Anda di halaman 1dari 54

Varnes Landslide Classification

What is the purpose of a classification?


To file material so it can be easily retrieved* To organize thought To communicate *J.N. Hutchinson, c. 2000 Our main need is for labels describing landslide types (typology) but the system must be flexible and adaptable to the complexity of landslides

Typological classification
Divide phenomena into repeating patterns (types) characterized by several descriptors. Requirements: 1) Comprehensive definition 2) Type examples 3) References

Desirable qualities of a typological classification system:


1. Simple, not too many classes 2. Respectful of previous usage
3. Flexible, with varying quality of data 4. Each class name to be supported by a definition, examples and references

What to do with complex types?


Suggestion: leave the decision to the user.

Dr. Rick Guthrie

Rock slide

Rock avalanche

Framework:
Pre-failure movements Post-failure movements

Failure is the single most significant movement episode. Failure involves the first formation of a rupture surface
It is up to the user to decide which.

Principal movement types


Cruden and Varnes, 1996 (dates back to Balzer, 1875)

D.J. Varnes, 1978

33 types

Varnes Classification Type Names


L andslide classificatio n (V arnes, 1978) BEDROCK FA L L S TOPPLES ROCK FALL BLOCK TOPPLE FL E X U R A L T O P P L E ROCK SLUM P R O C K S L ID E ROCK SPREAD ROCK CREEP S L O P E S A G G IN G C o de: R A P ID , S L O W (IN M O S T C A S E S ) D E B R IS (< 80% sand and finer) D E B R IS F A L L EARTH (> 80% sand and finer) EARTH FALL BLOCK TOPPLE

S L ID E S

D E B R IS S L ID E

EARTH SLUM P E A R T H S L ID E EARTH SPREAD W E T S A N D A N D S IL T FLOW R A P ID E A R T H F L O W LOESS FLOW D R Y S A N D FL O W E A R T H FL O W

SPREADS FL O W S

D E B R IS F L O W D E B R IS AVALANCHE S O IL C R E E P S O L IFL U C T IO N

COM PLEX

ROCK AVALANCHE E A R T H S L U M P -E A R T H FL O W

R ef.: V arn es, D .J., 1978. Slope m ovem en t types an d processes. In L an dslides, A n alysis an d C on trol. Special R eport 176, T ran sportation R esearch B oard, W ash in gton , pp. 11 -3 3 .

Velocity scale
L a ndslide ve lo c it y sca le (C ruden a nd V arnes, 1996). V e lo c it y c la ss 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 D escript io n E xtrem e ly R ap id -----------------------V ery R ap id -----------------------R ap id -----------------------M o derate -----------------------S lo w -----------------------V ery S lo w -----------------------E xtrem e ly S lo w V e lo c it y (m m /sec) 5x10 5x10 5x10 5x10 5x10 5 x10
3

T yp ica l ve lo c it y 5 m /sec

H uman respo nse N il N il

3 m /m in E vacuat io n 1.8 m /hr E vacuat io n 13 m /m o nth M a inte na nce 1.6 m /year M a inte na nce 16 m m /ye ar N il

-1

-3

-5

-7

R ef.: C ru d en , D .M . an d V arn es, D .J., 1 9 96 . L an d slid e typ es an d processes. In L an d slid es, In vestig ation an d M itigation . Sp ecial R ep ort 2 47 , T ran sp ortation R esearch B oard, W ash in g ton , p p. 3 6 -7 5.

Material categories:
- Rock - Debris (more than 20% coarse*) - Earth (less than 20% coarse*)
* Gravel clasts and larger

1. Difficult to evaluate 2. Little relevance to slide behaviour 3. Incompatible with established systems

Suggested material classes

Suggested material classes

Geotechnical classes - plastic - granular

Suggested material classes

Mixed materials - plastic - granular


(Mixed grain sizes,

diluted by water)

Geotechnical materials: Clay, silt, sand, gravel, boulders

How to simplify? Suggestion: use dominant component with emphasis on mechanical behaviour. Example: plastic clayey silt > clay low plasticity clayey silt > silt

Materials not used in geotechnical classifications (but common in Geology):

Debris mixture of components, non-plastic


Mud - mixture of components, plastic (clayey), liquid (IL>0.5) Earth plastic, but not liquid and may not be strongly mixed.

Supplementary terms, geomorphological

Do not use as primary names, because there is insufficient correlation with landslide behaviour. Example, Alluvial (could be gravel, silt, clay)

Some additional movement types:


- Rotational/ translational/ compound slide
(Hutchinson, 1988)

- Block topple/ flexural topple


(Goodman and Bray, 1976)

- Flow slide (Terzaghi, Casagrande, Meyerhof ..)

- Slope deformation creep? - Rock collapse? (croulement, felssturz)


- Debris flood (e.g. Aulitzski, 1970)

Summary

* Can be extremely rapid

Rock, ice fall


Detachment, fall, rolling and bouncing of rock or ice fragments. May occur singly or in clusters, but there is little dynamic interaction between the most mobile moving fragments, which interact mainly with the substrate (path). Fragment deformation is unimportant, although fragments can break during impacts. Usually of limited volume.

Rock block topple


Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

Forward rotation and overturning of rock columns or plates (one or many), separated by steeply-dipping joints. The rock is relatively massive and rotation occurs on well-defined basal discontinuities. Movement may begin slowly, but the last stage of failure is extremely rapid. Occurs at all scales.

Multiple block topple


Czech Republic

Rock Flexural Topple


Bending and forward rotation of a rock mass characterized by very closely-spaced, steeply dipping joints or schistose partings. The rock is relatively weak and fissile. There are no well-defined basal discontinuities that could allow for rotation of blocks around their bases. The movement is generally slow and tends to self-stabilize. However, secondary rotational sliding may develop in the hinge zone of the topple. Occurs at large scale.

1980

1987

La Clapire, France

Rock rotational slide (rock slump)


Sliding of a mass of weak rock on a cylindrical or ellipsoidal rupture surface which is not structurally-controlled. Little internal deformation. A large main scarp and back-tilted bench at the head. Usually slow to moderately slow.

Rock translational (planar) slide


Sliding of a mass of rock on a planar rupture surface. The surface may be stepped forward. No internal deformation. The slide head may be sepa-rating from stable rock along a deep, vertical tension crack. Usually extremely rapid.

Rock wedge slide


Sliding of a mass of rock on a rupture surface formed of two planes with downslope-oriented intersection. No internal deformation. Usually extremely rapid.

Scatter River, North-east British Columbia (Hungr et al., 1984

Rock compound slide


Sliding of a mass of rock on a rupture surface consisting of several planes, or a surface of uneven curvature, so that motion is kinematically possible only if accompanied by significant internal distortion of the moving mass. Horstand-graben features at the head and many secondary shear surfaces are typical. Parts of the rupture surface may develop by shearing through the rock. Slow or rapid.

Compound sliding
Internal deformation required

Graben

Vaiont (1963)

A compound slide
(Mencl, Hutchinson) non-circular

view

section
random joints

Rock irregular slide (rock collapse)


Sliding of a rock mass on an irregular rupture surface consisting of a number of randomly-oriented joints, separated by segments of intact rock (rock bridges). Occurs in strong rocks with non-systematic structure. Failure mechanism is very complex and often difficult to describe. May include elements of toppling. Often very sudden and extremely rapid.

rupture surface

Clay, silt rotational slide (Soil slump)


Sliding of a mass of (homogeneous and usu-ally cohesive) soil on a cylindrical or ellipsoidal rupture surface. Little internal deformation. Normally slow, but may be extremely rapid in sensitive or collapsive soils.

Panama Canal

Clay, silt planar slide


Sliding of a block of cohesive soil on an inclined planar rupture surface, formed by a weak layer (usually pre-sheared). The head of the slide mass separates from stable soil along a deep tension crack (no active wedge). May be slow or rapid.

Sand, Gravel,Debris slide


Sliding of a mass of granular material on a shallow, planar surface parallel with the ground. Usually, the sliding mass is a veneer of colluvium, weath-ered soil, or pyroclastic deposits resting on a stronger substrate. Many debris slides become flow-like after moving a short distance and transform into extremely rapid debris ava-lanches.

Clay, silt compound slide


Sliding of a mass of soil on a rupture surface consisting of several planes, or a surface of uneven curvature, so that motion is kinematically possible only if accompanied by significant internal distortion of the moving mass. Horst-andgraben features at the head and many secondary shear surfaces are observed. The basal segment of the rupture surface often follows a weak horizon in the soil stratigraphy

Rock slope spread (or deformation?)


Crest sagging in slopes formed from a stronger layer (cap rock) over weak rock. Blocks of the stronger rock spread and tilt by deformation of the underlying weak material, without the formation of a defined rupture surface. Extremely slow.

Nemcok, 1982, Weak rocks


Initial stage, Mature stage, Final stage, Surficial movements

Turnagain Heights Slide, 1964

Sand, silt liquefaction spread


Extremely rapid lateral spreading of a series of soil blocks, floating on a layer of saturated (loose) granular soil, liquefied by earthquake shaking or spontaneous liquefaction.

St. Jude, Quebec, 2010

Sensitive clay spread


Extremely rapid lateral spreading of a series of coherent clay blocks, floating on a layer of remoulded sensitive clay.

Inverse sorting

Rock avalanche

Frank Slide, 1903

Extremely rapid, massive, flow-like motion of fragmented rock from a large rock slide or rock fall.

Dry (or non-liquefied) Sand, Silt, Gravel or Debris Flow


Slow or rapid flow-like movement of loose dry, moist or saturated, sorted or unsorted granular material, without excess porepressure.

Sand, Silt, Debris flow slide:


Very rapid to extremely rapid flow of sorted or unsorted saturated granular material on moderate slopes, involving excess pore-pressure or liquefaction of material originating from the landslide source. Usually originates as a multiple retrogressive failure. Often under water.

Clay flow slide

(Photo: S.G. Evans)

Very rapid to extremely rapid flow of liquefied sensitive clay, due to remoulding during a multiple retrogressive slide failure at, or close to the original water content.

INITIATION

Debris flow:
Very rapid to extremely rapid surging flow of saturated non-plastic debris in a steep channel. Strong entrainment of material and water from the flow path. (Plasticity Index < 5% in sand and finer fractions).

CHANNEL (GORGE)

DEBRIS (COLLUVIAL) FAN

Debris avalanche
Extremely rapid shallow flow of partially or fully saturated debris on a steep slope, without confinement in an established channel. Morphologically similar to a snow avalanche)
Sharpe (1938)

Alberta

Debris avalanche in Brazil, 2010


(courtesy Prof. Andre S. Avelar, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro

Debris flood:
Very rapid surging flow of water, heavily charged with debris, in a steep channel. Peak discharge comparable to that of a major water flood.
(Hungr et al., 2001)

Difference between debris flow and flood? Peak discharge (of the largest surge)
DEBRIS FLOOD, Qp= 1 to 3 x Qf (Qf = extreme hydrological flood)

DEBRIS FLOW, Qp=10 to 50 x Qf

Discharge magnification

PIERSON, 1980

Earth flow (or Mudslide?)


Rapid or slower, intermittent flow-like movement of plastic, clayey soil, facilitated by a combination of sliding along multiple discrete shear surfaces, and internal shear strains. Long periods of dormancy alternate with more rapid surges.

Motion on discrete slip surfaces (mudslide, Hutchinson, 1988)

A surging earth flow


(Italy, photo Prof. F.Guadagno)

Mountain slope deformation


Large-scale gravitational deformation of steep, high mountain slopes, manifested by scarps, benches, cracks and bulges, but lacking a fully defined rupture surface. Extremely slow, or unmeasurable movement rates.

Nemcok, 1982, Hard rocks


Initial stage, Mature stage, Final stage, Surficial movements

Mountain slope deformation


Nemcok, 1982 Weak rocks
Initial

Mature

Final

Surficial

Mountain slope deformations are ubiquitous


Fraser Valley, B.C.

ValPola, Italy

How can we predict the occurrence of a catastrophic failure (rock avalanche)

Mountain slope deformations are ubiquitous


Fraser Valley, B.C.

ValPola, Italy

How can we predict the occurrence of a catastrophic failure (rock avalanche)

Soil creep

Extremely slow movement of surficial soil layers on a slope (typically less than 1 m deep), as a result of climate-driven cyclical volume changes (wetting and drying, frost heave).

Sharpe (1938)

Summary

* Can be extremely rapid