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The role of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Human Resources Development: The case of Tumba

College of Technology (TCT) R!anda "ame of first author: Engr. Ayuba Anza Usman MNSE Tumba College of Technology P.O. Box 66 ! "ul#n$o Tel%fax& '()*+ )!* !, Nor-hern Pro.#nce /ebs#-e& 000.-c-.ac.r0 E1ma#l& aausman2-c-.ac.r0 or $a-ss(***2yahoo.com "ame of second author: Eng. 3a-abaz# Pascal Tumba College of Technology P.O. Box 66 ! "ul#n$o Tel%fax& '()*+ )!* !, Nor-hern Pro.#nce /ebs#-e& 000.-c-.ac.r0 E1ma#l& 4ga-abaz#2-c-.ac.r0 or 4ga-abaz#2yahoo.com
#bstract: 5es4#-e "0an$a grea- geogra4h#c6 cul-ural an$ $emogra4h#c $#.ers#-y6 #- shares many challenges an$ #ssues -ha- are fun$amen-al -o #m4ro.#ng -he 7ual#-y an$ rele.ance of T8ET as a means of human resources $e.elo4men-. "0an$a mus- cons#$er a coheren- s-ra-egy for human $e.elo4men#n 0h#ch T8ET 4lays an #m4or-an- role. Among -he cr#-#cal #ssues -ha- mus- be cons#$ere$ 0hen 4lann#ng T8ET 4rograms -o $e.elo4 "0an$a human resources are -he follo0#ng& Po4ula-#on gro0-h an$ urban#za-#on9 4o.er-y an$ lac: of #ncome1genera-#ng ca4ac#-y9 #ncrease $eman$s for l#-eracy an$ secon$ary an$ -echn#cal e$uca-#on9 an$ 4ollu-#on an$ en.#ronmen-al $egra$a-#on. The success of T8ET #n any $e.elo4#ng coun-ry can be cons#$ere$ a :ey #n$#ca-or of -he coun-ry;s a$.ancemen- #n $e.elo4men-. Any coun-ry -ha- e.ol.e$ #n-o a -echnolog#cal a$.ance$ one6 T8ET mus- ha.e 4laye$ an ac-#.e an$ .#-al role as s:#lle$ man4o0er 0oul$ ha.e been re7u#re$6 also -o enable #-s sus-a#nab#l#-y.

The cho#ce of -h#s 4a4er -#-le 0as $one ha.#ng carefully cons#$ere$ -he follo0#ng fac-ors& o Afr#can Un#on $ec#s#on a- or$#nary sess#on hel$ a- <har-oum6 Su$an ( 1(= >anuary (**6 0h#ch con-a#n -he 4lan of ac-#on for (**61(*,). Mos- cons4#cuous #n -he $ec#s#on6 member s-a-es 0ere calle$ u4on -o accelera-e an$ ex4an$ 4ro.#s#on of 7ual#-y e$uca-#on for sus-a#nable $e.elo4men-. o Em4has#s con-a#ne$ #n -he o4en#ng s4eech by -he ?on. M#n#s-er of s-a-e for E$uca-#on a-he @o#n- 0or:sho4 be-0een -echn#cal schools an$ #n$us-r#al sec-or "0an$a on Se4-ember ,!6 (**A. o "0an$a -arge-s on .#s#on (*(* an$ Econom#c 5e.elo4men- an$ Po.er-y "e$uc-#on S-ra-eg#es 'E5P"S+.

?o0e.er6 -h#s 4a4er shall un$er4#n -he ma@or a--r#bu-es of T8ET us#ng TCT as reference #ns-#-u-#on 0h#ch shall ser.e as a ca-alys- -o human resources $e.elo4men- -hroughou- 4ro.#$e$ -he follo0#ng s-e4s are -a:en& o Blex#ble an$ #n$us-ry le$ curr#culum -ha- #n-egra-es #nno.a-#ons6 .oca-#onal an$ general e$uca-#on an$ -ha- #s $el#.ere$ -hrough a mul-#$#mens#onal a44roach

o Cncor4ora-e ne0 e$uca-#on%-ra#n#ng -echnolog#es #n-o T8ET 4rograms o Cncrease #n-erna-#onal an$ reg#onal coo4era-#on -o s-reng-hen T8ET o Cncrease fun$#ng of ac-#.#-#es rele.an- -o -he 4romo-#on of T8ET

$% &ntroduction: Techn#cal an$ .oca-#onal e$uca-#on an$ -ra#n#ng 'T8ET+ refers -o e$uca-#on an$ -ra#n#ng -ha4re4ares 4ersons for ga#nful em4loymen- 'B#nch an$ Crun:#l-on ,DDD+. Cn o-her 0or$s6 T8ET refers -o $el#bera-e #n-er.en-#ons -o br#ng abou- learn#ng 0h#ch 0oul$ ma:e 4eo4le more 4ro$uc-#.e 'or s#m4ly a$e7ua-ely 4ro$uc-#.e+ #n $es#gna-e$ areas of econom#c ac-#.#-y 'e.g.6 econom#c sec-ors6 occu4a-#ons6 s4ec#f#c 0or: -as:s+. T8ET has -he 4o-en-#al -o enhance human ca4ab#l#-#es an$ enlarge 4eo4les; cho#ces. The benef#-s of T8ET nee$ -o be more e7u#-ably $#s-r#bu-e$ be-0een men an$ 0omen6 an$ be-0een rural an$ urban areas. The beg#nn#ng of T8ET #s $#ff#cul- -o -race as #- conno-es s:#lls an$ com4e-enc#es 0h#ch has been embe$$e$ #n sur4lus of o-her h#s-or#es. The 4erce4-#on of -he or#g#n of T8ET by many #s #n $#.erse 0ays. ?o0e.er6 general e$uca-#on an$ -ra#n#ng began #n 4re1h#s-ory 0#-h -he -ransm#ss#on of :no0le$ge an$ cul-ure from one genera-#on -o -he nex-. The use of -ools6 beg#nn#ng 0#-h -hose ma$e from s-ones6 e.ol.e$ as humans e.ol.e$. Cn -he 4re1h#s-or#c hunting and gathering soc#e-y6 s:#lls 0ere 4asse$ from 4aren- -o ch#l$ as members of small6 usually rela-e$6 m#gra-ory grou4s. The -rans#-#on from -h#s s-age -o -he se--le$ cul-#.a-#on of cro4s mar:s -he beg#nn#ngs of c#.#l#za-#onEan$ 0#-h #- recor$e$ h#s-ory. The e$uca-#on an$ -ra#n#ng -ha- occurre$ #s besembo$#e$ #n -he Chinese proverb: '(ive a man a fish and he !ill eat for a day% Teach him ho! to fish and he !ill eat for a lifetime%)

The /orl$ Ban:6 Cn-erna-#onal Fabour Organ#za-#on 'CFO+6 Un#-e$ Na-#ons E$uca-#onal6 Sc#en-#f#c an$ Cul-ural Organ#za-#on 'UNESCO+6 an$ o-her organ#za-#ons ha.e recen-ly sho0n $r#.e -o0ar$s ac-#.ely recogn#z#ng a ne0 -he role of T8ET. ?o0e.er6 UNESCO 0ho #s a- -he forefron- of T8ET 4romo-#on6 ha$ -he follo0#ng ob@ec-#.es es-abl#she$ a- -he Seoul Congress 'UNESCO6 ,DDD+& 1 To 4ro.#$e T8ET for all9 1 To or#en- T8ET for sus-a#nable $e.elo4men-9 1 To s-reng-hen T8ET as an #n-egral com4onen- of l#felong learn#ng. One of -he :ey goals of -he E$uca-#on for All 'EBA+ Brame0or: for Ac-#on a$o4-e$ #n 5a:ar6 Senegal6 #n (*** 'UNESCO6 (***+ s-#4ula-es -ha- -he learn#ng nee$s of all you-h an$ a$ul-s shoul$ be me- -hrough access -o a44ro4r#a-e learn#ng an$ l#fe1s:#lls 4rogrammes. S#nce -h#s #s bas#cally 0haT8ET $oes6 -he l#n:age be-0een -he -0o -hrus-s alrea$y ex#s-s6 bu- mus- be s-reng-hene$ an$ broa$ene$ #n -he fu-ure. T8ET can -a:e 4lace e#-her #n formal schools '#.e. :#n$ergar-en -hrough -o gra$e ,( or , +6 or #ncreas#ngly #n 4os-1secon$ary commun#-y an$%or -echn#cal colleges6 or #nformally by means of -ra#n#ng a- -he 0or:4lace an$ #ncreas#ngly by $#s-ance me$#a. T8ET 4re4ares learners for s4ec#f#c @obs or -y4es of 0or:6 of-en #nclu$#ng 4rac-#cal an$%or 4roce$ural ac-#.#-#es. The aim of TVET is to enable learners to meet needs of employers for *ualified labour and+or o!n needs related to production of goods and services% ,-.ills training #n general $eno-es $e.elo4men- of 7ual#f#ca-#ons #n -he same l#ne6 bu- 0#-h a more l#m#-e$ sco4e an$ .olume of -ra#n#ng6 of-en focuss#ng on 4erformance of one -as: 'e.g. o4era-#on of a s4ec#f#c mach#ne+ or a l#m#-e$ se- of -as:s 'e.g. $#fferen- -y4es of 0el$#ng+. A- a UNESCO Ex4er- Mee-#ng hel$ #n Bonn6 3ermany6 () -o (! Oc-ober (**=6 a44roaches an$ 4rac-#ces 0ere 4resen-e$ -o #llus-ra-e -he con-r#bu-#on -ha- T8ET ha$ ma$e -o0ar$s a more sustainable future% ,/earning for !or.0 citi1enship and a sustainable future #s a @o#nres4ons#b#l#-y of e$uca-#on6 of -he 0orl$ of 0or:6 an$ of a .ar#e-y of s-a:ehol$ers #n -he formal an$ #nformal soc#o1econom#c en.#ronmen-. C- 0as con-en$e$ -ha- s#nce e$uca-#on #s cons#$ere$ -he :ey -o effec-#.e $e.elo4men- s-ra-eg#es6 -echn#cal an$ .oca-#onal e$uca-#on an$ -ra#n#ng 'T8ET+ mus- be -he mas-er :ey -ha- can alle.#a-e 4o.er-y6 4romo-e 4eace6 conser.e -he en.#ronmen-6 #m4ro.e -he 7ual#-y of l#fe for all an$ hel4 ach#e.e sus-a#nable $e.elo4men-. /#-h -h#s6 T8ET has -o re1or#en- #-s agen$a for ac-#on so as -o con-#nually 4ro.#$e sc#en-#f#c an$ -echn#cal s:#lls #n rele.an- an$ res4ons#.e 4rograms6 an$ conse7uen-#ally $e.elo4 a ne0 genera-#on of human resources. Cn general con-ex-6 Sus-a#nable 5e.elo4men- comb#nes -hree 4r#nc#4al as4ec-s&

Economic& An econom#cally sus-a#nable sys-em mus- be able -o 4ro$uce goo$s an$ ser.#ces on a con-#nu#ng bas#s6 an$ -o a.o#$ sec-oral #mbalances be-0een such areas as agr#cul-ural an$ #n$us-r#al 4ro$uc-#on. Environmental& An en.#ronmen-ally sus-a#nable sys-em mus- ma#n-a#n a s-able resource base6 a.o#$#ng o.er1ex4lo#-a-#on of rene0able resource sys-ems6 an$ $e4le-#ng non1 rene0able resources only -o -he ex-en- -o 0h#ch a$e7ua-e subs-#-u-es can be $e.elo4e$. The conce4- #nclu$es ma#n-enance of ecosys-em func-#ons such as b#o$#.ers#-y an$ a-mos4her#c s-ab#l#-y6 -hus a$$ress#ng resources -ha- are -ra$#-#onally no- cons#$ere$ as econom#c resources. -ocial& A soc#ally sus-a#nable sys-em mus- ach#e.e $#s-r#bu-#onal e7u#-y6 a$e7ua-e 4ro.#s#on of soc#al ser.#ces #nclu$#ng heal-h an$ e$uca-#on6 gen$er e7u#-y6 as 0ell as 4ol#-#cal accoun-ab#l#-y an$ 4ar-#c#4a-#on -o 4romo-e ac-#.e c#-#zensh#4. The o.err#$#ng ob@ec-#.e #s 7ual#-y of l#fe. T8ET #s a mos- effec-#.e means for soc#e-y -o $e.elo4 #-s members; 4o-en-#als -o res4on$ -o -he challenges of -he fu-ure. ?o0e.er6 schools an$ o-her #ns-#-u-#ons of -he formal e$uca-#on sys-em alone canno- ach#e.e e$uca-#on an$ -ra#n#ng for sus-a#nable $e.elo4men- #n -erms of human resources. Cn mos- Afr#can coun-r#es6 o.ers#gh- res4ons#b#l#-y for T8ET #s share$ #n general be-0een -he m#n#s-r#es res4ons#ble for e$uca-#on or -echn#cal e$uca-#on an$ labour or em4loymen-6 al-hough some s4ec#al#se$ .oca-#onal -ra#n#ng 4rogrammes '#n agr#cul-ure6 heal-h6 -rans4or-6 e-c.+ fall un$er -he su4er.#s#on of -he sec-or m#n#s-r#es. $%$% R!anda scenario for human resources development through TVET: Cn s4#-e of "0an$a grea- geogra4h#c6 econom#c6 cul-ural an$ $emogra4h#c $#.ers#-y6 #- shares many common challenges an$ #ssues -ha- are fun$amen-al -o #m4ro.#ng -he 7ual#-y an$ rele.ance of T8ET -o ga#n a com4e-#-#.e e$ge #n -he mar:e- economy of -he (,s- cen-ury. "0an$a muscons#$er a coheren- s-ra-egy for human ca4#-al $e.elo4men- #n 0h#ch T8ET 4lays an #m4or-anrole. ?o0e.er6 #n or$er -o effec-#.ely -ac:le -h#s 4roblem6 human resource $e.elo4men- 4lans musbe clearly cas- 0#-h#n6 an$ s#mul-aneously l#n:e$ -o6 -he econom#c $e.elo4men- .#s#on of "0an$a. The success of T8ET #n any $e.elo4#ng coun-ry can be cons#$ere$ a :ey #n$#ca-or of -he coun-ry;s a$.ancemen- #n $e.elo4men-. Any coun-ry -ha- e.ol.e$ #n-o a -echnolog#cal a$.ance$ one6 T8ET musha.e 4laye$ an ac-#.e an$ .#-al role6 as s:#lle$ man4o0er 0oul$ ha.e been re7u#re$6 also -o enable #-s sus-a#nab#l#-y. Cn "0an$a6 Sc#ence an$ Technology #n e$uca-#on #s also emerg#ng as a :ey 4r#or#-y area 0#-h#n -he sec-or6 recogn#s#ng #-s role #n human resource $e.elo4men- for "0an$a. Th#s for0ar$1loo:#ng 4lan6 base$ on $eclare$ -arge-s an$ #n$#ca-ors #s an #ns-rumen- -o ma:e -he E$uca-#on Sec-or Pol#cy o4era-#onal an$ #s $es#gne$ -o ass#s- #n re$uc#ng 4o.er-y 0#-h#n "0an$a 0h#le crea-#ng a foun$a-#on for our .#s#on of econom#c $e.elo4men- base$ u4on a44l#ca-#ons of $e.elo4men- s:#lls an$ -echnology.

Bur-hermore6 #n-erna-#onal com4e-#-#.eness an$ em4loymen- crea-#on ser.e as -0#n 4reroga-#.es #n -he con-ex- of "0an$a $e.elo4men-. The 4ro.#s#on of rele.an- an$ a44ro4r#a-e s:#lls re4resen-s a s#gn#f#can- elemen- of -he o.erall $e.elo4men- 4a-h0ay of -he coun-ry. S:#lls $e.elo4men- #n all -echn#cal sec-or -a:es on an #ncreas#ngly #m4or-an- role #n .#r-ually all $#alogue of na-#onal $e.elo4men-6 more so #n -he a$.en- of global#sa-#on #n an e.er #ncreas#ng :no0le$ge economy. Th#s 4ro.#$es -he bas#s for #n-erna-#onal com4e-#-#.eness. Cn$ee$6 -he ca4ac#-y of any coun-ry -o a--rac- a44ro4r#a-e an$ rele.an- #n.es-men- #s $e4en$en- on -he 4ool of s:#lls a.a#lable 'Bro0n e- al. (**,+. The $e.elo4men- of #n-erme$#a-e1le.el s:#lls for exam4le #n Cnforma-#on an$ Commun#ca-#on Technology 'CCT+6 -herefore6 hol$s -he 4rom#se of #n-erna-#onal com4e-#-#.eness by a--rac-#ng much1nee$e$ #n.es-men- o44or-un#-#es an$6 #n -he "0an$a frame0or:6 #n #-s ab#l#-y -o 4ro.#$e -he bas#s for em4loymen- crea-#on an$ human resources $e.elo4men-. The role of CCT6 0h#ch #s also one of -he :ey focus of T8ET #n na-#onal $e.elo4men-6 -herefore6 mus- no- be un$eres-#ma-e$. Of course6 real#-y #s ne.er so s#m4le6 0h#ch 4ar-ly ex4la#ns 0hy T8ET $oes no- ach#e.e acce4-ance by all. Mos- T8ET #m4lemen-ers 'rele.an- #ns-#-u-#on hea$s+ 4o#n- -o -he hea.y ex4enses re7u#re$ -o $e.elo4 curr#cula6 -ra#n s-aff an$ e7u#4 classrooms for -hese s4ec#al#ze$ sub@ec-s6 0h#ch generally cos- -hree -#mes more -han aca$em#c courses. Ge-6 for many 4aren-s an$ s-u$en-s #- rema#ns a Hsecon$1class; e$uca-#on. The -ru-h #s -ha- T8ET 4ro.#$es -ra#n#ng bu- no- -he guaran-ee of a @ob. E.en -he 0orl$;s mos- so4h#s-#ca-e$ an$ ex4ens#.e 4rogramme #s $oome$ -o fa#l #f -he labour mar:e- canno- absorb -he s-u$en-s6 $es4#-e -he#r s:#lls an$ ex4ec-a-#ons. C- mus- be recogn#ze$6 -ha- T8ET #s a com4lex $#fferen-#a-e$ soc#o1econom#c sys-em by #-self6 0h#ch #s #nfluence$ by #n.ol.e$ #n$#.#$uals6 s-a-e an$ com4an#es%economy 1 0h#ch ha.e 4ar-ly $#fferen#n-eres-s.

&n this circumstance TVET has to be understood as a ,service provider for individuals6 economy an$ society.
Relationship bet!een TVET and /abor mar.et: 2ualifications: Su44ly1S#$e 2ualifications: 5eman$1S#$e

-ide
T8ET

Cn#-#al Tra#n#ng

Bur-her Tra#n#ng

Em4loymensys-em /or:#ng an$ Tra#n#ng

Tra#n#ng an$ /or:#ng

Cn recogn#-#on of -he ser.#ce func-#on of T8ET regar$#ng -he labor mar:e- an$ #-s $e.elo4men-here shoul$ be ex#s- rele.an- elemen-s #n T8ET6 0h#ch can a$$ress s4ec#f#c 7ues-#ons an$ $eman$ of -he labor mar:e-. SEAMEO '(**,+ #$en-#f#e$ ele.en #m4or-an- -ren$s an$ $#rec-#ons for T8ET #n #-s member na-#ons6 as follo0s& o Clear na-#onal 4ol#c#es for T8ET9 o The conce4- of l#felong learn#ng9 o Com4e-ency1base$ -ra#n#ng 'CBT+9 o 5e.elo4men- of $eman$1$r#.en T8ET9 o Blex#ble T8ET $el#.ery sys-ems9 o Encourag#ng a com4e-#-#.e s4#r#- among T8ET 4ro.#$ers9 o S-rong 4ubl#c T8ET sys-ems9 o "ecogn#-#on of T8ET9 o Iual#-y ou-4u- an$ ou-come9 o "esearch an$ e.alua-#on -o #m4ro.e T8ET9 o A44ren-#cesh#4 sys-ems. Brom "0an$an 0or:#ng 4o4ula-#on #n$ex 'Beb6 (**)+6

JAgr#cul-ure '!!.6K+9

J/or:ers s4ec#al#ze$ #n ser.#ces ' . K+9

JFaborers6 non1agr#cul-ure JProfess#onals

uns:#lle$ 0or:ers an$ .eh#cle $r#.ers ' .,K+9 an$ ass#m#la-e$ assoc#a-es ',.6K+9 an$

JBus#ness an$ -ra$ers '(.6K+9

JManufac-ur#ng #n$us-ry '*.!K+.

All han$s mus- be on $ec: -o 4romo-e T8ET ac-#.#-#es 0h#ch #s a :ey -o s:#lle$ soc#e-y. The success of -h#s canno- be h#nge$ ou-s#$e a$o4-#on of -he abo.e -ren$s an$ $#rec-#ons recommen$e$ by SEAMEO. 3% TCT as a catalyst of change for Human Resources Development in R!anda The 7ues-#on of ho0 -o re$uce unem4loymen-6 un$er1em4loymen- an$ also re$uce -he m#sma-ch be-0een s:#lls an$ @obs6 0h#le s#mul-aneously crea-#ng -he ne0 4ro$uc-#.e @obs an$ #m4ro.#ng 7ual#-y of l#fe of -he 0or:er6 are some of -he core #ssues -ha- concern 0#-h human resources $e.elo4men-. TCT has cons#$ere$ an$ a- -he same -#me a$$ress#ng mos- of -hese #ssues by #m4lemen-#ng a44ro4r#a-e curr#culum6 #nno.a-#.e -eacher1-ra#n#ng an$ s-reng-hen#ng s:#ll an$ com4e-enc#es $e.elo4men-. Tumba College of Technology 'TCT+ 1 "0an$a #s na-#onal #ns-#-u-#on es-abl#she$ #n (**A an$ off#c#ally #naugura-e$ >une (**! -o a$$ress -he cr#-#cal nee$s for -echn#cal an$ en-re4reneursh#4 s:#lle$ man4o0er6 also #m4ro.#ng -he 7ual#-y an$ rele.ance of T8ET. The mos- cr#-#cal areas .#e0e$ by -he go.ernmen- necessa-#ng TCT es-abl#shmen- 0ere -hose -ha- s4ur ra4#$ $e.elo4mensuch as Cnforma-#on Technology 'CT+6 Elec-ron#cs L Telecommun#ca-#on 'ET+ an$ Al-erna-#.e Energy 'AE+. TCT #s en-#rely $e.o-e$ -o -he cause of s-reng-hen#ng -ra#n#ng6 research an$ $e.elo4men- ac-#.#-#es -ha- fac#l#-a-es human resources $e.elo4men-. TCT 4ission o To 4ro$uce -echn#c#ans 0#-h com4e-en- han$s1on s:#lls6 0or: a--#-u$e an$ A, le.el :no0le$ge of

o To ensure h#gh 7ual#-y -echn#cal e$uca-#on rele.an- -o -he #n$us-r#al an$ soc#al nee$s

o To con-r#bu-e -o -he econom#c $e.elo4men- of "0an$a -hrough 4ro.#$#ng -he 4rac-#cal -echn#c#ans -o -he #n$us-ry an$ encourag#ng en-re4reneursh#4 TCT Vision o o To be a lea$#ng -echn#cal e$uca-#on cen-er of excellence con-r#bu-#ng -o -he sc#en-#f#c an$ -echnolog#cal $e.elo4men- of "0an$a an$ -he reg#on. To be a mo$el #ns-#-u-#on crea-#ng ne0 .alues -hrough -he ac-#.#-#es of #n1school .en-ure an$ su44or- of en-re4reneursh#4.

TCT occu4#es a un#7ue 4os#-#on #n "0an$a -echn#cal e$uca-#on as #- 4ro.#$es lea$ersh#4 an$ encourages #nno.a-#ons #n T8ET -hrough& ,. (. . =. Par-#c#4a-#on #n na-#onal curr#culum $e.elo4men- an$ curr#culum rene0al Tra#n#ng an$ u4gra$#ng of -eachers an$ -eacher -ra#ners for #m4ro.#ng 7ual#-y Cn-egra-#ng emerg#ng areas of concern #n-o T8ET curr#culum for sus-a#nab#l#-y an$ global#sa-#on9 Promo-#ng -he conce4- of human resources $e.elo4men- #n "0an$a -hrough collabora-#ons 0#-h rele.an- #ns-#-u-#ons6 organ#sa-#ons an$ #n$us-r#es.

TCT carr#es ou- #-s 4rograms -hrough s-rong 4ar-nersh#4 an$ collabora-#on 0#-h o-her local an$ #n-erna-#onal #ns-#-u-#ons6 also >a4an Cn-erna-#onal Coo4era-#on Agency '>CCA+6 for max#m#z#ng eff#c#ency an$ effec-#.eness. Ac:no0le$g#ng >CCA #mmense su44or- an$ successes of #m4lemen-#ng T8ET #n some Afr#can coun-r#es6 mos- 4rom#nen-ly 3hana6 Ugan$a6 Mala0# an$ o-hers an$ #-s ex#s-#ng ne-0or: #n o-her coun-r#es fur-her s-reng-hens -he con-r#bu-#on of TCT #n -he arena of T8ET here #n "0an$a. TCT has a branch cam4us a- <#gal# 0here 4lans are alrea$y a- a$.ance s-age -o carryou- regular aca$em#c 4rograms an$ s:#ll $e.elo4men- 4ac:ages #n CT6 ET an$ AE $oma#n6 also -o ser.e as an #n-erface 0#-h -he #n$us-r#es. ?o0e.er6 #- #s 4lanne$ -o ha.e -he follo0#ng fac#l#-#es #n -he branch. 5 &nformation Center TCT #nforma-#on cen-er can be use$ by anyone. C- #nclu$es -he follo0#ng :#n$s of #nforma-#on. JT8ET human resources J >ob o44or-un#-#es JCn$us-r#al -ra#n#ng o44or-un#-#es J Ne0 -echnolog#es J 5#g#-al arch#.es J Alumn# ne-0or: J Sof-1loan #nforma-#on6 e-c.

5 TCT 6ar. Bes#$e -he regular aca$em#c 4rograms -o -he s-u$en-s6 -he Branch Cam4us 0#ll be u-#l#ze$ for connec-#ng TCT -o -he commun#-y an$ #n$us-ry. As -he #n-erface -o -he ou-s#$e 0orl$6 TCT Par: #s 4lanne$ for -he follo0#ng ac-#.#-#es. JExh#b#-#on of fabr#ca-e$%cons-ruc-e$ -echnolog#es by s-u$en-s%-ra#nees $e4ar-men- are $emons-ra-e$. 5 Trainings for other institutions 8ar#ous :#n$s of -ra#n#ng rele.an- -o CT6 ET an$ AE f#el$s are been con$uc-e$ for -he -echn#c#ans6 com4any s-aff6 an$ members of -he soc#e-y. Some of -he -ra#n#ng courses #nclu$e -he follo0#ng&
7ield Course &T 1Com4u-er l#-eracy 1CCNA 1Ne-0or:#ng 1"e4a#rs of com4u-er har$0are 1Sof-0are $e.elo4menET 1"e4a#rs an$ assembly of elec-ron#cs an$ -elecom e7u#4men1Cns-alla-#on an$ ma#n-enance of elec-ron#c secur#-y sys-ems 1Cns-alla-#on an$ ma#n-enance of PABM sys-ems 15es#gn6 cons-ruc-#on an$ ma#n-enance of B#ogas sys-ems #E 1Cns-alla-#on an$ ma#n-enance of solar home sys-ems 15es#gn an$ cons-ruc-#on of #m4ro.e$ coo:#ng s-o.e

JTechnolog#es of each

5 &ncubations for entrepreneurship As a resul- of s:#ll ac7u#s#-#on by mos- TCT gra$ua-es6 -hey are ex4ec-e$ -o s-ar- -he#r o0n bus#ness. /#-h a .#e0 -o 4romo-e -h#s ac-#.#-y6 a consul-an- has s#nce been engage$ 0here more -han )*K of -he f#nal year s-u$en-s are su44or-e$. TCT #ncuba-es -he en-re4reneurs 0#-h .ar#ous su44or-s such as& JSmall off#ce s4ace 0#-h m#n#mum fac#l#-#es JCnforma-#on access. JTechn#cal su44orJB#nanc#al a$.#ce

Consultancy services Consul-ancy ser.#ces are cons#$ere$ -o be a- -he forefron- of TCT -arge-s as #- has $#rec- bear#ng on human resources $e.elo4men-6 as such -h#s shall be effec-#.ely a$m#n#s-ere$. O.er -he las- -0o years6 TCT has con-r#bu-e$ s#gn#f#can-ly #n $e.elo4#ng T8ET #n "0an$a -hrough #-s 4rograms. TCT ac-#.#-#es enable$ us -o #$en-#fy -he #ssues6 4roblems an$ s-ra-eg#es 0h#ch are cr#-#cal for effec-#.e human resources $e.elo4men- -hrough T8ET. Th#s 4a4er #s $e.o-e$ -o ex4lor#ng -he ex4er#ences rela-e$ -o emerg#ng $#rec-#ons for human resources $e.elo4men- -hrough T8ET an$ 4#n4o#n-#ng some elemen-s of success 0#-h focus on "0an$a. B#g., Belo0 sho0s a general o.er.#e0 of ac-#.#-#es 0#-h TCT1<#gal# cam4us.
To enhance TCT capacity
-training with high-tech equipment -in-school venture -entrepreneurship support, etc.

To serve as TVET center o e!cellence


-in ormation networ"ing center -resource sharing -providing trainer#s training, etc.

To establish close relationship with industrial sector


-employment promotion -OJT -seminars, etc.

TCT $igali %ranch

To contribute community development


-development activities -technology demonstration -consultancy, etc.

3%$% TCT Technical #dvisory (roup (T#() and &ndustry led curriculum: TA3 has been es-abl#she$ for each $e4ar-men- of TCT -o enhance -he rela-#onsh#4 0#-h 4ubl#c an$ 4r#.a-e sec-ors. S#nce TCT s-ar-e$ 0#-h -hree $e4ar-men-s6 each has #-s o0n TA3 of 0h#ch members cons#s- of ex4er-s from -he rele.an- #n$us-r#es an$ #ns-#-u-#ons. Cn or$er -o ge- s-rong rela-#onsh#4 0#-h 4ubl#c an$ 4r#.a-e sec-or as men-#one$ abo.e TCT ha.e forme$ -he TA3 members -o a$.#se an$ collabora-e 0#-h $e.elo4men- of TCT. TA3 members are ma$e u4 of 4ubl#c an$ 4r#.a-e sec-ors such a <CST6 "U"A6 EFECT"O3AN6 "CTA6 3TN6 MTN6 "/AN5ATEF6 O"CNBO"6 MCNCNB"A6 e-c6 an$ #- #s formula-e$ for each $e4ar-men- -o su44or- an$ ensure 7ual#-a-#.e aca$em#c an$ a44ro4r#a-e -ra#n#ng 4rogram of TCT. TA3 0or:sho4 #s usually hel$ -0#ce a year #n e.ery $e4ar-men- 0#-h .ar#e-y of agen$a. Bormula-#ng of TA3 has -hree ob@ec-#.es&

',+ To enhance -he rela-#onsh#4 be-0een TCT an$ 4ubl#c%4r#.a-e sec-or.

o Cnforma-#on cen-er for @ob o44or-un#-y o o Cn$us-r#al a--achmen- 4rogram Fa-es- -echn#cal #nforma-#on

'(+ To #m4ro.e -he aca$em#c an$ -ra#n#ng 4rograms of TCT. o S-aff -ra#n#ng for TCT o o Consul-ancy Curr#culum re.#e0

o 3ues- -eacher ' + To con-r#bu-e -o soc#al $e.elo4men- -hrough collabora-#on be-0een 4ubl#c%4r#.a-e sec-or an$ TCT. o Pro.#$#ng -ra#n#ng #n -he rele.an- f#el$ o o 1 Sem#nars Collabora-#on research

6artnership !ith &nternational &nstitutions

TCT has also es-abl#she$ a ne-0or: 0#-h some -echn#cal #ns-#-u-#ons abroa$ -ha- 0ere successful #n -erms -remen$ous ach#e.emen- 0#-h -he#r con-r#bu-#on -o -he#r res4ec-#.e coun-r#es man4o0er. These #ns-#-u-#ons also ha$ -echn#cal cor4ora-#on an$ su44or- from >CCA6 as such -hey 0ere #$en-#f#e$ su#-able for -he collabora-#on. The #ns-#-u-#ons an$ coo4era-#.e ac-#.#-#es are as follo0s.
6otential &nstitutions 1 EEPCS 'Surabaya6 Cn$ones#a+ 1 Con$uc-#ng -ra#n#ngs for each o-her 1 Tr#bu.an Un#.ers#-y '<a-hman$u6 Ne4al+ 1 Collabora-#on research 1 Techn#cal Colleges '>a4an+ 1 Mas-ers 4rogram 1 5ar1es1Salam Un#.ers#-y 1 Tra#n#ng cen-ers MAFA/C6 e-c. #ctivities 1 Exchange of -he resources an$ #nforma-#on

7or more information on the dynamism of TCT activities0 visit !!!%tct%ac%r!% 8pportunities and challenges Belo0 are some of -he :ey o44or-un#-#es #n T8ET& o 3lobal#za-#on #s 4rom4-#ng go.ernmen-s -o -a:e rene0e$ #n-eres- #n T8ET form of e$uca-#on. o Cn na-#ons 0here unem4loymen- #s en$em#c6 T8ET6 4ar-#cularly #n areas fos-er#ng en-re4reneursh#4 an$ small en-er4r#ses6 becomes #ncreas#ngly #m4or-an- for -he fu-ure. T#la: '(** + charac-er#zes T8ET as an He7u#-y measure; because #- 4romo-es He7u#-y 0#-h a rural b#as an$ ser.es -he nee$s of rela-#.ely 4oor 4eo4le;6 as 0ell as be#ng an Han-#$o-e -o urban1b#ase$ el#-e e$uca-#on; '4. 6A)+. o There #s no 7ues-#on as -o -he #m4or-ance of s:#lls $e.elo4men- for re$uc#ng 4o.er-y o The #ncreas#ng #m4or-ance -ha- Afr#can go.ernmen-s no0 a--ach -o T8ET #s reflec-e$ #n -he .ar#ous Po.er-y "e$uc-#on S-ra-egy Pa4ers -ha- go.ernmen-s ha.e $e.elo4e$ #n collabora-#on 0#-h The /orl$ Ban:. Bor UNESCO6 T8ET goes beyon$ -he narro0 conf#nes of econom#c 4lann#ng. C- #s 4ar- of a larger .#s#on for 4romo-#ng sus-a#nable $e.elo4men-. S#nce #-s foun$#ng6 UNESCO has been $e.elo4#ng recommen$a-#ons an$ organ#z#ng 4ol#cy $eba-es6 0h#le ser.#ng as a 4ol#cy a$.#sor for go.ernmen-s -ry#ng -o reform or crea-e .oca-#onal e$uca-#on sys-ems. Challenges: o The urgen- challenge #s -herefore -o br#$ge -he $eman$ for @obs 0#-h -he ac-ual nee$s of soc#e-y. Pol#-#cally6 go.ernmen-s canno- affor$ no- -o #n.es- #n -he s:#lls of fu-ure genera-#ons. o The Cmage an$ S-a-us of T8ET has cons#s-en-ly face$ 4roblems as #- #s 4erce#.e$ by some as secon$1class. These $#ff#cul-#es mus- be me- 0#-h a rene0e$ effor- -o ra#se -he 4ubl#c 4erce4-#on of T8ET. o The Promo-#on of T8ET for 3#rls an$ /omen6 -h#s #s essen-#ally an #ssue of access -o T8ET an$6 once g#rls an$ 0omen en-er T8ET #ns-#-u-#ons6 ho0 -hey are rece#.e$ an$ accommo$a-e$. A--rac-#ng more female #ns-ruc-ors an$ a$m#n#s-ra-ors #n-o T8ET #s a ma@or challenge #n -he fu-ure. o T8ET Bac#l#-#es an$ E7u#4men-& There #s a ma@or 4roblem assoc#a-e$ 0#-h h#gh cos- of cons-ruc-#on6 e7u#4men-6 ma#n-enance an$ -he 4ro.#s#on of consumable -ra#n#ng ma-er#als. "ou-#ne an$ 4re.en-#.e ma#n-enance ha.e also cons-#-u-e$ 4ers#s-en- 4roblems. o T8ET Teachers; Con$#-#ons of Ser.#ce #n mos- coun-r#es are no- -he same 0#-h -hose #n aca$em#cs6 as such9 #- ser.es as a $emo-#.a-#ng fac-or. o /or:4lace ?eal-h an$ Safe-y& ?C8%AC5S u4on you-h an$ 0or:#ng1age 4o4ula-#ons #s a ma@or challenge -o be face$ by T8ET. ?C8%AC5S6 -he .ery e$uca-#.e 4rocess #s #n @eo4ar$y. o T8ET Curr#culum "eform an$ 5e.elo4men- effec- on labour mar:e-. Cn o-her na-#ons6 for a .ar#e-y of reasons6 em4loyers 4refer -o em4loy un-ra#ne$ you-h or Haca$em#c;

gra$ua-es an$ 4ro.#$e on1-he1@ob -ra#n#ng. One sal#en- -ren$ #s -he gro0#ng con.ergence be-0een T8ET an$ Haca$em#c; curr#cula6 resul-#ng from -echnolog#cal change. o Teach#ng an$ Fearn#ng& As T8ET becomes #ncreas#ngly more :no0le$ge or#en-e$6 -he role of -he -eachers an$ #ns-ruc-ors mus- change from -he $#$ac-#c #m4ar-#ng of s:#lls an$ :no0le$ge -o -he fac#l#-a-#on of learn#ng. Fearners1cen-re$. o T8ET Plann#ng& Cn mos- cases 0here T8ET 4rograms fa#ls6 a44ro4r#a-e an$ rele.an4ar-#es are no- #n.ol.e$ a- -he 4lann#ng s-age. o Corru4-#on& Mos- 4eo4le res-r#c- corru4-#on -o f#nanc#al embezzlemen-. The 0ors- as4ecof #- #s rela-e$ -o 4ol#c#es -ha- obscure T8ET rela-e$ 4rograms 0h#ch #s ca4able of em4o0er#ng -he soc#e-y 0#-h s:#lls an$ com4e-enc#es -ha- coul$ lea$ -o s-an$alones. 9% Conclusion: One of -he mos- cr#-#cal challenges of -h#s (,s- cen-ury #s -he a--a#nmen- of full em4loymen- an$ sus-a#ne$ econom#c gro0-h #n -he global economy an$ soc#al #nclus#.#-y. T8ET can be synonymous -o -he bac:bone of 7ual#-y l#fe as #- con-r#bu-es s#gn#f#can-ly -o 4romo-#ng -he #n-eres-s of #n$#.#$uals6 en-er4r#ses6 economy an$ soc#e-y. By ma:#ng #n$#.#$uals em4loyable an$ #nforme$ c#-#zens6 human resources $e.elo4men- -hrough T8ET ac-#.#-#es con-r#bu-e -o econom#c $e.elo4men- an$ -o ach#e.#ng full em4loymen- an$ 4romo-#ng soc#al #nclus#on. They also hel4 #n$#.#$uals -o ga#n access -o $ecen- 0or: an$ goo$ @obs6 an$ esca4e 4o.er-y an$ marg#nal#za-#on. The economy becomes more 4ro$uc-#.e6 #nno.a-#.e an$ com4e-#-#.e -hrough -he ex#s-ence of more s:#lle$ human 4o-en-#al. ?uman resources $e.elo4men- an$ -ra#n#ng also un$er4#n -he fun$amen-al .alues of soc#e-y 1 e7u#-y6 @us-#ce6 gen$er e7ual#-y6 non$#scr#m#na-#on6 soc#al res4ons#b#l#-y6 an$ 4ar-#c#4a-#on. To re.#-al#se -he curren- s-a-us of T8ET mos- 4ar-#cularly here a- "0an$a6 early #$en-#f#ca-#on of curren- an$ fu-ure s:#lls nee$s 0h#ch #s 4ar- of a for0ar$1loo:#ng s-ra-egy -ha- re$uces s:#lls ga4s has -o be es-abl#she$ by& o a$@us-#ng -he curr#culum of #n#-#al e$uca-#on -o curren- an$ fu-ure s:#lls nee$s9 o enabl#ng -ra#n#ng 4ro.#$ers -o an-#c#4a-e an$ forecas- 0ha- s:#lls are #n $eman$ curren-ly an$ #n -he me$#um1 -o long1-erm6 so as -o ensure a be--er f#- be-0een @obs an$ s:#lls9 o 4ro.#$#ng 4er-#nen- an$ -#mely #nforma-#on -o all s-a:ehol$ers #n 4ar-#cular -o $#s4lace$ 0or:ers as 0ell as -hose see:#ng be--er @ob o44or-un#-#es -o enable -hem -o sh#f- from $ecl#n#ng -o emerg#ng sec-ors9 Therefore6 -o ach#e.e Sus-a#nable 5e.elo4men- .#a T8ET 1 T8ET has -o be s-rongly l#n:e$ 0#-h -he 0orl$ of 0or: #n com4an#es an$ o-her em4loyers. Effor-s -o ach#e.e T8ET for real#s-#c human resources $e.elo4men- re7u#res a sys-ema-#c an$ % or coo4era-#on #n -he #n-erna-#onal frame0or: un$er -h#s ob@ec-#.e. An #n-erna-#onal coo4era-#on 0#-h abo.e $escr#be$ ob@ec-#.e shoul$ o Be le$ by -he cer-a#n rele.an- bo$#es o Cn-egra-e an$ #n.ol.e -he com4e-en- an$ mo-#.a-e$ ac-ors o "ecogn#se rele.an- s-a:ehol$ers o Be able -o a--rac- -he nee$e$ f#nances o Enable an #n-er$#sc#4l#nary 0or:

o o o o

Ensure an exchange of lessons learn- an$ bes- 4rac-#ces To comb#ne -he resources #n -he areas of ma#n common #n-eresC$en-#fy an$ real#se -he rela-e$ 4ro@ec-s Co.er #n #-s ac-#.#-#es -he mos- #m4or-an- f#el$s6 0h#ch can con-r#bu-e -o a re1or#en-a-#on of T8ET -o0ar$s -he sus-a#nable human resources $e.elo4men-.

The 3ro0#ng Cm4or-ance of CCTs for T8ET& The a$$#-#on of CCTs -o T8ET 4rogrammes an$ curr#cula '4referably as 4ar- of a cross1curr#cular focus+ 0#ll ass#s- mo$ern#za-#on of -he f#el$. Ano-her #m4or-an- as4ec- of CCTs has been -he exchange of T8ET #nforma-#on be-0een na-#ons -hrough -he UNESCO1UNE8OC ne-0or: '000.-.e-#4e$#a.org+6 -he CFO ne-0or: an$ o-her mul-#1 la-eral an$ non1go.ernmen-al ne-0or:s. The -as: of human resources $e.elo4men- #s mul-#1$#mens#onal -as: an$ mus- be un$er-a:en #n close 4ar-nersh#4 0#-h go.ernmen-6 non1go.ernmen- organ#sa-#ons an$ #n-erna-#onal agenc#es. Cn$us-ry an$ 4r#.a-e sec-ors mus- @o#n han$s #n -he 4rocess of human resources $e.elo4men-. TCT has 0or:e$ closely for -he las- -hree years 0#-h a .as- ne-0or: of #ns-#-u-#ons an$ organ#sa-#ons. Our ex4er#ence g#.es us an e$ge -o con-#nue -he 4ar-nersh#4 4a-h. :ibliography: Rupert 4aclean0 David "% ;ilson (3<<=)0 ,&nternational Handboo. of Education for the changing !orld of 0or:6 '#n& :ridging academic and vocational learning6 +6 S4r#nger sc#ence O bus#ness me$#a& The UNESCO1UNE8OC6 44.,xx###6 A!A1(*!) UNESCO '(**)+6 Revised Recommendation Concerning Technical and Vocational Education (3<<$) in "ormative instruments concerning Technical and Vocational Education0 h--4&%%000.une.oc.unesco.org%4ubs$#r.4h4Pa:-Q#$Ls-QL#$QUNESCOO4ubl#ca-#onsO,LlgQen6 RAccesse$ ( .6.(**DS Cn-erna-#onal Fabour Organ#sa-#on '(**D+6 (lobal Employment Trends database0 h--4&%%000.#lo.org%s:#lls%lang11en%#n$ex.h-m RAccesse$ (.*!.(**DS Cn/En-%UNESCO1UNE8OC '(**6+6 Research for TVET policy development0 h--4&%%000.une.oc.unesco.org%4ubs$#r.4h4Pa:-Q#$Ls-QL#$QCSBNO 1D A( )1D=1DLlgQen6 RAccesse$ ).*!.(**DS >u$#-h Cohen an$ S#mon >ames 0#-h >ohn Ble0#-- 1e$s.'(**(+6 'Fearn#ng -o Fas-. S:#lls6 Sus-a#nab#l#-y an$ S-ra-egy;9 UNESCO1UNE8OC.

Msamb#cha:a6 M0amba an$ Mash#n$ano '(**6+6 3lobal#sa-#on for challenges for $e.elo4men- #n Tanzan#a6 5A" ES SAFAAM. UNESCO1UNE8OC '(**=+6 8rientating TVET for sustainable development: (h--4&%%000.une.oc.unesco.org%0#:#.*.h-mlPLnoTcacheQ,L-xT$r0#:#T4#,K)B:ey0or$K)5QUN E8OCK(*5ocumen-sK(*onK(*T8ETK(*forK(*Sus-a#nableK(*5e.elo4men-+ RAccesse$ (=.6.(**DS "e4ubl#c of "0an$a '(**A+6 R!anda Education -ector -trategic 6lan 3<<> 3<$<0 h--4&%%000.r0an$aga-e0ay.org%ar-#cle.4h4 P#$Tar-#cleQ6*)= RAccesse$ (=.6.(**DS "e4ubl#c of "0an$a '(**)+6 Demography0 h--4&%%000.r0an$aga-e0ay.org%ar-#cle.4h4 P#$Tar-#cleQ, A RAccesse$ (=.6.(**DS Afr#can Un#on '(**6+6 Decision on a second decade of education for #frica (3<<> 3<$?) and the frame!or. of the plan of action for the second decade0 h--4&%%000.afr#ca1 un#on.org%roo-%au%$ocumen-s%$ec#s#ons%hog%au6-hTor$T:har-oumT@an(**6.4$f RAccesse$ (=.6.(**DS @amada0 4atsuda (3<<A)0 ,Vocational and &ndustr#al ?uman "esource 5e.elo4men- -hrough T8ET #n Afr#ca. Chang#ng Ass#s-ance En.#ronmen-s an$ ?uman "esource 5eman$s. (**6 B&C# visiting fello! research report% >a4an& >a4an Cn-erna-#onal Coo4era-#on Agency. h--4&%%000.4res#$ency.go..r0%#n$ex.4h4Po4-#onQcomTcon-en-L.#e0Qar-#cleL#$Q()*&a$$ress1by1 h#s1excellency14aul1:agame14res#$en-1of1-he1re4ubl#c1of1r0an$a1a-1-he10orl$1-echnology1 summ#-1,61@uly1(**D1ne01yor:1c#-yLca-#$Q =&s4eechesLC-em#$Q = h--4&%%000.r0o$a.go..r0%r0o$aT4ubl#ca-#ons.4h4 h--4&%%000.lm#s.go..r0%lm#sTforecas-Tre4or-s.4h4