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Taking Cultural Values to Work

Chapter 12

Hofstedes 4 (5) Dimensions of Culture

Hofstede: Cultural Dimension #3:

Masculinity (MAS)
Masculine Feminine

Masculinity (Toughness)

Traditionally, what are men like?


confident & aggressive Competitive Focused on their careers Tough (strong)

pg.274/275

Femininity (Tenderness)

Traditionally, what are women like?


Modest (humble) Cooperative (want to help others) Tender (gentle) Nurturing (caring for children)

2 types of cultures

MASCULINE CULTURES FEMININE CULTURES

Hofstede: Cultural Dimension #3:

Masculinity (MAS)
In all cultures, women are associated with the values of caring and nurture.

In High Masculine societies there is a clear difference between the genders with men being strong, competitive, and leaders. In Feminine societies men share the caring and nurture values typical of women.

Hofstede: Cultural Dimension #3:

Masculinity (MAS)
In High Masculine societies there is a clear difference between the genders with men being strong, competitive, and leaders. Achievement Orientation In Feminine societies men share the caring and nurture values typical of women. Quality of Life Orientation

Hofstede: Cultural Dimension #3:

Masculinity (MAS)
Who would say this, Achievement or QofL? 1.I will take the weekend off to be with my family. 2.Relationship building slows the real job of getting things done. 3.Lets get to know each other before we start to work. 4.When leaders make changes in organizations, they should consider the people affected.

Hofstede: Cultural Dimension #3:

Masculinity (MAS)
Who would say this, Achievement or QofL? 1.The best way to solve disagreements is through compromise. 2.People live to work 3.People work to live 4.An American is more interested in what he has to do. An African is more interested in who he is doing it with.

Hofstede: Cultural Dimension #3:

Masculinity (MAS)
From Hofstedes research Japan was found to be the world's most masculine society, with a rating of 95. Sweden was the most feminine with a rating of 5. Other examples of "masculine" cultures include the USA, the Germany, Ireland and Italy. "Feminine" cultures include Spain, Thailand, Korea, Portugal and the Middle East.

Hofstedes 4 (5) Dimensions of Culture

Hofstede: Cultural Dimension #4: Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI)


The future is not certain Trying something new causes uncertainty

Maybe it will work Maybe it will not work

Some people are afraid of change


They avoid change, So that they can avoid uncertainty

Hofstede: Cultural Dimension #4: Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI)


Welcome change Resist change

Hofstede: Cultural Dimension #4: Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI)

Uncertainty Avoidance relates to how a culture responds to uncertainty, risk, and change.

High Uncertainty Avoidance cultures avoid change because it brings uncertainty. Low Uncertainty Avoidance cultures seek change even if it brings uncertainty.

Hofstede: Cultural Dimension #4: Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI)


Welcome change Resist change

Low Uncertainty Avoidance cultures allow freedom to experiment

High Uncertainty Avoidance cultures pass laws against change

Hofstede: Cultural Dimension #4: Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI)


Avoid Uncertainty HIGH UAI societies The old ways are known and therefore safe.

Accept Uncertainty LOW UAI societies Do not see the current ways as right. New ways might be better than the past.

Avoid Uncertainty Make rules to limit change

Accept uncertainty Encourage experimentation

Hofstede: Cultural Dimension #4: Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI)


Would a High UAI or Low UAI say this? Its new and improved! Be a risk taker! Weve always done it this way. The future is uncertain. Dont take chances. Change you can believe in. The present situation is broken. We should fix it.

Hofstedes 4 (5) Dimensions of Culture

Hofstede: Cultural Dimesnsion #5: Long Term Orientation (LTO)


Also called Confucian Dynamism

The countries with a strong tradition based on the teachings of Confucius have high LTO

Hofstede: Cultural Dimesnsion #5: Long Term Orientation (LTO)


Long-Term Orientation. Goal setting and perseverance ( to reach goals. Emphasis on face, not right or wrong behavior. Four parts: persistence ( + thrift ( + clear leadership + shame ()

Hofstede: Cultural Dimesnsion #5: Long Term Orientation (LTO)

Persistence ( Perseverance in reaching a goal. No quitting. Once a plan has been decided, people will work through disappointment and difficult problems in order to reach the desired goal.

Hofstede: Cultural Dimesnsion #5: Long Term Orientation (LTO)

Thrift () There is thrift and dislike of waste. This leads to careful finances and profitable firms and nations. A high level of savings and reduced borrowing leads to more financially stable institutions.

Hofstede: Cultural Dimesnsion #5: Long Term Orientation (LTO)

Ordered relationships/ clear leadership Relationships are clearly defined with hierarchies that people observe carefully. With clear leaders, people do not spend time arguing and challenging orders -- they follow instructions to reach the goals that have been set for them by their leaders.

Hofstede: Cultural Dimesnsion #5: Long Term Orientation (LTO)

A sense of shame () If goals are not reached, then people feel shame -- which leads to persistence. To fail or otherwise lose face is highly undesirable..

Long Term Orientation


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CHINA

CHINA & USA

CHINA & WORLD

CHINA & EAST ASIA

CHINA & JAPAN