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# CIRCUITS AND

6.002 ELECTRONICS

Amplifiers --
Small Signal Model

Review

 MOSFET amp
VS
RL
vO

vI
iDS

##  Saturation discipline — operate

MOSFET only in saturation region
Large signal analysis
1. Find vO vs vI under saturation discipline.
2. Valid vI , vO ranges under saturation discipline.

## Large Signal Review

1 vO vs vI

K
vO = VS − (vI −1)2 RL

valid for vI ≥ VT
and
vO ≥ vI – VT
K 2
(same as iDS ≤ vO )
2

v
O
V
S
5V

## corresponding vO > vI −VT

interesting vO = vI −VT
region for vO vO < vI −VT

1V

vI

VT

1V 2V

“interesting” region
for vI . Saturation
discipline satisfied.

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 10 4

But…
vO
VS
5V

vO = vI −VT

vO
1V
vI
vI

VT

1V 2V

Demo

Amplifies alright,
vI
but distorts
vO

Amp is nonlinear … /

## Small Signal Model

vO
~ 5V VS Focus on this line segment

(VI , VO )

~ 1V
vI
VT
1V ~ 2V
K (vI − VT )
2
vO = VS − RL
2
Amp all right, but nonlinear!
Hmmm … So what about our linear amplifier ???

Insight:
But, observe vI vs vO about some
point (VI , VO) … looks quite linear !

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 10 6

Trick vo looks
linear
∆vO VO vi
(VI ,VO )

VI
∆vI

 Operate amp at VI , VO
Æ DC “bias” (good choice: midpoint
of input operating range)
 Superimpose small signal on top of VI

##  Response to small signal seems to be

approximately linear

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 10 7

Trick vo looks
linear
∆vO VO vi
(VI ,VO )

VI
∆vI
 Operate amp at VI , VO
Æ DC “bias” (good choice: midpoint
of input operating range)
 Superimpose small signal on top of VI
 Response to small signal seems to be
approximately linear
Let’s look at this in more detail —
I graphically next
II mathematically week
III from a circuit viewpoint
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 10 8

I Graphically

## We use a DC bias VI to “boost” interesting input

signal above VT, and in fact, well above VT .

VS

interesting RL
input signal
vO
∆vI +

VI
+

Offset voltage or bias

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 10 9

Graphically
VS

interesting
RL
input signal vO
∆vI +

VI
+

vO
VS operating
point
VO VI , VO

vO = vI −VT

vI

0 VT

VI
Good choice for operating point:

## aka incremental model

aka linearized model

Notation —
Input: vI = VI + vi
total DC small
variable bias signal (like ∆vI)
bias voltage aka operating point voltage

Output: vO = VO + vo

Graphically,
vI vO
vi vo
VI
VO

0 t 0 t

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 10 11

II Mathematically
(… watch my fingers)

RL K
vO = VS − (vI −VT ) VO = VS − RL K (VI −VT )2

2 2

substituting vI = VI + vi vi << VI

RL K
vO = VS − ( [VI + vi ] − vT )2

RL K
= VS − ( [VI −VT ] + vi )2

= VS −
RL K
2

(
[VI −VT ]2 + 2 [VI − vT ]vi + vi 2 )

RL K
VO + vo = VS − (VI − VT )2 − RL K (VI −VT ) vi

2
From ,

gm related to VI

Mathematically

gm related to VI

vo = −g m RL vi

## For a given DC operating point voltage VI,

VI – VT is constant. So,

vo = − A vi

constant w.r.t. vi

## In other words, our circuit behaves like a linear amplifier

for small signals

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 10 13

Another way
RL K
vO = VS − (vI −VT )2

VS −
R K
L
2
v −V
I
(
T
2 
 )
d  
vo = ⋅ vi

dv
I
v = V

I I

slope at VI

## vo = −RL K (VI −VT ) ⋅ vi

g m = K (VI −VT )
A = −g m RL amp gain

## Also, see Figure 8.9 in the course notes

for a graphical interpretation of this result

## More next lecture …

iDS
Demo
input signal response
operating point
VI

vO
VO

## How to choose the bias point:

1. Gain component g m ∝ VI
2. vi gets big Æ distortion.
So bias carefully
3. Input valid operating range.
Bias at midpoint of input operating
range for maximum swing.