided by total assets, often used to measure profitability. Net value of a specific asset divided by the amount of capital invested in that asset. ROI is also a general way of referring to the overall value of any effort or campaign, in the sense of whether or not the effort was "worth it." Total income received for goods or services during a specific period. Also known as sales or sales revenue. Contains familiar elements from the stimulus, but rearranges those elements to create a new, unsupported statement. none, some, double arrow All sides are equal. Opposite angles are equal. Side, Side, Side^2 consequence of = result of


690. 713. 67. 180. 181.


Revenue Reverse Answer Reversible Relationships Rhombus Right Isosceles triangle (lengths)? Rising temperatures is a consequence (of/ for) global warming Risk The Royal Bengal Tiger is native (of/to) the Sunderbans The ruler is expected (to/ that he should) protect his people Rules for "Plugging in" for cosmic problems Rules for "Plugging in" the answer choices Rules of Diagram Creation The rules of war mandate ___ no prisoner be tortured for information Rules of Weaken Questions


583. 292. 1108.


183. 930.

The potential negative result of an event, activity, or action. native to - use for plants or animal species expected to 1)Pick numbers that make sense for the variable in the problem 2)Find an answer using those numbers to get the "target answer" 3)plug your #s into the answer choices to see which choice equals the target answer 1)Start with choice "c" plug that into the problem to see if it works 2)If "c" is to small go larger 3) if "c" is too big try smaller 4)If you don't know try them all 1) Always combine like terms. Each variable should appear only one time, 2) There is no traditional direction in logic mandate that







1) identify, isolate, and assess the premises and conclusion of the argument 2) Focus on the conclusion. Almost all correct weaken answer choices impact the conclusion. 3) The information in the stimulus is suspect 4) Weaken questions often yield strong prephases 5) The answer choices are accepted as given, even if they include "new" information. Method x^r/s = ?


Ruth responds to Jorge's criticism by s Sq. rt (x^r)



Same base or same exponent

In problems that involve exponential expressions on BOTH sides or the equation, it is best to REWRITE the bases so that either the same base or the same exponent appears on both sides of the exponential equation. Be careful however if 0,1, or -1 is the base since the outcome of raising those bases to powers is not unique. noted that


The scientists noted ___ the aspect ratio remained unchanged Scope of the Argument


the range to which the premises and conclusion encompass certain ideas. Can be used to help eliminate some answer choices - is the answer choice outside of the scope that the author's argument established Sometimes a rule is too difficult, one can also look for patterns and apply those patterns. A logo, image, or other icon that identifies a service rather than a tangible product. in order to

351. 184. 905.

Sequences and Rules Service Mark She began taking classes in order (to/ that she could) learn French She would permit not permit me up the ladder Sheena wants to speak ___ for the rights of the homeless The Shell Game Should Shows That Sides of a triangle


permit up speak up an idea or concept is raised in the stimulus, and then a very similar idea appears in the answer choice, but the idea is changed just enough to be incorrect but still attractive. may signal conclusion Conclusion The sum of any two sides of a triangle must be GREATER THAN the third side. If you are given two sides of a triangle, the length of the third side must lie between the difference and the sum of the two given sides. Even roots only have a positive value. A root can only have a negative value if (1) it is an odd root and (2) the base of the root is negative triangles with equal corresponding angles and proportional corresponding sides. If 2 triangles have 2 pairs of equal angles you know they are similar triangles. If two similar triangles have corresponding side lengths in ratio of a:b, then their areas will be in ratio a^2:b^2--this holds true for any similar figures. For similar solids with corresponding sides in ratio a:b, their volumes will be in ratio a^3:b^3 1) Factor the number under the radical sign into primes 2) Pull out any pair of matching primes from under the randical sign, place one of them outside the root 3) Consolidate the expression You may only seperate or combine the product or quotient of two roots. You cannot seperate or combine the sum or difference of two roots Add or subtract the two equations to eliminate one of the variables. Use whenever it is easy to manipulate the equation so that the coefficients for one variable are the SAME or OPPOSITE. Use substitution whenever one variable can be easily expressed in terms of the other. Premise 1) one event occurs before another - and they take this to mean one is cause and another effect, 2) two or more events occur at the same time - and people assume that they cause eachother rise/run or change in y/change in x



547. 521. 305.


Signs of Square Roots Similar Triangles



Simplifying Roots with Prime Factorization


Simplifying Square Roots Simultaneous Equations: solving by combination Simultaneous Equations: solving by substitution Since Situations that Lead to Errors in Causality Slope of a line



501. 662.



Slope-intercept equations

y=mx+b m represents the slope of the line and b represents the y-intercept of the line. Vertical lines take the form x=some number Horizontal lines take the form y=some number Linear equations take the shape Ax+By=C and never have sq. roots, squares or xy. Conclusion A unincorporated business that is owned and managed by one person. You must have at least as many distinct equations as you have variables A company's ability to pay its creditors when funds are due. The opposite of solvency is insolvency. at least one, possibly all. To diagram simply place the word some between the two elements 1-100 (at least one) At least one is not, possibly all are not. Example: Some Xs are not Ys. To diagram simply place the word some between the two elements, and negate the second element 0-99 (also known as not all) Can be reversed, but must be very careful. The reversed "Some A's are not B's," reads as "Some things that are not B's are A's" originate from some, at least some, at least one, few, a number, several, part of, a portion assumption An attempt to influence how news or events are shown in the media through clever public relations. All angles are 90 degrees and all sides are equal Anyone who has a stake (a financial interest or investment) in a business. Customers, stockholders, and governments may be stakeholders. Rephrase: take the given information and reduce to its simplest form then focus on how the piece of info relates to the question Must Be True Must Be True The vast majority of additive inferences require either an all or none statement somewhere in the chain When looking to make inferences, do not start with a variable involved in a doublenot arrow relationship and then try to "go across" the double not-arrow

518. 185. 1155. 186.

So Sole Proprietorship The solvability rule Solvency Some Some (Numerically) Some Are Not


581. 570.

579. 585.

Some Are Not (Numerically) Some Are Not Reversibility


Some of our customs originate (in/ from) past belief Some Relationship Indicators



something taken for granted, or accepted as true without proof Spin Square Stakeholder Stategies to solve data sufficiency rephrase The statements above, if true, most strongly support which of the following? The statements above, if true, most strongly support which one of the following? Step 2 Step 3


291. 187.







Step 4

To make an inference with a variable involved in a "some" relationship, an arrow leading away from the "some" relationship is required. When making these inferences consider two elements: a) the weakest link in the chain, and b) the presence of relevant negativity The "Most" Train - works very similarly to the step above, but produces stronger inferences. The critical difference is that because most has direction, you can only follow the most arrow to make a most inference. If you go "against" the arrow, the relationship will devolve to "some," which is an inherent inference. Arrows and Double Not Arrows - any combination of an arrow and a double-not arrow in succession will yield an inference (although inherent inferences may be needed to make the inference) Use inherent inferences. Don't forget to use "some" to go "against" an all or most arrow and make inferences accordingly Watch for the relevant negativity - this means that either the first or last term is negated, or there is a double not arrow in the chain Some and Most Combinations - in general two consecutive somes or two consecutive mosts, or a some and a most will not yield an inference. The only exception to this rule is when there is middle variable that has two most trains leading away from it. at this point you can conclude that some of the one end of one most train is some of the other end of the other most train. Analyzing compound statements - recycle your inferences to see if they can be used to create further inferences, and make sure to check the closed variables for additional inference possibilities Once an inference bridge is built, it does not need to be made again. If an inference can be made from one side of the relationship, that is enough to establish the inference even if the inference cannot be made from the other side. 1: Find slope by calculating rise over run (if only one point and y-int are given, use y-int as a point (0,y) 2: Plug the slop into the equation 3: Use the given point to plug in for the values of y and x to find b 4: Write the complete equation Counter-Premise An action that has an impact or influence. In financial terms, this frequently means an investment of money or a change of rules that is designed to increase economic activity. 1) No conclusion - the author is not attempting to persuade you, just presenting two contradictory sets of facts, 2) language of contradiction (i.e. but, however, yet, although, paradoxically, surprisingly) Is it a value question or a yes/no question? Never turn a yes/no question into a value question For a value question, try to find multiple answers. For a yes/no question try to find a maybe. Be sure to try a positive, negative, integera and fractional number unless explicitly told otherwise. Strengthen, support, helps, most justifies 1) The stem uses the word strengthen or a synonym, 2) the stem indicates that you should accept the answer choices as true ask you to support the argument in any way possible. This type of answer has great range, as the additional support provided by the answer choice could be relatively minor or major. Speaking in numerical terms, any answer choice that strengthens the argument, either by 1% or by 100%, is correct Parallel


Step 5


Step 6 Step 7 Step 8 Step 9





Step 10 Step 11



Step by Step from 2 points on a line

539. 188.

Still Stimulus Stimulus Features



Strategy for solving data sufficiency- type of problem Strategy for solving data sufficiency-test numbers Strengthen Indicators Strengthen Question Stem Features Strengthen Questions


766. 767.



The structure of the reasoning in the argument above is most parallel to that in which one of the following?


The students' marks range ___ good ___ average Studies indicate___women actually live longer than men Subcontractor Subtracting Exponents Successive Percents Sue challenges Anne's reasoning by Sufficient Condition Sufficient Condition Indicators Suggests sum = (average)(number of terms) Sum of Consecutive Integers

range from X to Y indicate that A company or individual that, as a non-employee, provides products or services to a contractor to help fulfill their contract. When dividing two terms with the same base, combine exponents by subtracting Best to solve by choosing real numbers and seeing what happens-- 100 is usually the easiest number Method An event or circumstance whose occurence indicates that a necessary condition must also occur. If a sufficient condition occurs, you automatically know that the necessary condition also occurs if, when, whenever, every, all, any, people who, in order to. conclusion Sum of consecutive numbers (1) Average the first and last term to find the middle of the set (2) Count the number of terms (3) Multiply the middle term by the number of terms to find the set For any set of consecutive integers with an ODD number of items, the sum of all the integers is always a multiple of the number of items. For example: 4+5+6+7+8= 30 which is a multiple of 5 For any set of consecutive integers with an EVEN number of items, the sum of all the integers is never a multiple of the number of items. How to check whether a number is a multiple of 3. How to check whether a number is a multiple of 12. How to check whether number is multiple of 9 Unless one of the numbers is 2, it will result in an even number The sum of n consecutive integers is divisible by n if n is odd, but it is NOT divisible by n if n is even Any vendor that provides a business with materials that it needs to operate. one of two roles assumptions can play - a linking role, where an assumption connects the pieces of the argument (the premises to the conclusion). This role is fairly similar to Justify questions premise Find the sum of all the faces. Find the area of each face The auctioning and sale of real estate for which the owner has not paid property taxes. fail on - somebody will fail you on something credit to



244. 281. 379.



548. 1072.



Sum of consecutive integers and divisibility

1088. 1089.

Sum of digits is multiple of 3 Sum of digits is multiple of 3, last two digits multiple of 4. Sum of digits is multiple of 9 Sum of two primes Sums of Consecutive Integers and Divisibility Supplier Supporter Role Suppose Surface Area Tax Sale The teacher failed half of the class (in/ on) the test The team credits its own success (to/ with) good fortune

1021. 227. 240.

190. 778.

551. 302.

30. 890.


828. 855. 626.

The team is composed (from/ of) people (of/ from) every department The team's success is dependent (upon/ on) him the technique invites us to jump on the bandwagon and do what everybody else is doing. this technique pressures us to do something just because many other people like us are doing it Telemarketing

Composed of dependent on bandwagon


Selling a product or service by using telephone contact with the potential customer. credit for Only have prime factors of 2's and 5's. If there are other prime factors, it is not a terminating decimal. enough to Persistent determination. Someone who exhibits tenacity may be hard to change from a certain point of view, and will not give up easily. A type of life insurance that protects the insured person for a certain amount of time; the "term" that is stated in the policy. 2nd Necessary dispute over connection between X and Y so much as = even Conclusion escape from Appeal To Nature Premise the same to X as to Y appear to be Division Appeal To Pity (Ad Misericordiam)

846. 268.

Telenet gave Tim a credit (of / for) $100 because of an interruption in service Teminating Decimals

1002. 191.

The temperature outside is high enough to cause a heat stroke Tenacity


Term Life Insurance

708. 686. 862. 834. 983. 514. 878. 640. 511. 992. 799. 632.

Then then There is a dispute ___ the new name of the city There is no connection between Tim and Larry There was not _____ a speck of dust in the house Therefore The thief has escaped ___ the prison This argument goes that because something is natural, it must be better. This Can Be Seen From This color looks the same to me ___ it would ___ anyone else This dish appears __ undercooked This fallacy involves a claim that what is true about a collection or group as a whole is necessarily true about each element of the group. This fallacy is committed when pity (or similar sentiment) is appealed to for the sake of getting a conclusion accepted, where such sentiments are irrelevant. The conclusion is concerned more correctly with a matter of fact. This fallacy occurs when a claim that what is true about each element or member of a group will therefore be true about the group as a whole. This fallacy occurs when a person appeals to the opinion of some respected or famous person/group to when that person's authority is outside the point at issue. This fallacy occurs when a person treats a dependent event as if it were an independent event, that is, when mathematics is applied to events that are not mathematical.



Composition Appeal To Wrong Authority (Ad Verecundiam) Misuse of the law of averages




This fallacy occurs when a question is asked in such a way as to presuppose the truth of some assumption buried in the question. A) Loaded questions Here the wording of the question limits the responder to an answer of yes or no hence admitting or denying the assumption in the question. B) Limited alternatives Here the nature of the question is such that the response of the person provides them with only limited choice in the way they can respond This fallacy occurs when an analogy is used, but there is a relevant weakness in the two things being compared. This fallacy occurs when an appeal is made to force, threat, or to undesirable consequences in order to coerce acceptance of a conclusion. It is argued that a certain viewpoint is correct because otherwise some deliberate harm will be done to the other person. This fallacy occurs when an arguer assumes to be true what they are actually seeking to prove is true. It occurs when somehow the conclusion has already been assumed in the premises. This fallacy occurs when one treats as the cause of a thing what is not really the cause of that thing, or more generally, when one blunders in reasoning that is based upon two events affecting each other. It is often seen when it is assumed that just because A precedes B then A must definitely have caused B. This fallacy occurs when someone argues from an average characteristic to an individual characteristic or vice versa. This group includes such cars ___ BMW ____ Audi This is a form of strawman argument and is committed by someone who deliberately assumes an exaggerated position for his opponent. This is a real life instnace__ plagiarism This movie is base __ a true story This occurs when an appeal to emotions is made, and it is irrelevant. This occurs when something is compared to another situation when the comparison is irrelevant. This occurs when the evidence (or sample) is not representative of the whole population but it is used as it is. This resembles chocolate ice cream ___ flavor, but not in consistency This topic is concerned (with/ about) the use of DNA sequencing Thus Tim has been asked to continue __ his training Tim is attending __ his sick mother Tina decided ___ the chocolate flavored ice-cream To find the number of distinct permutations of a set of items with indistinguishable ("repeat") items, divide the factorial of the items in the set by the product of the factorials of the number of indistinguishable elements. to make broad comments about a group of people or kinds of things Tom is trying to focus (on/ at) the problem at had Tom was elected (to/ for) the office by the party members Total = mean x (number of terms) Number deleted = (original total) - (new total) Number added = (new total) - (original total) the total amount before any deductions

Complex Question


The Fallacy of Faulty Analogy Appeal To Force (Ad Baculum) Circular/Begging The Question (Petitio Principii) False Cause (Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc) Fallacy of Central Tendency such X as Y and Z Black And White Thinking instance of based on Illicit Appeal To Feelings Appeal To Relativity The Fallacy of Biased Sampling resemble in concerned with Conclusion continue with attend to decide on - select Indistinguishable events how to find the number of permutations generalization focus on elect to Number added or deleted Gross





989. 646.

786. 814. 641.



964. 830. 513. 839. 812. 850. 1085.

616. 895. 872. 1047.




A registered distinctive name, image, and/or logo that represents a product, and which is generally found on the product itself, and the packaging. Use of the trademark is controlled by the trademark owner, who has legal protections at both national and international levels. The interim situation during a change of process, ownership, or other factor. One pair of opposite sides is parallel range over

193. 293. 954.

Transition Trapezoid These trees range ____ a very large territory Two fractions that equal each other with one variable how do you solve for x? Two Incorrect Answer Types Types of slopes Unfactor (x-y)^2 Unfactor (x+y)(xy) Unfactor (x+y)^2 unless Unless Equation Unless=if not Unlike John, (Tom wrote a good essay/ Tom's essay was good) Unsolicited Unspecified Number Amounts Until until Up-Sell The US has imposed restrictions ___ the licensing of firearms Valuation Variance Test


Cross multiply


1) answers that are true but that do not encapsulate the author's point, 2) answers that repeat premises of the argument Think of slope as walking from left to right. If you walk along a line with a positive slope, you would walk up. A horizonal line has a zero slope and a vertical line has an undefined slope x^2-2xy+y^2 x^2-y^2 x^2+2xy+y^2 Necessary 1) Whatever term is modified by "unless," "except," "until," or "without" becomes the necessary condition. 2) The remaining term is negated and becomes the sufficient condition 1st Unlike X, Y


1162. 1160.

1158. 691. 671.

698. 997.

194. 276.

Not by request, and often unwelcome or uninvited. Use Smart numbers. To make computation easier, choose numbers equal to common multiples of the denominators of the fraction in the problem. 1st Necessary A way to get customers to buy upgraded products when they were intending to purchase a less expensive product. restrictions on

705. 693. 70. 967.

195. 730.

An estimated value for a piece of property prepared by a professional registered entity. consists of supplying two polar opposite responses to the question posed in the answer choice and then analyzing how the varying responses affect the conclusion in the stimulus. If the different responses produce different effects on the conclusion, then the answer choice is correct. If different responses do not produce different effects, then the answer choice is incorrect. One response should strengthen the argument and one should weaken the argument. A form of financing provided by investors to help new businesses grow. A venture capitalist usually receives a substantial portion of the business' equity in return for the capital investment.


Venture Capital


Vision Volume

Not just what most highly effective leaders see as their strategy for future success, but what, how and why they see it happening. the amount of stuff a shape can hold Volume = Length x Width x Height essentially it is equal to the area of the base multiplied by the height Remember when fitting 3D objects into other 3D opjects, knowing the volumes is not enough. We must know the specific dimensions (length, width and height) of the object to determine whether it will fit claims that A document detailing the specifics of a shipment, including shipper, receiver, routes, contents, and more. allowed for attribute to count on chosee as neither X nor Y encouraged X to Y encourage in isolated from Premise conclusion 1) The stem uses "weaken" or a synonym, 2) The stem indicates you should accept the answer choices as true require you to select the answer choice that undermines the author's argument as decisively as possible. Shows the conclusion fails to account for some element or possibility attack the necessary condition by showing that the necessary condition does not need to occur in order for the sufficient condition to occur. This can be achieved by presenting a counter example, or by presenting information that shows that the sufficient condition can occur without the necessary condition. emerged as The formula used to determine the amount of money required for a company to pay off all of its debt, using existing assets. The direction of the inequality symbol changes



Walter claimes __ he can run backwards Waybill We allowed room __ improvement when we wrote this book We attribute our success (to/ from) good fortune We can count __John's to compete the project We choose him (as/ to be) our representative We could neither walk (nor/ or) drive to the venue We encouraged Mary __ develop her singing talents We encouraged Mary __ her singing career We isolated the chemicals___the source of the leak We Know This By we see that Weaken Features Weaken Questions










512. 544. 653.



Weakening a Conditional Conclusion


the weakest candidate emerged (as/ to be) the winner Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) What happens if you multiply or divide both sides of an inequality by a negative number? What is the difference between a permutation or a combination?




Combinations don't care about the order of the problems


What the discriminant tells you

(1) If positive-->sq. root yields a positie number and it produces 2 roots (2 x-intercepts) (2) If it equals zero, sq. root yields zero. Only produces 1 root and the parabola has just 1 x-intercept (3) If negative-->sq. root cannot be performed and produces no roots, no x-intercepts

529. 700. 679. 639.

What's More When when When an arguer claims that a conclusion is true, because it hasn't been proven false, rather than providing evidence for the claim. When is a number divisible by 3? When is a number divisible by 4? When is a number divisible by 6? when nothing more than a time limit is given as a reason for you to do what someone wants when someone asks two questions, but one is hidden behind the other when someone asserts that we must choose between two things, when in fact we have more than two alternatives when someone makes you fear the consequences of not doing what he wants when someone plays with our emotions in a way designed to make us agree with them without thinking through the matter carefully when someone tries to make us do something only because we pity him, or we pity something associated with him when someone tries to say that what is true of part of something must also be true of the whole thing together when someone tries to say that what is true of something as a whole must also be true of each of its parts when the differences in the items being compared are major and the similarities minor When to Simplify Eponential Expressions

Additional Premise 1st Sufficient Appeal To Ignorance (Ad Ignorantiam)


if the sum of its can be divided evenly by 3 (216, is because 2+1+6 is divisible by 3) if the number formed by it's last 2 digits is divisible by 4 (3,028 is because 28 is divisible by 4) if it is divisible by both 2 and 3 (318 is because it is even and the sum of 3+1+8 is divisible by 3) exigency loaded question either-or appeal to fear manipulative propaganda









appeal to pity part-to-whole whole-to-part weak analogy (1) You can only simplify expressions that are linked by multiplication or division (not addition or subtraction) (2) You can simplify expressions linked by multiplication or division if they have either a base or an exponent in common 1) variables in the answer choices 2) percents in the answer choices (when they are percents of some unspecified amount) 3)Fractions or ratios in teh answer choices (when they are fractional parts or ratios of unspecified amounts)






When to try plugging in numbers


When to use Fractions vs. decimals

Fractions are good for cancelling factors in multiplications or expressing proportions that do not have clean decimal equivalents. Decimals are good for estimating results or for comparing sizes. Prefer fractions for doing multiplication/division but prefer decimals and percents for doing addition or subtraction, estimating numbers or comparing numbers opposing viewpoints


when we are forming an opinion on an issue, it is often a good idea to collect other people's viewpoints on the issue; the more viewpoints, the better we understand the whole picture when we claim that our viewpoint is correct because many other people agree with it Whenever whenever Whereas Which one fo the following arguments exhibits flawed reasoning most similar to that exhibited by the argument above? Which one of the following arguments has a flawed pattern of reasoning most like the flawed reasoning in the argument above? Which one of the following arguments is most similar in its logical features to the argument above? Which one of the following arguments is most similar in its pattern of reasoning to the argument above? Which one of the following can be inferred from the statement above? Which one of the following can be logically inferred from the passage? Which one of the following can be properly inferred from Rosen's statement? Which one of the following can be properly inferred from the passage? Which one of the following conclusions is most strongly supported by the information above? Which one of the following describes the technique of reasoning used above? Which one of the following discoveries, if it were made, would most support the above hypothesis about South America and Africa? Which one of the following exhibits a flawed pattern of reasoning most similar to that in the argument above? Which one of the following exhibits a pattern of reasoning most similar to that exhibited by the argument above? Which one of the following exhibits both of the logical flaws exhibited by the argument above? Which one of the following inferences is most strongly supported by the information above? Which one of the following inferences is most supported by the information above?


Appeal To Popular Opinion (Ad Populum) 1st Sufficient Counter-Premise Parallel Flaw Parallel Flaw Parallel Parallel Must Be True Must Be True Must Be True Must Be True Must Be True Method Strengthen

701. 680. 540. 477.












Parallel Flaw Parallel Parallel Flaw Must Be True Must Be True





454. 442. 441. 357. 439.

Which one of the following is an argumentative strategy employed in the argument? Which one of the following is an assumption on which Barnes's argument depends? Which one of the following is an assumption on which the columnist's argument depends? Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument above? Which one of the following is an assumption that the art historian's argument requires in order for its conclusion to be properly drawn? Which one of the following is an assumption that would serve to justify the conclusion above? Which one of the following is an assumption upon which the argument depends? Which one of the following is most closely parallel in its reasoning to the reasoning in the argument above? Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the information above? Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the statements above, if they are true? Which one of the following judgments best illustrates the principle illustrated by the argument above? Which one of the following judgments most closely conforms to the principle above? Which one of the following logically follows from the statements above? Which one of the following most accurately conforms to the principle above? Which one of the following most accurately describes a flaw in the argument's reasoning? Which one of the following most accurately describes the relationship between Jane's argument and Mark's argument? Which one of the following most accurately describes the role played in the argument by the statement that zooplankton feed upon phytoplankton? Which one of the following most accurately describes the role played in the psychologist's argument by the claim that the obligation to express gratitude cannot be fulfilled anonymously? Which one of the following most accurately expresses the conclusion of the argument? Which one of the following most accurately expresses the conclusion of the journalist's argument? Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main conclusion of the argument? Which one of the following most accurately expresses the point at issue between Ted and Mary? Which one of the following most accurately expresses the principle underlying the argumentation above? Which one of the following most accurately represents what is at issue between Jorge and Ruth? Which one of the following most accurately restates the main point of the passage? Which one of the following most logically completes the argument? Which one of the following most logically completes the passage

Method Assumption Assumption Assumption Assumption Justify Assumption Parallel Must Be True Must Be True Must PR Must PR Must Be True Must PR Flaw Method Method Method Main Point Main Point Main Point Point at Issue Justify PR Point at Issue Main Point Main Point Main Point (fill in the blank) Strengthen PR Strengthen PR Weaken Evaluate Evaluate

430. 433. 469.

390. 391. 490. 489. 396. 498. 464. 457.



402. 401. 399. 485. 493.

486. 400. 405. 403.

495. 496. 414. 482.

Which one of the following principles most helps to justify the reasoning above? Which one of the following propositions most helps to justify the reasoning above? Which one of the following statements, if true, most weakens the speaker's argument? Which one of the following would be most important to know in evaluating the hypothesis in the passage? Which one of the following would it be most helpful to know in order to judge whether what the scientist subsequently learned calls into question the hypothesis?



Which one of the following would it be most relevant to investigate in evaluating the conclusion of George's argument? Which one of the following, if all of them are true is LEAST helpful in establishing that the conclusion above is properly drawn? Which one of the following, if assumed, allows the conclusion above to be properly drawn? Which one of the following, if assumed, enables the argument's conclusion to be properly inferred? Which one of the following, if assumed, would allow the conclusion to be properly drawn? Which one of the following, if shown to be a realistic possibility, would undermine the argument? Which one of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the conclusion above? Which one of the following, if true, could be used by Cora to counter Bernard's rejection of her explanation? Which one of the following, if true, does most to justify the conclusion above? Which one of the following, if true, does NOT help to resolve the apparent discrepancy between the safety report and the city's public safety record? Which one of the following, if true, enables the conclusion to be properly drawn? Which one of the following, if true, is the strongest logical counter parent P can make to parent Q's objection? Which one of the following, if true, LEAST strengthens the argument above? Which one of the following, if true, most calls into question the claim above? Which one of the following, if true, most helps to explain the behavior of the vervet monkeys described above? Which one of the following, if true, most helps to explain the finding of the nicotine study? Which one of the following, if true, most helps to explain the puzzling fact cited above? Which one of the following, if true, most helps to explain the viewpoint of the historians described above? Which one of the following, if true, most helps to explain why raisins contain more iron per calorie than do grapes? Which one of the following, if true, most helps to reconcile the discrepancy indicated above? Which one of the following, if true, most helps to reconcile the safety experts' belief with the apparently contrary evidence described above? Which one of the following, if true, most helps to resolve the apparent conflict described above? Which one of the following, if true, most helps to resolve the apparent discrepancy in the passage above? Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument? Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the reasoning above? Which one of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument? Which one of the following, if true, most strongly strengthens the argument? Which one of the following, if true, most strongly supports the statement above Which one of the following, if true, most strongly supports the statement above? Which one of the following, if true, most supports the argument Which one of the following, if true, most undermines the researcher's argument? Which one of the following, if true, would most call into question the analysts' explanation of the price increase? Which one of the following, if true, would most effectively resolve the apparent paradox above?

Evaluate Strengthen X Justify Justify Justify Weaken Weaken Weaken Strengthen Resolve X Justify Weaken Strengthen X Weaken Resolve Resolve Resolve Resolve Resolve Resolve Resolve Resolve Resolve Weaken Weaken Strengthen Strengthen Strengthen Strengthen Strengthen Weaken Weaken Resolve


358. 429. 377. 408. 413. 410. 419. 385.

428. 411.


412. 450.

448. 444. 368. 449.

445. 447.

446. 443. 362. 370. 359. 417. 360. 418. 426. 407. 409.



Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen the medical doctor's argument? Which one of the following, if true, would provide the most support for the economists' assertion? Whole Life Insurance Without without Word-of-Mouth Words Used to Introduce Numerical Ideas Words Used to Introduce Percentage Ideas Work Problems? Working Capital The worth of the sculpture was estimated ___ Madrid Would you sacrifice your job for a chance to go to Europe? x, x, x(sq. rt 2) x(sq. rt 3), x, 2x y2 - y1 / x2 - x1 Yet You are to your parents what I am to mine You can't explain ___ all your mistakes Your analysis (agrees with/ agree to) mine

Strengthen Strengthen Cash value life insurance that blends security against premature death with a savings account. 1st Necessary Information that is transmitted from person to person directly. amount, quantity, sum, total, count, tally percent, proportion, fraction, ratio, incidence, likelihood, probability, segment, share simmilar to distance but ... Think how much of the job can be done in one hour (as a fration of the whole). The net amount of current assets less current liabilities that is available for use. estimated at - used to denote place where the estimation was done sacrifice X for Y 45-45-90 triangle basic lengths of sides 30-60-90 triangle basic lengths of sides How to find the slope. Counter-Premise X is to Y what W is to Z explain away - to explain something so that it is no longer a problem agrees with



706. 694. 71. 738. 739.




970. 1030. 1028. 1056. 532. 1005. 888.