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89 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART IX
THE PANCHAYATS
243. D ef i ni ti ons .— In thi s P art, unl es s the con te xt othe r wi s e re quir es ,—
(a) “district” means a district in a State;
(b) “Gram Sabha” means a body consisting of persons registered in the electoral rolls
relating to a village comprised within the area of Panchayat at the village level;
(c) “intermediate level” means a level between the village and district levels specified
by the Governor of a State by public notification to be the intermediate level for the
purposes of this Part;
(d) “Panchayat” means an institution (by whatever name called) of self- government
constituted under article 243B, for the rural areas;
(e) “Panchayat area” means the territorial area of a Panchayat;
(f) “Population” means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of
which the relevant figures have been published;
(g) “village” means a village specified by the Governor by public notification to be a
village for the purposes of this Part and includes a group of villages so specified.
243A. G r a m Sabha . — A Gra m Sabh a ma y exe rc is e su ch po we r s and
p er for m su ch fun ct ions at th e vil la ge le ve l a s the Le gi sl atu re of a Sta te
ma y, b y l a w, provide .
243B . C onst it uti on of Panc hay ats .— (1) Th e re sh al l be c ons titu ted in
e ver y Sta te , P ancha yat s a t the vi ll a ge , int er me di at e and dis tr ic t l eve ls in
a c co rdan ce with th e pro vi si ons o f thi s P art.
(2) No t wi ths ta nding an yth ing in c lau se (1), P anch a ya t s at th e
int er med ia te l eve l ma y not be con st itut ed in a Sta te ha vi ng a populat ion not
e xc ee din g t went y l akhs .
243C. C o mposi ti on of P anc hay ats . — (1 ) Subj ec t to th e pro vi sion s o f
thi s P art, th e Le gi sl at ur e of a St at e ma y, b y la w, ma ke provis ion s with
r es pe ct to the co mpo si tion of P an cha yat s:
P rovid ed tha t the ra tio be t wee n the popula tion of the te rr ito ri al ar e a of a
P an cha ya t a t an y le vel and th e numbe r of se at s in suc h P an cha ya t to be
fi ll ed b y e le ct ion sha ll , so fa r a s pra ct ic a ble , be the sa me th roughout the
St at e.
(2) All th e se at s in a P anch a ya t sha ll be fil le d b y pe rson s cho se n b y
di re ct el ec tion fro m t er ri tori al cons ti tuen ci es in th e P anch a ya t ar ea and , fo r
thi s purpo se , e a ch P an cha ya t ar e a sh al l be divide d into t er rito ri al
c ons titu enc ie s in suc h ma nn er that the ra tio be t wee n th e popul ation of ea c h
c ons titu enc y and the nu mb er o f s ea ts a llo tt ed to it sh al l, so far as
pr ac ti ca bl e, be th e s a me throughout th e p anch a ya t a re a.
(3) Th e Le gis la tu re o f a Sta te m a y, b y l a w, provid e fo r the r epr es e nta tion

89
90 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(a) of the
Chairpersons of the
Panchayats at the village level, in the Panchayats at the intermediate level or, in the case
of a State not having Panchayats at the intermediate level, in the Panchayats at the district
level;
(b) of the Chairpersons of the Panchayats at the intermediate level, in the Panchayats
at the district level;
(c) of the members of the House of the People and the members of the Legislative
Assembly of the State representing constituencies which comprise wholly or partly a
Panchayat area at a level other than the village level, in such Panchayat;
(d) of the members of the Council of States and the members of the Legislative
Council of the State, where they are registered as electors within—
(i) a Panchayat area at the intermediate level, in Panchayat at the intermediate
level;
(ii) a Panchayat area at the district level, in Panchayat at the district level.
(4) Th e Ch ai rpe rs on o f a P anch a ya t and oth er me mb e rs o f a P anch a ya t
wh et he r or not cho se n b y dir ec t el ec tion fr o m t er rito ri al con st itu enc ie s in
th e P ancha yat ar ea sha ll ha ve the ri gh t to vote in the me e ti ngs o f the
P an cha ya t s.
(5) Th e Ch ai rpe rs on o f—
(a) a panchayat at the village level shall be elected in such manner as the Legislature
of a State may, by law, provide; and
(b) a Panchayat at the intermediate level or district level shall be elected by, and from
amongst, the elected members thereof.
243D. Re s e r vat ion of se ats . —(1 ) S ea ts sh al l be re se r ved fo r—
(a) the Scheduled Castes; and
(b) the Scheduled Tribes,
in e ve r y P an cha ya t a nd th e numbe r of se at s so r es er ved sh al l bea r, a s
n ea rl y a s ma y be, the s a me proport ion to th e to ta l nu mbe r of s e at s to b e
fi ll ed b y di re ct el ec tion in tha t P anch a ya t a s the popul at ion of th e
S che dule d Ca st e s in th at P ancha yat a re a or of th e Sch edul ed Tr ib es in tha t
P an cha ya t ar e a b ea rs to the tota l popul ation of tha t a re a and su ch s ea ts ma y
b e a llo tte d b y rot at ion to diffe r en t c ons titu en ci es in a P anch a ya t.
(2) No t l es s tha n on e- third of the tot al nu mb er o f s ea ts re se r ve d under
c la us e (1 ) sh al l be r es e r ve d for wo men belon gi ng to th e Sch edul ed C as te s
or, a s the c as e m a y b e, the S che dule d Tr ib es .
(3) No t l es s tha n on e- third (in clud ing th e nu mb er o f se a ts r es er ve d for
wo me n belon gi ng to th e S che dule d C as te s a nd th e Sch edul ed Tr ib es ) o f the
tot al nu mb er of se a ts to be fi ll ed b y di re ct el ec tion in e ve r y P ancha yat
sh al l be re se r ved for wo me n and such se at s ma y be al lott ed b y rot at ion to
di ffe re nt con sti tue nc ie s in a P an cha yat .
(4) Th e o ffi c es o f th e Cha irp er son s in th e P an cha yat s a t th e vi ll age or
a n y oth er l eve l sha ll be r es er ved for th e Sch edul ed Ca st e s, th e S che dule d
91 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Tri be s a nd wo men in
suc h m an ne r as th e
Le gis la tu re o f a St at e ma y, b y la w, provid e:
P rovid ed th at the nu mbe r o f o ffi c e s o f Cha irp er son s r es er ved fo r th e
S che dule d Ca st e s a nd the Sch edul ed Tri be s in the P an cha yat s at e a ch l e ve l
in an y St at e sha ll be ar, as ne ar l y as ma y be, the s a me propo rt ion to the
tot al nu mb er of su ch o ffi c es in th e P anch a ya ts a t ea c h le vel as the
popul at ion of th e Sch edul ed C as te s in the Sta te or o f th e S che dule d Tri be s
in the St at e be ar s to th e tota l popula tion of th e Sta te :
P rovid ed fur th er tha t not le ss th an one -thi rd o f th e tot al nu mb er of
o ffi c es of Ch ai rp er sons in the P an cha ya t s at e a ch le vel sh al l be re se r ve d
for wo men :
P rovid ed a ls o tha t th e nu mb er of offi ce s re s er ved under this cl aus e sha ll
b e a llo tte d b y rot at ion to diffe r en t P an cha yat s a t e a ch le vel .
(5) Th e r es er vat ion of se at s unde r cl aus es (1) and (2) and th e re se r va ti on
o f offic e s o f Cha irp er son s (oth er tha n the re se r vat ion fo r wo men ) unde r
c la us e (4 ) sh al l ce a s e to h ave e ffe ct on th e e xp ir at ion of th e pe riod
sp ec i fie d in a rt ic le 334.
(6) Nothin g in this P art s ha ll pr eve nt th e Le gis la tu re of a St at e fro m
ma ki ng an y provis ion for re s er vat ion o f se at s in an y P anch a ya t or offi ce s
o f Ch ai rpe rs ons in the P anch a ya ts at an y l evel in fa vour o f ba ckwa r d c la s s
o f c iti ze ns .
243E. D ur ati on of Panc hay ats , et c. —(1 ) Ever y P ancha yat , unle ss
soon er di ss olve d und er an y l a w for th e ti me be ing in for c e, sh al l c ontinu e
for fi ve ye a rs fr o m the dat e appo inte d for its fi rs t me et in g and no lon ge r.
(2) No a men d ment of an y la w for the ti me bein g in fo rc e sh all have the
e ffe c t of ca us ing di sso lution o f a P anch a ya t at a n y l e ve l, whi ch i s
fun ct ionin g i mme di at el y b e fo re su ch a men d men t, till th e expi ra tion of its
dur at ion s pe ci fi ed in c la us e (1) .
(3 ) An e le ct ion to con st itut e a P anch a ya t sh all be co mpl et ed —
(a) before the expiry of its duration specified in clause (1);
(b) before the expiration of a period of six months from the date of its dissolution:
P rovided th at wh e re the r e mai nde r of th e pe riod fo r whi ch the di sso lved
P an cha ya t wo uld have cont inued is l es s than s ix mo nths , it s ha ll not b e
n ec es s ar y to hold an y el ec ti on und er thi s c la us e fo r con st itut ing the
P an cha ya t for such pe riod .
(4 ) A P anch a ya t con sti tut ed upon the di sso lution o f a P anch a ya t be for e
th e expi ra tion of its dur at ion s ha ll cont inue onl y fo r th e r e ma ind er o f the
p eriod for wh ic h th e dis sol ve d P ancha yat wo uld ha ve cont inued unde r
c la us e (1) had it not bee n so di sso lved .
243F. Di s qual if ic ati ons for me mbe r s hi p. — (1) A per son sh al l be
di squa li fie d fo r bein g cho se n as , a nd for bein g, a me mbe r o f a P anch a ya t—
(a) if he is so disqualified by or under any law for the time being in force for the
purposes of elections to the Legislature of the State concerned:
92 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Provided that no person


shall be disqualified on the
ground that he is less than twenty-five years of age, if he has attained the age of twenty-one
years;
(b) if he is so disqualified by or under any law made by the Legislature of the State.
(2) I f a n y qu es tion ar is es as to whe th er a me mbe r o f a P anch a ya t ha s
b eco me subj ec t to an y o f th e di squa li fic a tion s men ti oned in cl aus e (1 ), the
qu es tion sha ll be re fe rr e d for the de ci sion o f su ch autho rit y and in suc h
ma nn er a s th e Le gis l atu re o f a St at e ma y, b y la w, pro vid e.
243G . P ow er s, aut hori ty and re s ponsi bil it ie s of P anc hay ats . —Subj ec t
to th e pro vi si ons o f this Cons titu tion, the Le gi sl atu re of a Sta te ma y, b y
l a w, endo w th e P ancha yat s wi th su ch powe rs a nd a utho rit y a s ma y be
n ec es s ar y to en abl e th e m to fun ct ion as in sti tution s o f s el f- gover n men t and
su ch la w ma y con ta in pro vi si ons for th e devolu tion of po wer s a nd
r es pons ibil iti es upon P anch a ya ts at the approp ri at e l eve l, s ubje ct to su ch
c ondit ions as ma y be spe ci fi ed the re in, wi th re sp ec t to—
(a) the preparation of plans for economic development and social justice;
(b) the implementation of schemes for economic development and social justice as
may be entrusted to them including those in relation to the matters listed in the Eleventh
Schedule.
243H. Pow er s to i mpos e tax e s by, and F unds of , t he Panc hayats . — The
Le gis la tu re o f a St at e ma y, b y la w,—
(a) authorise a Panchayat to levy, collect and appropriate such taxes, duties, tolls and
fees in accordance with such procedure and subject to such limits;
(b) assign to a Panchayat such taxes, duties, tolls and fees levied and collected by the
State Government for such purposes and subject to such conditions and limits;
(c) provide for making such grants-in-aid to the Panchayats from the Consolidated
Fund of the State; and
(d) provide for constitution of such Funds for crediting all moneys received,
respectively, by or on behalf of the Panchayats and also for the withdrawal of such
moneys therefrom,
a s ma y be sp ec i fi e d in the l a w.
243-I . C onst it uti on of Fi nanc e Co m mi s si on t o re vi ew f inanc i al
pos it ion .— (1) Th e Go ve rno r of a Sta te sh all , as soon as ma y be wit hin one
ye ar fro m the co m men c e me nt of the Con sti tution (S e ve nt y- th ird
A me nd me nt) Ac t, 1992, and the re a fte r a t the e xpi ra tion o f e ve r y fi fth ye ar,
c ons titu te a Fin anc e Co m mis si on to r evie w th e fin anc ia l posi tion of th e
P an cha ya t s and to ma ke r ec o mme nd ation s to th e Go ve rno r a s to—
(a) the principles which should govern—
(i) the distribution between the State and the Panchayats of the net proceeds of
the taxes, duties, tolls and fees leviable by the State, which may be divided between
them under this Part and the allocation between the Panchayats at all levels of their
respective shares of such proceeds;
93 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(ii) the
determination of the
taxes, duties, tolls and fees which may be assigned to, or appropriated by, the
Panchayats;
(iii) the grants-in-aid to the Panchayats from the Consolidated Fund of the
State;
(b) the measures needed to improve the financial position of the Panchayats;
(c) any other matter referred to the Finance Commission by the Governor in the
interests of sound finance of the Panchayats.
(2) The Le gis la tu re of a St at e m a y, b y l a w, pro vi de fo r th e co mpo si tion
o f th e Co m mi ss ion, th e qu ali fic a tion s wh ic h sha ll be r equi sit e fo r
a ppoint me nt as me mb er s th er eo f and th e man ne r in whi ch th e y sha ll be
s el e ct ed.
(3) Th e Co m mis si on s ha ll det er mi ne th ei r pro ce dur e and sh al l h ave su ch
po wer s in the per for ma nc e of the ir fu nc tions as th e Le gi sl a tur e o f the S ta te
ma y, b y l a w, con fer on the m.
(4) The Go ve rno r sh al l c au se eve r y re co m men da tion ma d e b y th e
Co m mis s ion under thi s ar ti cl e toget he r wit h a n e xpla na tor y me mor andu m
a s to the ac ti on t ake n th er eon to be laid be for e the Le gis la tu re o f th e St at e.
243J. A udi t of ac c ount s of Panc hayat s. — Th e Le gis la tu re of a St at e
ma y, b y l a w, ma ke pro vi sion s wit h r es pe ct to th e ma i nt ena nc e of ac coun ts
b y the P anch a ya ts and the aud itin g o f suc h a c coun ts.
243K . El ec ti ons t o t he Panc hay at s .— (1) Th e supe ri nte nden ce , dir ec tion
a nd c ontro l o f th e prep ar at ion of e le c tor al ro lls for, and the condu ct o f, a ll
e le ct ion s to th e P an cha yat s sh al l b e ve st ed in a Sta te E le ct ion Co m mi ss ion
c ons is ting o f a Sta te El ec tion Co mmi ss ion er to be a ppoint ed b y th e
Go ver nor.
(2) Subje ct to the provis ions of an y la w ma d e b y th e Le gis la tu re of a
St at e, the condit ions of se r vi c e a nd te nur e o f o ffi c e of the Sta te Ele ct ion
Co m mis s ione r sh al l b e su ch as the Go ve rno r ma y b y rul e det er mi ne :
P rovid ed th at the St at e Ele ct ion Co m mis si one r sh al l not be re mo ved
fr o m hi s offic e e xc ept in like m an ne r and on the li ke gr ounds a s a Jud ge of
a Hi gh Court and th e cond ition s o f s er vic e of th e St at e El ec tion
Co m mis s ione r s ha ll not b e var ie d to hi s dis ad va nt age a ft e r hi s
a ppoint me nt.
(3) Th e Go ve rno r of a S ta te sh al l, wh e n s o r equ es te d b y the St at e
El ec ti on Co m mi ss ion, ma ke ava il abl e to th e Sta te E le ct ion Co mmi ss ion
su ch st a ff as ma y b e n ec es s ar y fo r the di sch arge of the fu nc tion s con fer re d
on the Sta te Ele ct ion Co mmi ss ion b y c la us e (1) .
(4) Subje ct to the provis ions of thi s Con sti tution , the Le gi sl at ur e o f a
St at e m a y, b y l a w, ma ke pro vi si on wit h re sp ec t to all ma tt er s re la tin g to, or
in conn ec tion wi th, el ec ti ons to the P anch a ya ts .
243L. A ppli c at i on to U ni on t er ri t or ie s .— Th e pro vi si ons of thi s P art
sh al l app l y to th e Un ion te rr ito rie s and sh al l, in th ei r appl ic at ion to a
94 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Union te rri tor y, ha ve


e ffe ct as if th e
r e fer e nc es to th e Go ve rno r o f a Sta te we r e r e fer e nc es to th e Ad mini st ra to r
o f the U nion t er rito r y a ppoint ed unde r a rt ic le 239 a nd re fe r en ce s to the
Le gis la tu re or th e l egis l at ive As s e mbl y o f a St at e we re re fe re nc e s, in
r el at ion to a Union t er ri tor y havin g a Le gi sl a ti ve As s e mbl y, to th at
Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y:
P rovid ed th at the P re sid ent ma y, b y public noti fi c at ion, di re ct tha t the
pro vi si ons of this P art s ha ll a ppl y to a n y Un ion te rr ito r y or pa rt the reo f
sub je ct to su ch exc ep tions a nd mo di fic at ion s a s he ma y sp ec i fy in th e
noti fi ca tion .
243M . Part not to apply t o ce rt ai n are as. — (1) Nothin g in this P art
sh al l app l y to th e S chedu led Ar e a s re fe rr ed to in cl au se (1), and th e tr iba l
a re a s re fe rr e d to in cl aus e (2 ), of a rt ic le 244.
(2) No thing in thi s P art sh all app l y to—
(a) the States of Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram;
(b) the hill areas in the State of Manipur for which District Councils exist under any
law for the time being in force.
(3) No thing in thi s P art —
(a) relating to Panchayats at the district level shall apply to the hill areas of the
District of Darjeeling in the State of West Bengal for which Darjeeling Gorkha Hill
Council exists under any law for the time being in force;
(b) shall be construed to affect the functions and powers of the Darjeeling Gorkha
Hill Council constituted under such law.
(3 A) No thin g in a rt ic le 243D, re la tin g to r es e r va tion of se a ts fo r the
S che dule d C as te s , sha ll appl y to the St at e of Arun ac ha l Pr ade sh.
(4) No t wi th st andin g an yt hin g in th is Cons ti tution , —
(a) the Legislature of a State referred to in sub-clause (a) of clause (2) may, by law,
extend this part to that State, except the areas, if any, referred to in clause (1), if the
Legislative Assembly of that State passes a resolution to that effect by a majority of the
total membership of that House and by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the
members of that House present and voting;
(b) Parliament may, by law, extend the provisions of this Part to the Scheduled Areas
and the tribal areas referred to in clause (1) subject to such exceptions and modifications
as may be specified in such law, and no such law shall be deemed to be an amendment of
this Constitution for the purposes of article 368.
243N. C onti nuanc e of ex i sti ng law s and Panc hay ats . —No t wi ths ta nding
a n ythin g in this P art, an y pro vi si on of an y la w r el at ing to P anch a ya t s in
for c e in a St at e i m med ia te l y b e fo re the co mme nc e men t of th e Cons ti tution
( Se vent y- third A me nd me nt) Act , 1992, whi c h is incon si st ent wi th the
pro vi si ons o f this P ar t, sha ll con tinue to be in fo rc e unt il a mend ed or
r ep ea le d b y a co mpe te nt Le gi sl at ur e or othe r c o mp et en t a uthor it y or until
th e expi ra tion of one ye a r fr o m su ch co m men ce men t, whi ch eve r is e ar li er :
95 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

P ro vide d th at a ll the
P anch a ya ts e xis tin g
i m med ia te l y be for e suc h c o mme nc e me nt sh al l continu e til l the e xpi ra tion
o f th eir dur at ion, unle ss soon er di ss olve d b y a re so lution pa ss ed to tha t
e ffe c t b y th e Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y o f th at S ta te or, in th e c as e of a S ta te
h aving a Le gi sl at ive Coun ci l, b y e a ch Hous e o f the Le gis la tu re o f tha t
St at e.
243-O . B ar t o int er f ere nc e by c our ts i n e le ct or al mat te r s .—
No t wi th st andin g an yt hin g in th is Cons ti tution ,—
(a) the validity of any law relating to the delimitation of constituencies or the
allotment of seats to such constituencies, made or purporting to be made under article
243K, shall not be called in question in any court;
(b) no election to any Panchayat shall be called in question except by an election
petition presented to such authority and in such manner as is provided for by or under any
law made by the Legislature of a State.

PA RT I XA
96 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART IXA
TH E MU NI CIPALI TIE S
243P. De fi nit ions . —In thi s P art, unle ss the con te xt oth er wi se requ ir es ,—
( a) “Co m mit te e ” me a ns a Co m mit te e con st itut ed unde r a rt ic le 243S ;
( b) “di st ri ct ” me an s a dis tr ic t in a St at e;
( c ) “M et ropoli tan a re a ” me an s an a re a ha vi ng a popul at ion o f t en
l akhs or mor e , co mpr is ed in one or mo r e di st ri ct s and cons is tin g o f t wo
or mor e Muni cip al it ie s or P an cha yat s or othe r cont iguous a re as ,
sp ec i fie d b y th e Go ve rno r b y publi c noti fic a tion to be a Met ropol ita n
a re a for the purpos es of th is P art ;
( d) “Muni cip al a re a ” me a ns th e te rr itor ia l ar ea of a Muni cip al it y a s
i s noti fi ed b y th e Go ve rno r;
( e ) “Muni cip al it y” me an s an in sti tution o f se l f- go ve rn me nt
c ons titu ted unde r ar tic le 243Q;
( f) “P an ch a ya t” me an s a P anch a ya t con sti tut ed under a rt ic le 243B;
( g) “popu l at ion” me a ns th e popula tion as a s ce rt ai ned a t the la st
pr ec e ding ce nsu s of wh ic h th e re le van t fi gur es h ave be en publi she d.
243Q . Cons ti t ut i on of M uni ci pali ti es .— (1 ) Th er e sha ll be con st itut ed
in e ve r y St at e, —
( a) a Na gar P an cha yat (b y wh at e ver n a me ca ll ed ) fo r a tr ans it iona l
a re a , that i s to s a y, a n a re a in tr ans it ion fro m a rur al a re a to an urban
a re a ;
( b) a Munic ipa l Coun ci l fo r a s mal l er urb an ar e a; and
( c ) a Munic ipa l Co rpor at ion fo r a la rger urban a re a,
in ac c ord anc e wi th the pro vi sion s of this P art :
P rovid ed tha t a Munic ipa lit y und er this c la us e ma y not b e c ons titu ted in
su ch urba n a re a or pa rt th er eo f a s the Go ver nor ma y, ha vi ng re gar d to the
s iz e o f the a re a and th e mu ni cip al s er vi c es bein g pro vid ed or propos ed to
b e pro vi ded b y an indust ri al e st abl ish me nt in tha t a re a a nd su ch othe r
fa c to rs as he ma y dee m fit , b y publi c noti fic a tion, spe ci f y to be an
indu st ria l to wn ship .
(2) In this ar ti cl e, “a tr an sit iona l a re a ”, “a s mal l er urba n ar e a” or “ a
l arge r urban ar ea ” me an s such ar ea a s th e Go ver nor ma y, h aving r ega rd to
th e popul ation of the ar ea , th e d ens it y o f the popul at ion the re in, the
r e ve nue ge ne ra te d for loc al ad min is tr at ion, the pe rc en ta ge of e mp lo ymen t
in non-a gri cu ltu r al a ct ivit ie s, th e ec ono mi c i mpor ta nc e or such oth er
fa c to rs a s he ma y dee m fi t, sp ec i fy b y public not i fi ca ti on for the purpos e s
o f thi s P art.
97 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

243R . C o mpos it i on
of M unic i pal it ie s. — (1)
S ave a s provid ed in c la us e (2) , a ll th e s e at s in a Muni cip al it y sh al l b e
fi ll ed b y pe rs ons cho se n b y dir ec t el ec ti on fr o m th e te rr itor ia l
c ons titu enc ie s in the Munic ipa l a re a96and for this purpos e ea ch Munic ipa l
a re a sh al l be divide d into t er rito ri al con st itu enc ie s to be kno wn as wa r ds .
(2) Th e Le gis la tu re o f a Sta te m a y, b y l a w, provid e—
( a) fo r the r epr es e nta tion in a Munic ipa lit y o f—
( i) per sons ha vin g spe ci al kno wl ed ge or expe ri en ce in
Muni cip al ad mi nis tr at ion;
( ii) th e me mb er s of the Hou se o f th e P eopl e and the me mbe rs of
th e Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y o f th e St at e r ep re se ntin g cons ti tuen ci es
whi c h c o mp ri se wh oll y or pa rtl y th e Munic ipa l a re a ;
( iii ) the me mb e rs o f th e Counc il of S ta te s and the me mbe rs of
th e Le gi sl at ive Coun ci l of th e Sta te r e gi st er ed a s el ec to rs wi thin
th e Munic ipa l ar ea ;
( iv ) the Cha irp er son s of the Co mmi tt e es c ons titu ted unde r
c la us e (5) o f ar ti cl e 243S:
P rovid ed tha t the pe rson s re fe rr ed to in p ar agr aph (i ) sha ll not h ave th e
r ight to vot e in th e me et in gs o f th e Munic ipa lit y;
( b) the man ne r of el ec tion o f the Ch ai rpe rs on of a Muni cip al it y.
243S. Cons ti t ut i on and c o mp osi ti on of War ds C o m mi tt e e s, et c. —(1 )
The r e s ha ll be cons ti tute d War ds Co mmi tt ee s, con si stin g of one or mor e
wa r ds , wit hin th e t er rito ri al ar ea o f a Munic ipa li t y ha vi ng a popul at ion of
th re e la kh s or mo r e.
(2) The Le gis la tu re of a St at e m a y, b y l a w, ma ke pro vi si on wit h re sp ec t
to —
( a) the co mpos it ion a nd th e te rr itor ia l ar ea of a Wa rd s Co m mit te e ;
( b) the man ne r in wh ic h the se a ts in a War ds Co mmi tt e e sh all be
fi ll ed.
(3) A me mb er o f a Munic ipa li t y r epr es en tin g a wa rd with in the te rr ito ria l
a re a o f th e Wa rd s Co m mit te e s ha ll be a me mb er of th at Co m mit te e.
(4) Wh er e a War ds Co m mit te e con si st s of—
(a) one wa rd , the me mb er r epr es e ntin g that wa rd in th e
Muni cip al it y; or
(b) t wo or mo r e wa r ds , one o f the me mb er s rep re s ent ing su ch wa r ds
in the Muni cip al it y el e ct ed b y th e me mb er s o f the War ds Co m mit te e ,
sh al l be the Cha ir pe rson o f tha t Co mmi tt ee .
(5) No thing in thi s ar ti cl e sha ll be de e med to pr eve nt the Le gi s la tur e of
a St at e fro m ma kin g an y pro vi si on for the con st itut ion o f Co m mit te es in
a ddit ion to the War ds Co m mit te e s.
243T. R es e r vat i on of se ats . —(1 ) Se at s sha ll be re s er ved for th e
S che dule d Ca st e s a nd the Sch edul ed Tri be s in eve r y Munic ipa lit y and th e
98 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

nu mb er o f se a ts so
re se r ved s ha ll b ea r, a s
n ea rl y a s ma y be, the s a me proport ion to th e to ta l nu mbe r of s e at s to b e
fi ll ed b y di re ct el ec tion in tha t Munic ipa li t y a s th e popul ation of the
S che dule d Ca st e s in th e Muni cip al ar ea or o f the S che dul ed Tri be s in th e
Muni cip al ar ea be ar s to the tota l popul ation of tha t ar e a a nd su ch s ea ts ma y
b e a llo tte d b y rot at ion to diffe r en t c ons titu en ci es in a Munic ip ali t y.
(2) No t l es s tha n on e- third of the tot al nu mb er o f s ea ts re se r ve d under
c la us e (1 ) sh al l be r es e r ve d for wo men belon gi ng to th e Sch edul ed C as te s
or, a s the c as e m a y b e, the S chedu led Tri be s.
(3) No t l es s tha n on e- third (in clud ing th e nu mb er o f se a ts r es er ve d for
wo me n belon gi ng to th e S che dule d C as te s a nd th e Sch edul ed Tr ib es ) o f the
tot al nu mbe r of s e at s to b e fi ll ed b y di re ct e le ct ion in e ver y Munic ipa li t y
sh al l be re se r ved for wo me n and such se at s ma y be al lott ed b y rot at ion to
di ffe re nt con sti tue nc ie s in a Muni cip al it y.
(4) Th e o ffi c es o f Ch ai rpe rs ons in the Muni cip al iti es s ha ll be re se r ved
for th e Sch edul ed C as te s , th e Sch edu led Tr ib es and wo me n in s uch man ne r
a s the Le gis la tu re o f a St at e ma y, b y la w, provid e.
(5) Th e r es er vat ion of se at s unde r cl aus es (1) and (2) and th e re se r va ti on
o f offic e s o f Cha irp er son s (oth er tha n the re se r vat ion fo r wo men ) unde r
c la us e (4 ) sh al l ce a s e to h ave e ffe ct on th e e xp ir at ion of th e pe riod
sp ec i fie d in a rt ic le 334.
(6) Nothin g in this P art s ha ll pr eve nt th e Le gis la tu re of a St at e fro m
ma ki ng an y provis ion for re s er vat ion o f se at s in an y Muni cip al it y or
o ffi c es of Ch ai rp er sons in the Muni cip al iti es in fa vour o f ba ck war d cl as s o f
c it iz en s.
243U. D ur at ion of M uni ci pali ti es , et c. —(1 ) Ever y Munic ipa lit y, unle ss
soon er di ss olve d und er an y l a w for th e ti me be ing in for c e, sh al l c ontinu e
for fi ve ye a rs fr o m the dat e appo inte d for its fi rs t me et in g and no lon ge r:
P rovid ed tha t a Munic ipa lit y sh al l be gi ven a re a son abl e opportuni t y of
b eing hea rd be for e its di sso lution .
(2) No a me nd men t of an y la w for th e ti me be ing in fo r ce sh al l ha ve th e
e ffe c t o f ca us ing dis solu tion o f a Munic ip ali t y a t an y le vel , whi ch i s
fun ct ionin g i mme di at el y b e fo re su ch a men d men t, till th e expi ra tion of its
dur at ion s pe ci fi ed in c la us e (1) .
(3) An el ec ti on to con sti tut e a Munic ipa lit y s ha ll be co mp le te d, —
( a) be fo re th e expi r y of i ts dura tion sp ec i fi e d in c lau se (1);
( b) be for e th e e xp ir at ion of a per iod of s ix mon ths fro m th e da te of
it s dis solu tion:
P rovid ed th at wh er e the re ma ind er of th e pe riod for whi ch the di ss olve d
Muni cip al it y wou ld h ave con tinue d i s le ss th an si x mon ths , it sh al l not be
n ec es s ar y to hold an y el ec ti on und er thi s c la us e fo r con st itut ing the
Muni cip al it y for su ch pe riod.
99 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(4 ) A Muni cip al it y
con sti tut ed upon the
di sso lution of a Muni ci pa lit y be fo re the e xpi ra tion of its dura tion sh al l
c ontinu e onl y for th e r e mai nde r o f th e p eriod fo r wh ic h the dis sol ve d
Muni cip al it y wou ld h ave con tinue d und er cl au se (1 ) had it not be en so
di sso lve d.
243 V. D is quali fi c at i ons for me mbe r s hi p. — (1) A per son sha ll be
di squa li fie d for bein g chos en as , and for be ing, a me mb er o f a Munic ip ali t y

( a) i f he i s so di squa li fie d b y or unde r an y la w for th e ti me be ing in
for c e for th e purpos es o f e le ct ions to the Le gis la tu re o f th e St at e
c onc er ned :
P rovid ed tha t no pe rson sh al l b e di squa li fie d on the ground tha t he is
l es s tha n t we nt y- fi ve ye a r s of age , i f he ha s a tt ain ed the a ge o f t went y- one
ye ar s ;
( b) i f he i s so di squa li fie d b y or unde r an y la w ma d e b y th e
Le gis la tu re o f th e St at e.
(2) I f a n y que st ion ar is es a s to wh et he r a me mb er o f a Munic ipa li t y ha s
b eco me subj ec t to an y o f th e di squa li fic a tion s men ti oned in cl aus e (1 ), the
qu es tion sha ll be re fe rr e d for the de ci sion o f su ch autho rit y and in suc h
ma nn er a s th e Le gis l atu re o f a St at e ma y, b y la w, pro vid e.
243W. P ow er s, aut hor it y and res pons i bi li tie s of M uni ci pali ti es , e tc . —
Subj ec t to th e provis ion s of thi s Cons ti tution, th e Le gi sl at ur e of a St at e
ma y, b y l a w, endo w—
( a) the Munic ipa li ti es wi th suc h po wer s a nd a uthor it y as ma y be
n ec es s ar y to en abl e the m to fu nc tion as inst itut ions o f se l f- go ve rn me nt
a nd suc h la w m a y con ta in provis ion s for the devolu tion o f po wer s and
r es pons ibil iti es upon Munic ipa li tie s, subj ec t to s uch condi tions as ma y
b e sp ec i fie d the re in, wit h r es pe ct to —
( i) the pr ep ar at ion o f pl ans fo r ec ono mi c deve lop me nt and
so ci al ju sti ce ;
( ii) th e p er for ma nc e of fu nc tion s and the i mp le me nt at ion of
s ch e me s a s ma y be ent rus ted to the m in clud ing thos e in re la tion to
th e ma tt er s li st ed in th e Twel fth S chedu le ;
( b) th e Co mmi tt e es wit h su ch po wer s and au thori t y a s ma y be
n ec es s ar y to en abl e th e m to c ar r y out the re spons ibi lit ie s c on fe rr e d upon
th e m in clud ing tho se in r el at ion to the ma t te rs lis te d in the Twe l fth
S che dule .
243X. P ow er t o i mpos e t ax e s by, and F unds of , t he M unic i pal it ie s. —
The Le gi sl at ur e of a St at e ma y, b y la w, —
( a) au thori se a Munic ipa lit y to le v y, c oll ec t a nd app ropri at e such
t axe s, dutie s, toll s a nd fe es in a c co rdan ce wi th su ch pro ce dur e a nd
sub je ct to su ch li mi ts ;
100 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

( b) as si gn to a
Muni cip al it y such
t axe s, duti es , toll s and fe es le vi ed and co ll ec te d b y the St at e
Go ver n men t for suc h purpo se s and sub je ct to suc h c ondit ions and li mit s;
( c ) pro vid e for ma ki ng suc h gr a nt s- in- aid to th e Muni cip al iti es fr o m
th e Conso lida te d Fund o f the St at e; and
( d) provide for cons ti tution of suc h Fund s fo r cr ed itin g a ll mon e ys
r ec e ive d, re sp ec ti ve l y, b y or on beh al f of th e Munic ipa li tie s and a lso for
th e withd ra wa l o f su ch mo ne ys th er e fro m,
a s ma y be sp ec i fi e d in the l a w.
243Y. Fi nanc e C o mmi s s i on. — (1 ) The Finan ce Co mmi ss ion con st itut ed
und er ar ti cl e 243-I sh al l a ls o r e vi e w the fin an ci al posi tion of the
Muni cip al iti es and ma ke r ec o mme nd at ions to the Go ve rno r as to —
( a) the prin cip le s wh i ch should gover n—
( i) the di st ribut ion be t we e n the Sta te and th e Muni cip al iti es o f
th e ne t proc e ed s o f th e t axe s, dutie s, toll s and fe es l evia bl e b y th e
St at e, wh ic h ma y be di vid ed b et we en th e m unde r thi s P art and th e
a llo ca tion be t wee n the Munic ip ali ti es a t al l l eve ls o f th ei r
r es pe ct ive s ha re s of suc h pro ce e ds ;
( ii) the d ete r min at ion o f th e t axe s, dutie s, toll s and fe es whi ch
ma y b e a ss i gn ed to, or a pprop ria te d b y, th e Munic ipa lit ie s;
( iii ) th e gr a nts - in-a id to th e Muni cip al iti es fr o m the
Con sol ida ted Fund of th e Sta te ;
( b) th e me a su re s nee ded to i mp rove the fi na nc ia l pos ition of the
Muni cip al iti es ;
( c ) an y othe r mat t er r e fer r ed to th e Fina nc e Co mmi s sion b y the
Go ver nor in the int er es ts o f sound fin an ce o f th e Munic ipa lit ie s.
(2) The Go ve rno r sh al l c au se eve r y re co m men da tion ma d e b y th e
Co m mis s ion under thi s ar ti cl e toget he r wit h a n e xpla na tor y me mor andu m
a s to the ac ti on t ake n th er eon to be laid be for e the Le gis la tu re o f th e St at e.
243Z. A udit of ac c ounts of M unic i pal it ie s. — Th e Le gi sl at ur e o f a Sta te
ma y, b y l a w, ma ke pro vi sion s wit h r es pe ct to th e ma i nt ena nc e of ac coun ts
b y the Muni cip al iti es a nd th e audi ting of s uch a cc o unt s.
243ZA. El ec ti ons to t he M unic i pal it ie s. —(1 ) Th e supe rin tend en ce ,
di re ct ion and cont rol o f th e pr ep ar at ion of e le ct or al ro ll s for, and the
c onduc t o f, a ll e le ct ions to the Muni cip al iti es s ha ll be ves te d in th e S ta te
El ec ti on Co m mi ss ion re fe rr e d to in a rt ic le 243 K.
(2) Subje ct to the provis ions of thi s Con sti tution , the Le gi sl at ur e o f a
St at e m a y, b y l a w, ma ke pro vi si on wit h re sp ec t to all ma tt er s re la tin g to, or
in conn ec tion wi th, el ec ti ons to the Munic ip ali ti es .
243ZB . A ppl ic ati on t o U ni on te rr it ori e s. —The pro vi sion s o f this P art
sh al l app l y to th e Un ion te rr ito rie s and sh al l, in th ei r appl ic at ion to a
Un ion t er rito r y, have e ffe ct as i f the r e fer e nc es to th e Go ve rno r o f a St at e
101 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

we r e re fe re nc e s to th e
Ad mi nis tr at or o f the
Un ion te rri tor y appo int ed under a rt ic le 239 a nd r e fer e nc es to th e
Le gis la tu re or th e Le gis l at ive As s e mbl y o f a St at e we re re fe re nc e s in
r el at ion to a Union t er ri tor y havin g a Le gi sl a ti ve As s e mbl y, to th at
Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y:
P rovided th at the P re sid ent ma y, b y public not i fi ca ti on, dire ct that th e
pro vi si ons o f this P ar t s ha ll appl y to an y Un ion t er ri tor y or par t the reo f
sub je ct to su ch exc ep tions a nd mo di fic at ion s a s he ma y sp ec i fy in th e
noti fi ca tion .
243ZC. Par t not to apply to ce r t ai n are as. — (1 ) No thing in thi s P ar t
sh al l app l y to th e S chedu led Ar e a s re fe rr ed to in cl au se (1), and th e tr iba l
a re a s re fe rr e d to in cl aus e (2 ), of a rt ic le 244.
(2) Nothin g in this P art s ha ll be cons tru ed to affe c t the fun ct ions and
po wer s of the Da rj ee li ng Go r kh a H il l Counc il cons titu te d unde r an y l a w fo r
th e ti me be ing in for c e fo r th e hi ll ar ea s o f th e di st ri ct of Da rj ee lin g in the
St at e of We s t Ben gal .
(3) Not with st andin g an yth ing in thi s Con st itut ion, P arl ia me nt ma y, b y
l a w, e xt e nd the p rovis ions of thi s P ar t to the Sch edul ed Ar e as and the trib al
a re a s r e fer r ed to in cl aus e (1) s ubje ct to su ch e xce pt ions a nd mod i fi ca ti ons
a s ma y be sp ec i fi e d in su ch la w, and no su ch la w sh all be de e me d to be an
a me nd me nt of this Con sti tution for th e purpos es of a rt ic le 368.
243ZD. C o m mi tt e e f or di st ri ct pl anni ng. — (1) Th er e sh al l be
c ons titu ted in eve r y St at e at th e di st ri ct le vel a D is tr ic t P lann ing
Co m mit te e to con solid at e the pl ans pr ep ar ed b y th e P ancha yat s and th e
Muni cip al iti es in th e dist ri ct and to prep ar e a dr a ft d evel op men t pl an fo r
th e dist ri ct a s a wh ol e.
(2) The Le gis la tu re of a St at e m a y, b y l a w, ma ke pro vi si on wit h re sp ec t
to —
(a) th e co mp os ition o f the D is tr ic t P lann ing Co m mit te e s;
(b) th e man ne r in whi c h th e se at s in suc h Co m mit te e s sh all be fi ll ed:
P rovided tha t not le ss th an fo ur- fi fth s of th e tot al numbe r o f
me mbe r s o f suc h Co mmi tt ee sh al l be el ec te d b y, a nd fro m a mon gst , the
e le ct ed me mbe r s of the P anch a ya t at th e dist ri ct l evel a nd o f th e
Muni cip al iti es in th e di str ic t in propo rtion to the r at io be t wee n th e
popul at ion o f th e ru ra l ar ea s a nd o f th e urb an ar e as in th e dist ri ct ;
(c ) the fu nc tion s re la tin g to dis tri ct plann ing whi ch m a y be a s si gn ed
to su ch Co mmi tt ee s;
(d) the ma nn er in whi ch the Ch ai rpe rs ons of su ch Co mmi tt e es sh al l
b e c hos en.
(3) Ever y D is tri ct Pl anning Co m mit te e sha ll, in prep ar in g th e dr a ft
d evel op men t pl an, —
(a ) ha ve re gar d to —
102 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(i ) ma tt er s
of co mmon
int er e st bet we en the P ancha yat s and th e Muni cip al iti es inc ludin g
sp at ia l p lann ing, sha rin g o f wa te r and oth er ph ysi c al and na tur al
r es our ce s, the inte gra te d de vel op ment of in fr a st ru ctu re and
e nviron me nt al con se r vat ion;
(i i) the exte nt and t ype o f a vai la bl e r esou rc e s wh et he r fin an ci al
or oth er wis e ;
(b) c onsu lt suc h in sti tution s and organ is at ions a s the Go ver nor ma y,
b y orde r, sp ec i fy.
(4) Th e Ch ai rpe rs on o f e ver y D is tr ic t Plann ing Co mmi tt ee s ha ll fo r wa rd
th e de velop me nt plan, as re co m men de d b y suc h Co mmi tt e e, to the
Go ver n men t o f th e S ta te .
243ZE. Co m mi t t ee f or M etropol it an pl anni ng. — (1) The r e sh al l be
c ons titu ted in ev e r y Met ropoli ta n ar e a a Me tropol it an P lannin g Co m mit te e
to pre pa re a dr a ft deve lop me nt plan for th e Met ropol ita n a re a a s a who le .
(2) The Le gis la tu re of a St at e m a y, b y l a w, ma ke pro vi si on wit h re sp ec t
to —
(a) th e co mp os ition o f the M etropo lit an P lannin g Co mmi tt e es ;
(b) th e man ne r in whi c h th e se at s in suc h Co m mit te e s sh all be fi ll ed:
P rovid ed tha t not l es s than t wo- third s of th e me mb er s o f su ch Co mmi tt ee
sh al l be el ec te d b y, a nd fro m a mo ngst , th e el ec t ed me mbe r s o f the
Muni cip al iti es and Cha irp er son s of th e P ancha yat s in the M etropo lit an ar e a
in propor tion to th e ra tio bet we e n th e popula tion of th e Munic ipa li tie s and
o f th e P an cha yat s in tha t a re a ;
( c ) th e re pr es en ta tion in s uch Co mmi tt ee s of the Go ve rn me nt o f
Ind ia and th e Go ve rn me nt of the Sta te and o f such organi sa ti ons a nd
In st itut ions as ma y be dee med nec es s ar y for c ar r yi ng out the fu nc tion s
a ss i gn ed to su ch Co mmi tt e es ;
(d) th e fun ct ions r el at ing to pl anning and coord ina tion fo r th e
M et ropoli tan a re a whi ch ma y be a ss igne d to su ch Co mmi tt ee s ;
( e ) th e man ne r in wh ic h th e Cha irp er son s o f such Co mmi tt ee s sha ll
b e c hos en.
(3) E ve r y Me tropol it an P lannin g Co m mit te e sh all , in pr epa rin g the dr a ft
d evel op men t pl an, —
(a) ha ve re gar d to—
( i) the pl ans pre pa re d b y the Munic ipa lit ie s a nd the P anch a ya ts
in the M etropo lit an ar e a;
( ii) mat t er s o f co mmo n int er es t b et we en th e Muni cip al iti es and
th e P ancha yat s , includ ing co- ordin at ed sp at ia l pl annin g o f the
a re a , sha rin g o f wa te r and oth er ph ysi c al and na tur al r esou rc e s, th e
int e gr at e d de ve lop me nt o f infr as tr uc tur e and envir on men ta l
c ons er vat ion;
103 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(ii i) th e
o ve ra ll
obj ec ti ve s and pr ior iti es se t b y th e Go ver n ment of Indi a a nd the
Go ver n men t o f th e S ta te ;
( iv ) th e e xt en t and n atur e o f inves t me nt s li ke l y to be ma d e in
the M etropo lit an ar e a b y a gen ci es of th e Go ve rn me nt of Ind ia a nd
of th e Go ve rn me nt o f the Sta te and oth er ava il abl e r es our ce s
wh e th er fin an ci al or othe r wi s e;
(b) con sul t s uch in sti tution s and organi sa tion s as the Go ve rno r ma y,
b y orde r, sp ec i fy.
(4) Th e Cha irp er son of e ve r y Met ropol ita n P lannin g Co m mit te e sha ll
for wa r d the de ve lop me nt pl an, a s re co m mend ed b y s uch Co mmi tt ee , to th e
Go ver n men t o f th e S ta te .
243ZF. Cont i nuanc e of ex i st ing l aw s and M uni ci pali ti es .—
No t wi th st andin g a n yth ing in thi s P art , an y pro vi si on o f a n y la w r el at ing to
Muni cip al iti es in for c e in a Sta te i m med ia te l y be for e the co m men c e men t of
th e Cons titu tion (Se ven t y- fo ur th A me nd me nt ) Ac t, 1992, whi ch is
in cons is te nt wi th th e pro vi sion s o f this P art, sha ll c ontinu e to b e in fo r ce
unti l a me nde d or r epe al ed b y a co mpe t ent Le gi sl at ur e or oth er co mp e te nt
a uthor it y or until th e e xpir at ion o f on e ye a r fro m su ch c o mme nc e me nt ,
whi c he ver i s ea rl ie r:
P rovided th at al l th e Munic ipa li tie s e xi st in g i mme di at el y b e fo re su ch
c o mme nc e me nt sh al l c ontinu e til l the e xpir at ion of th ei r dur at ion, unle ss
soon er dis sol ved b y a re so lution pas se d to th at e ffe c t b y th e Le gis la ti ve
As s e mbl y o f th at Sta te or, in th e c as e of a Sta te havin g a Le gis la ti ve
Coun ci l, b y e ac h Hous e of the Le gis la tu re o f tha t S ta te .
243 ZG. B ar t o i nt e rf ere nc e by cour ts in el ec t or al mat t er s .—
No t wi th st andin g an yt hin g in th is Con st itut ion,—
( a) th e val idit y of an y la w r el at ing to th e de li mit at ion o f
c ons titu enc ie s or the al lot me nt o f s e at s to s uch cons ti tuen ci es , ma d e or
purpo rtin g to be mad e und er ar ti cl e 243Z A sh al l not be ca ll ed in
qu es tion in an y c ourt ;
( b) no el ec ti on to an y Munic ipa lit y sha ll be c al le d in que stion
e xc ept b y an el ec tion pe tit ion pr es e nte d to su ch autho rit y a nd in su ch
ma nn er as i s provid ed for b y or unde r an y la w ma d e b y th e Le gis la tu re
o f a St at e.
104 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART X
THE SCHEDULED AND TRIBAL AREAS
244. A d mi ni s tr ati on of S c he dul e d A re as and tr i bal are as .— (1) Th e
pro vi si ons of the Fi ft h Sch edul e s ha ll app l y to th e ad mi nis tr at ion and
c ontro l o f th e Sch edul ed Ar e a s and S chedu led Tri be s in an y Sta te oth er
th an the St at es o f As s a m, Me gh al a ya , Tri pur a and Miz or a m.
(2) Th e provis ion s o f th e Si xt h Sch edul e s ha ll app l y to th e
a d mi ni st ra tion o f th e trib al a re a s in the Sta te s o f As s a m, Me gh al a ya ,
Tr ipu ra a nd Mi zo ra m.
244A . F or mat ion of an aut ono mo us S tate co mpr is i ng c er t ai n tr i bal
are as in A ss a m and c re at i on of l oc al L egi sl at ure or Counc il of M inis te r s
or bot h t heref or.— (1 ) Not with st andin g an yt hin g in this Con st itut ion,
P ar lia men t ma y, b y l a w, fo r m wit hin the St at e of As s a m an au tono mou s
St at e co mpr is ing ( wh eth er wh oll y or in p ar t) al l or an y o f th e t rib al ar e as
sp ec i fie d in P ar t I o f the t abl e appe nded to par a gr aph 20 o f th e S ixth
S che dule a nd c re a te th er e fo r—
( a) a bod y, whe th er el ec te d or p art l y no mi na te d and p art l y e le ct ed ,
to fu nc tion a s a Le gi sl at ur e fo r the a utono mo us St at e, or
(b) a Coun cil o f Mini st er s,
or both with su ch con sti tution , po wer s a nd fun ct ions , in ea c h c a se , as ma y
b e sp ec i fie d in th e la w.
(2 ) An y su ch la w as is re fe rr e d to in c la us e (1) ma y, in pa rt icu la r, —
( a) sp ec i fy the ma tt er s enu me ra te d in th e St at e Li st or the
Con cu rr ent Li st wit h re sp ec t to wh ic h the Le gi sl at ur e o f the a utono mo us
St at e s ha ll h ave power to ma ke l a ws fo r th e who le or an y par t the re o f,
wh et he r to th e e xcl us ion of th e Le gi sl at ur e of th e Sta te o f As s a m or
oth er wi se ;
( b) de fin e th e ma tt er s wit h re sp ec t to wh ic h th e e xe c uti ve po wer of
th e autono mou s S ta te sh al l e xte nd;
( c ) pro vid e th at an y t ax l evie d b y the Sta te of As s a m sh al l be
a ss i gn ed to th e autono mou s S ta te in so far as th e proc ee ds th er eo f a re
a tt ribut abl e to the autono mou s Sta te ;
( d) pro vid e th at an y r e fer en ce to a Sta te in an y ar ti cl e o f th is
Con st itut ion s ha ll be cons tru ed as inc luding a re fe re nc e to the
a utono mo us St at e; and
(e ) ma ke suc h supp le me nt al , incid en ta l a nd c ons equ enti al
pro vi si ons a s ma y be dee med ne ce s sa r y.
105 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(3 ) An a me nd men t
o f an y su ch la w as
a for es a id in s o fa r a s su ch a mend me nt r el at es to an y o f the ma t te rs
sp ec i fie d in sub -c la us e ( a) or sub- cl au se ( b) of c la us e (2) sh al l h ave no
e ffe c t unl es s th e a me nd me nt i s pa ss ed in ea ch Hous e of P arli a me nt b y not
l es s tha n t wo- third s of the me mb e rs pre se nt and vo ting.
104
(4 ) An y su ch la w as is re fe rr e d to in th is a rti cl e sh al l not be de e med to
b e an a me nd me nt o f this Cons titu tion for the purpos es o f a rt ic le 368
not with st and ing th at it cont ai ns an y pro vi sion whi ch a me nd s or ha s the
e ffe c t of a mend ing th is Con sti tution .
106 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PA RT XI
RE LATI ON S BE TWEE N THE U NI ON AN D TH E S TATES
C H A P T E R I.— L E G I S L AT I V E R E L AT I O N S
D is tr ibution of Leg is lati ve Powe rs
245. Ex t ent of law s made by Parl ia me nt and by t he L egi sl at ures of
S tate s. — (1) Subj ec t to th e provis ions o f thi s Cons titu tion, P arl ia me nt ma y
ma ke l a ws fo r th e who le or an y par t of th e te rr ito r y o f Ind ia , and th e
Le gis la tu re o f a St at e ma y ma ke l a ws fo r th e wh ol e or a n y p ar t o f th e St at e.
(2) No la w ma d e b y P ar lia me nt sha ll be de e med to be inval id on the
ground th at it wo uld ha ve extr a- t er ri tor ia l op er at ion.
246. Subj ec t- mat t e r of l aw s ma de by P ar li a me nt and by t he
L egi sl at ures of S tate s .— (1 ) No t wi ths ta nding an yt hin g in cl aus e s (2 ) and
(3 ), P arli a me nt h a s exc lus ive po wer to ma ke la ws wi th re sp ec t to an y of th e
ma t te rs enu me ra te d in Li st I in th e Se venth S chedu le ( in thi s Cons ti tution
r e fer r ed to a s th e “ Un ion Li st ”) .
(2 ) No t wi th st andin g an yt hin g in c la us e (3) , P ar li a men t, and, subj ec t to
c la us e (1) , th e Le gi sl at ur e of a n y Sta te a lso , h ave po wer to ma ke la ws wi th
r es pe ct to an y o f the ma t te rs enu mer a te d in Lis t II I in th e Se ve nth Sch edu le
( in th is Cons ti tution r e fer re d to a s the “ Conc ur ren t Li st ”) .
(3) Subj ec t to c la us es (1 ) and (2 ), th e Le gis la tu re of an y Sta te ha s
e xcl us ive po wer to ma ke l a ws for s uch St at e or a n y par t th er eo f with
r es pe ct to an y of the ma tt er s enu mer a te d in Lis t I I in th e S even th Sch edu le
( in th is Cons ti tution r e fer re d to a s the “ St at e Li st ” ' ).
(4 ) P ar lia men t h as po we r to ma ke l a ws wi th re sp ec t to an y ma t te r for
a n y pa rt o f the t er ri tor y of India not inc lude d in a S ta te not wi ths ta nding
th at su ch ma tt er i s a ma tt er e nu mer at e d in the St at e Lis t.
247. P ow er of P arl ia me nt to provi de for t he es t abl is h me nt of c er t ai n
addi ti onal c ourt s. —No t wi th st andin g an yt hin g in th is Cha pt er, P ar lia men t
ma y b y la w provid e fo r the e st abl ish me nt o f an y add ition al cou rt s fo r the
b ett er ad mini st ra tion of la ws ma de b y P arl ia me nt or of an y e xi st ing la ws
wi th re sp ec t to a m at te r enu me r at ed in the Un ion Li st .
248. Re si duar y pow e rs of l egi sl at i on. — (1 ) P arl ia me nt has e xc lu si ve
po wer to ma ke an y la w wit h r es pe ct to an y ma t te r not e nu mer a te d in the
Con cu rr ent Lis t or Sta te Li st .
(2) Su ch po wer s ha ll inc lude th e power of m a ki ng an y la w i mpo sin g a
t ax not me nt ione d in e ithe r of thos e Li s ts .
249. Pow er of Par li a me nt to l egi sl at e w it h res pe ct to a mat t er in t he
S tate Lis t in the nat ional i nt e re st . — (1) No t wi ths ta nding an yth ing in th e

106
107 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

for e going pro vi sion s o f


thi s Ch apt er, i f the
Coun ci l of St at es ha s de cl ar e d b y re solu tion s upport ed b y not l es s than
t wo- third s of the me mb e rs pre se nt and vo ting tha t i t i s nec es s ar y or
e xped ien t in th e nat iona l int er es t that P arli a men t shou ld ma ke l a ws wi th
r es pe ct to an y mat t er enu me ra te d in th e St at e Li st spe ci fi ed in the
r es olut ion, it sha ll b e la w fu l for P arl ia me nt to ma ke la ws fo r the wh ol e or
a n y pa rt o f the t er ri tor y of Indi a wi th r es pe ct to tha t ma tt er whi le th e
r es olut ion r e ma in s in for c e.
(2) A re solu tion pa ss ed unde r c la us e (1) sh al l r e ma in in for c e for s uch
p eriod not exc e ed ing on e ye ar as ma y b e s pe ci fie d the re in:
P rovid ed tha t, i f and so ofte n as a r es olut ion a ppro vi ng th e cont inuan ce
in fo r ce of a n y such r es olut ion i s pas se d in th e man ne r provid ed in c lau se
(1 ), suc h r es olu tion sha ll con tinue in fo r ce fo r a fu rt he r pe riod of on e ye a r
fr o m th e dat e on whi ch unde r this c lau se it wo uld othe r wi s e ha ve ce a se d to
b e in fo r ce .
(3) A la w mad e b y P arli a men t wh ic h P arli a men t wo uld not but for th e
p as sin g o f a r es olut ion unde r cl au se (1) have be en co mpe t ent to ma ke sha ll ,
to th e e xt e nt o f th e in co mp et en c y, c ea s e to have e ffe ct on the e xpir at ion o f
a p eriod o f si x mon ths a ft er th e re solu tion ha s c e as e d to be in fo rc e , exc ep t
a s r es pe ct s things done or o mit te d to be don e be for e th e e xp ir ation of the
s ai d p eriod .
250. P ow er of P arl ia me nt to leg is late w it h re s pe c t to any mat t er in
t he Stat e L is t if a P rocl a mati on of E me r ge nc y is in ope r at ion.— (1)
No t wi th st andin g a n yth ing in thi s Cha pt er, P arli a me nt s ha ll, wh il e a
P roc la ma ti on of E me rgen c y is in op er at ion, ha ve po wer to ma ke l a ws for
th e wh ol e or a n y par t o f th e t er ri tor y o f Indi a wit h r es pe ct to an y o f the
ma t te rs enu me ra te d in th e Sta te Li st .
(2) A la w mad e b y P arli a men t wh ic h P arli a men t wo uld not but for th e
i ssu e o f a P roc la ma ti on of E mergen c y have be en co mpe te nt to ma ke sha ll ,
to th e e xt e nt o f th e in co mp et en c y, c ea s e to have e ffe ct on the e xpir at ion o f
a pe riod o f s ix mon ths a ft e r th e P rocl a ma tion has ce a s ed to op er at e, e xc ep t
a s r es pe ct s things done or o mit te d to be don e be for e th e e xp ir ation of the
s ai d p eriod .
251. I nc ons is t e ncy be tw ee n l aw s ma de by P ar li a me nt unde r art ic le s
249 and 250 and l aw s ma de by t he Leg is lat ure s of St at e s. — No thin g in
a rt ic le s 249 and 250 s ha ll re st ri ct th e power of th e Le gi sl at ur e of a Sta te to
ma ke a n y l a w wh ic h unde r thi s Con sti tution it ha s po wer to ma ke , but i f
a n y provis ion of a l a w mad e b y the Le gi sl at ur e o f a Sta te i s re pugnan t to
a n y provis ion of a l a w mad e b y P arli a me nt wh ic h P arl ia me nt h as under
e ith er o f the s ai d a rt ic le s po we r to ma ke, the la w mad e b y P arl ia me nt,
wh et he r pas se d be fo re or a fte r th e la w mad e b y the Le gi sl a tur e of the St at e,
sh al l pr eva il , and th e l a w mad e b y the Le gi sl atu re of th e St at e sh al l to th e
e xte nt o f th e r epu gn anc y, but s o long onl y a s th e l a w mad e b y P arli a men t
c ontinu es to ha ve e ffe ct , b e inop er at ive .
108 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

252. P ow er of
P ar li a me nt to
l egi sl at e f or tw o or more St at e s by c ons e nt and adopt i on of s uc h
l egi sl at i on by any ot her St at e .— (1) I f it app ea r s to th e Le gi sl at ur es o f
t wo or mo re Sta te s to be des ir abl e tha t an y of th e ma tt er s wi th re sp ec t to
whi c h P ar lia men t h as no po wer to ma ke la ws for the Sta te s e xce pt a s
pro vi ded in ar ti cl es 249 and 250 should be r egul at ed in s uch Sta te s b y
P ar lia men t b y la w, and i f r es olut ions to tha t e ffe c t ar e pa ss ed b y al l th e
Hou se s o f th e Le gis l atu re s o f thos e Sta te s, i t sh al l be la wful for P arli a men t
to pa ss an a ct for re gu la tin g tha t m at te r a cc ord ingl y, a nd a n y Ac t s o p as se d
sh al l appl y to suc h St at es and to a n y oth er St at e b y wh ic h i t i s adopt ed
a ft er wa r ds b y r es olut ion pa ss ed in tha t beh al f b y the Hous e or, whe r e th er e
a re t wo Hous e s, b y e a ch of the Hou se s o f the Le gis la tu re o f tha t Sta te .
(2) An y Ac t so pas s ed b y P ar lia me nt ma y b e a men ded or re pe al ed b y a n
Ac t of P arl ia me nt pas se d or a dopt ed in li ke ma nn er but sh al l not, a s
r es pe ct s an y St at e to wh ic h i t a ppli es , be a mend ed or rep ea l ed b y an Ac t o f
th e Le gi sl at ur e o f th at St at e.
253. Le gis lati on f or givi ng ef fe ct t o i nt e r nati onal agree me nts .—
No t wi th st andin g a n yth ing in the fo re goin g provis ions of thi s Ch apt er,
P ar lia men t ha s po we r to ma ke an y la w for the wh ol e or a n y pa rt o f the
t er ri tor y o f Indi a for i mp le me nt ing an y tr ea t y, agr ee men t or c onven tion
wi th a n y oth er c ountr y or coun tr ie s or a n y de ci sion mad e at an y
int er na tion al con fer e nc e, a ss oc ia tion or othe r bod y.
254. I nc ons is t e ncy be tw ee n l aw s ma de by P ar li a me nt and l aw s made
by t he Leg is lat ure s of Stat es .— (1) I f a n y provis ion of a l a w mad e b y the
Le gis la tu re o f a St at e is re pugnan t to an y pro vi si on o f a l a w ma de b y
P ar lia men t wh ic h P ar li a men t i s co mp e te nt to e na ct , or to an y provis ion of
a n e xi st ing la w wi th re spe ct to one of the ma tt er s enu mer a te d in th e
Con cu rr ent Lis t, th en, subj ec t to th e provis ions o f c lau se (2), th e l a w ma d e
b y P arli a men t, whe th er p as se d b e fo re or a ft e r the l a w ma d e b y th e
Le gis la tu re o f su ch Sta te , or, as th e ca s e ma y be, th e e xis tin g l a w, s ha ll
pr e va il and th e la w mad e b y the Le gi sl a tur e of the St at e sha ll, to the e xt en t
o f th e r epu gn anc y, be vo id.
(2) Wh er e a l a w ma d e b y th e Le gi sl at ur e of a St at e wit h re spe ct to one o f
th e ma t te rs enu me r at ed in the Con cu rr ent Li st cont ai ns a n y pro vi sion
r epu gn ant to th e provis ion s of a n e ar li er l a w m ad e b y P ar li a men t or a n
e xis tin g l a w wit h r esp ec t to tha t ma tt er, th en, th e l a w so ma de b y th e
Le gis la tu re o f su ch Sta te s ha ll, i f it ha s bee n r es e r ve d fo r the con sid er at ion
o f th e P re sid ent and ha s re c ei ved his a ss e nt, pre vai l in th at St at e:
P rovid ed th at nothing in thi s c lau se sh al l pre ven t P arl ia me nt fro m
e na ct ing a t an y ti me a n y la w with r es pe ct to the s a me ma t te r in cludin g a
l a w a dding to, a mend ing, va r yi ng or r ep ea lin g th e l a w s o ma d e b y th e
Le gis la tu re o f th e St at e.
255. R e quire me nt s as t o re c o mme ndat i ons and pre vious sanc ti ons t o
be regar de d as mat t e r s of proc e dure only. —No Act o f P ar lia men t or o f
th e Le gis la tu re of a St at e, and no pro vi sion in an y s uch Ac t , sh al l be
109 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

in va li d b y re as on onl y
th at s o me
r ec o mme nd at ion or pr eviou s sa nc tion requ ir ed b y thi s Cons titu tion wa s not
gi ve n, i f as s en t to tha t Ac t wa s gi ven —
( a) whe r e th e r ec o mme nd at ion re quir ed wa s th at o f the Go ver nor,
e ith er b y the Go ve rno r or b y the P re sid ent ;
( b) whe r e th e r ec o mme nd at ion re quir ed wa s th at o f the Ra jpr a mu kh,
e ith er b y the Ra jpr a mu kh or b y the P re sid ent ;
( c ) wh er e th e re co m men da tion or pre vi ous s an ction r equi re d wa s tha t
o f th e P re sid ent , b y the P re sid ent .
C H A P T E R II. — A D M I N I S T R AT I V E R E L AT I O N S
G en er al
256. O bli gati on of St at e s and t he Uni on. —The exe cu ti ve power of
e ver y St at e s ha ll be so e xer ci s ed a s to ens ur e co mpl ia nc e wi th th e l a ws
ma d e b y P ar lia men t and a n y e xi st ing l a ws wh ic h appl y in tha t St at e, and
th e e xec ut ive power o f th e Un ion sh al l e xt end to the gi vi ng of su ch
di re ct ions to a St at e a s ma y app ea r to the Go ver n men t o f Ind ia to be
n ec es s ar y fo r tha t purpo se .
257. Cont rol of t he U nion ove r S tate s in c er t ai n c ase s .— (1) The
e xe cut ive powe r o f eve r y Sta te sha ll be so e xer c is ed as not to i mped e or
pr ejud ic e the e xer ci s e of the e xec uti ve po we r o f the Un ion, and the
e xe cut ive po wer o f th e U nion sha ll e xt end to the givin g of suc h di re ct ions
to a Sta te as ma y app ea r to the Go ver n ment o f Indi a to b e n ec es s ar y fo r
th at purpos e.
(2) Th e e xec uti ve po we r o f the Un ion s ha ll al so e xt end to th e gi ving of
di re ct ions to a Sta te a s to the con st ruc tion and ma in ten an ce o f me a ns o f
c o mmun ic at ion d ec la re d in th e di re ct ion to b e o f na tiona l or mil it ar y
i mpor ta nc e:
P rovid ed tha t nothing in thi s cl aus e sh al l b e t a ke n as r es tr ic tin g the
po wer of P ar lia me nt to de cl ar e hi gh wa ys or wa t er wa ys to be nat iona l
hi gh wa ys or nat iona l wat e r wa ys or the po wer o f th e U nion wit h r es pe ct to
th e high wa ys or wa t er wa ys so dec la re d or th e powe r of the Un ion to
c ons tru ct a nd ma in ta in me a ns of co m mu ni ca tion as pa rt o f i ts fun ct ions
wi th re sp ec t to n aval , mil it ar y and ai r for c e wor ks .
(3) Th e e xec uti ve po we r o f the Un ion s ha ll al so e xt end to th e gi ving of
di re ct ions to a St at e a s to the me a su re s to b e ta ken for th e prot ec tion of the
r ai l wa ys wit hin the St at e.
(4) Whe re in c ar r yi ng out an y dir ec tion gi ven to a St at e unde r c lau se (2 )
a s to the c ons tru ct ion or ma in te nan ce o f a n y me a ns of co m mu ni ca tion or
und er cl au se (3 ) as to the me a s ur es to be ta ken fo r th e prote ct ion of an y
r ai l wa y, co st s ha ve b een incu rr ed in e xc es s of thos e wh ic h would have be en
in cur re d in the di sc harge of the nor ma l dutie s o f the St at e i f su ch dire ct ion
h ad not be en give n, th er e sh al l be paid b y th e Go ver n men t of Indi a to th e
110 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Sta te su ch su m a s ma y
be a gr e ed, or, in
d e fa ult of a gr e e me nt, as ma y b e det er mi ne d b y an a rbi tr ato r appo inte d b y
th e Chie f Ju sti ce of Ind ia , in r es pe ct o f the e xt r a co st s s o in cur re d b y the
St at e.
257A. [ As si stan ce to Stat es by d eplo ym en t of ar med force s or oth er
fo rc e s of the U nion. ] Rep . by th e Con st itut ion (Fo rt y- four th Am endm en t)
A ct, 1978, s. 33 (w.e .f . 20-6- 1979).
258. Pow er of t he U nion t o conf er pow e rs , e tc ., on S tate s in c er t ai n
c ase s .— (1) No t wi ths ta nding an yth ing in thi s Cons titu tion, th e P re sid ent
ma y, wi th th e con se nt o f the Go ver n men t o f a Sta te , en tru st eith er
c ondit iona ll y or uncondi tiona ll y to tha t Go ve rn me nt or to it s offi ce r s
fun ct ions in re la tion to an y ma tt er to whi ch th e e xe cut ive po wer o f th e
Un ion exte nds .
(2) A la w ma de b y P arl ia me nt wh ic h app li es in an y Sta te ma y,
not with st and ing th at it re la te s to a ma tt er with r es pe ct to wh ic h the
Le gis la tu re of th e Sta te ha s no po we r to ma ke la ws , con fe r po wer s and
i mpos e duti es , or a utho ris e th e c on fe rr in g of powe rs and the i mp os ition of
duti es , upon th e S ta te or offi ce r s and autho ri tie s th er eo f.
(3) Wh er e b y vi rtu e of this a rt ic le po wer s and duti es h ave be en con fer r ed
or i mpos ed upon a St at e or offic e rs or au thor iti es th er eo f, the re s ha ll be
p aid b y th e Go ver n men t o f Ind ia to the St at e suc h su m a s ma y be agr ee d,
or, in de fau lt o f agr ee men t, a s ma y be d ete r min ed b y a n ar bit ra tor
a ppoint ed b y th e Ch ie f Jus ti ce of Ind ia , in re sp ec t of an y e xt ra c os ts o f
a d mi ni st ra tion in cur re d b y the Sta te in conn ec tion wi th the e xer c is e of
tho se po wer s and duti es .
258A. P ow er of the St at e s t o e nt r ust f unct i ons t o t he U ni on. —
No t wi th st andin g an yt hin g in th is Cons ti tution , th e Go ve rno r o f a St at e ma y,
wi th th e con se nt o f the Go ver n men t o f Ind ia , en tru st e ith er condi tiona ll y or
un condit iona ll y to th at Go ve rn me nt or to its offic e rs fun ction s in r el at ion
to an y ma tt e r to wh ic h th e exe cu ti ve powe r of the Sta te exte nds .
259. [A rm ed Fo rc e s in State s in Part B of the Fir st Sch edul e. ] R ep. b y
th e Cons titu tion (S e ve nth Am endm en t) Act , 1956, s. 29 and Sch.
260. Juri s di c ti on of t he U ni on in rel at ion t o te rr it ori e s out si de I ndi a.
— Th e Go ve rn me nt o f Ind ia ma y b y a gr e e me nt with the Go ver n men t o f a n y
t er ri tor y not bein g p art of the te rr ito r y of Ind ia under ta ke a n y e xec uti ve,
l egis la ti ve or judic ia l fu nc tion s ve s te d in th e Go ver n men t o f su ch te rr ito r y,
but e ve r y su ch a gr e e me nt sh all be sub je ct to, and gover ne d b y, an y l a w
r el at ing to th e e xer c is e o f fo r ei gn ju ris dic tion for th e ti me be ing in for c e.
261. P ubl i c act s, rec or ds and j udi ci al proc e e di ngs .— (1 ) Full fai th and
c re dit sha ll be give n throu ghou t the te rr itor y of Indi a to publ ic ac ts ,
r ec ord s and judic ia l proc ee din gs of th e Union and o f e ve r y St at e.
(2) The ma nn er in wh ic h and the condit ions under wh ic h th e a ct s,
r ec ord s and proc ee din gs re fe rr ed to in c la us e (1) sh al l b e pro ved and the
e ffe c t the re o f det er mi ne d s ha ll be as pro vi ded b y la w mad e b y P arli a men t.
111 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(3 ) Fin al jud gme nt s


or ord er s de li ve r ed or
p as se d b y ci vi l c ourt s in a n y pa rt o f the t er ri tor y of Indi a sh al l be ca pab le
o f e xec ution an ywh er e wi thin tha t te rr itor y a c co rding to l a w.

D ispu te s rela ting to Wat er s


262. A dj udi c ati on of dis put e s rel at i ng to w at er s of i nt e r- S tate ri ve r s
or ri ver vall ey s. —(1 ) P arli a men t ma y b y l a w pro vid e fo r th e a djudi ca tion
o f an y di sput e or c o mp la int wi th r es pe ct to th e us e, di st ribut ion or con tro l
o f th e wa t er s o f, or in, an y int er- St at e rive r or ri ve r val le y.
(2) No t wi ths ta nding an yth ing in thi s Cons titu tion, P arl ia me nt ma y be
l a w pro vi de th at nei the r the Supr e me Cou rt nor an y othe r cour t sha ll
e xer c is e juri sdi ct ion in re sp ec t o f an y su ch di sput e or co mp la int as is
r e fer r ed to in cl au se (1 ).
Co- ord ination be tw ee n Stat es
263. Provi si ons w it h res pe ct to an i nt e r- S tate C ounci l. — I f at a n y ti me
it appe ar s to the P res ide nt th at th e publi c int er e st s wo uld be se r ve d b y the
e st ab lis h men t o f a Coun cil ch arged wit h th e dut y of—
(a) inqui rin g into and ad vi si ng upon dispu te s whi c h ma y h ave ar is en
b et we en Sta te s;
(b) inves ti gat ing and dis cus si ng sub je ct s in wh ic h so me or al l o f th e
St at es , or the Union and one or mor e o f th e Sta te s, ha ve a co m mo n
int er e st ; or
(c ) ma ki ng r ec o mme nd at ions upon an y su ch subj ec t and, in
p art icu la r, r ec o mme nda tion s fo r th e b ett er c o- ordina tion o f polic y and
a ct ion wit h r es pe ct to tha t subje ct ,
it sha ll be l a wfu l for th e P res ide nt b y ord er to es ta bli sh s uch a Coun cil ,
a nd to de fine the natu re of th e duti es to be p er for me d b y it a nd its
orga ni sa tion and proc edu re .
112 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PA RT XI I
F IN AN CE , P ROP ERTY, C ON TR AC TS AN D SU I TS
C H A P T E R I. —F I N A N C E
G en er al
264. I nt e r pre t at ion. —In thi s P art, “F ina nc e Co mmi s si on” me a ns a
Fin an ce Co m mi ss ion con sti tut ed under a rti cl e 280.
265. Tax e s not to be i mpos e d save by aut hori ty of l aw. — No t ax sh al l
b e l evie d or c oll ec te d exc ep t b y au thori t y of l a w.
266. C ons ol i dat e d Funds and pu bl ic ac c ount s of I ndi a and of t he
S tate s. — (1) Subje ct to the provis ions of a rti cl e 267 a nd to the provis ion s
o f this Chap te r wi th r es pe ct to the as si gn men t of th e whol e or par t of th e
n et proc ee ds o f c er ta in ta xes a nd dut ie s to St at es , al l re venu es r ec e ive d b y
th e Go ve rn me nt of Ind ia , all lo ans r ai se d b y tha t Go ver n men t b y th e i ss ue
o f tre a su r y bill s, loan s or wa ys a nd me an s adva nc es and all mon e ys
r ec e ive d b y tha t Go ver n men t in r epa yme nt o f lo ans sh al l fo r m one
c onso lida te d fund to be ent itl ed “ the Con sol ida ted Fund of Ind ia ”, a nd a ll
r e ve nue s re c ei ved b y th e Go ve rn me nt of a Sta te , all lo ans r ai se d b y tha t
Go ver n men t b y the is sue of tr ea s ur y bi lls , lo ans or wa ys and me a ns
a dvan ce s and a ll mon e ys re ce i ve d b y th at Go ve rn me nt in r ep a ymen t of
lo ans sh al l fo r m one cons olid at ed fu nd to be en tit le d “ the Con sol ida te d
Fund of the Sta te ” .
(2) Al l oth er public mon e ys r ec ei ved b y or on beha l f of the Go ve rn me nt
o f India or th e Go ve rn me nt of a St at e s ha ll b e cr ed ite d to th e publi c
a c count o f Indi a or th e public a c coun t o f th e St at e, a s the c as e m a y b e.
(3) No mon e ys out o f th e Con sol ida ted Fund of Indi a or the Con sol ida te d
Fund o f a St at e sh al l be approp ri at ed e xce pt in ac co rda nc e wi th l a w and for
th e purpos es a nd in th e ma nn er pro vi de d in thi s Con st itut ion.
267. C onti ng e nc y F und. — (1) P arl ia me nt ma y b y la w es ta bli sh a
Con tinge nc y Fund in the natu re of an i mp re st to be e nti tle d “t he
Con tinge nc y Fund of India ” in to wh ic h s ha ll be paid fr o m ti me to ti me
su ch s u ms a s ma y be det er mi ned b y s uch la w, and th e sa id Fund s ha ll be
pl ac ed at th e di spos al of th e P res ide nt to e nab le adva nc es to be mad e b y
hi m out o f su ch Fund for th e purpos es of me e t ing unfor es e en e xp enditu re
p ending autho ri sa tion of suc h e xpend itur e b y P ar li a men t b y la w unde r
a rt ic le 115 or ar tic le 116.
(2) Th e Le gis la tu re o f a Sta te m a y b y la w es ta bl ish a Cont ingen c y Fund
in the na tur e of an i mp re st to be ent itl ed “t he Cont ingen c y Fund of th e
St at e” into wh ic h sh al l be p aid fr o m ti me to ti me su ch su ms a s ma y be
d ete r min ed b y su ch l a w, a nd the sa id Fund sh al l be pl ac e d at the di spos al

112
113 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

of the Go ve rno r of th e
Sta te to en abl e
a dvan ce s to be mad e b y hi m out of such Fund fo r the purpo se s o f me e tin g
un fo re se e n e xp endi tur e pend ing au thori sa tion of su ch e xp endi tur e b y th e
Le gis la tu re o f th e St at e b y l a w und er ar ti cl e 205 or ar ti cl e 206.
D is tr ibution of Re ve nue s be tw ee n th e Union and th e State s
268. D ut ie s le vi e d by t he U nion but c ol le c te d and appropr i at e d by t he
S tate s. — (1) Su ch s ta mp duti es a nd s uch duti es o f e xci se on me di cin al a nd
toi le t prep ar at ion s a s a re me nt ion ed in th e Union Li s t sha ll be l evie d b y the
Go ver n men t o f Indi a but sha ll be col le ct ed —
(a) in the c as e wh er e su ch duti es a re le vi ab le wi thin an y Un ion
t er ri tor y, b y the Go ver n ment o f Indi a, and
(b) in othe r ca s es , b y th e Sta te s wit hin wh i ch suc h dut ie s ar e
r es pe ct ive l y le vi a ble .
(2) Th e pro ce ed s in a n y fi na nc ia l ye a r of an y suc h dut y l evia bl e wit hin
a n y S ta te sh al l not for m pa rt of the Con solid at ed Fund o f Ind ia , but sh all
b e a ss i gn ed to th at St at e.
269. Tax es l evie d and coll ec t e d by the U ni on but as si gne d to t he
S tate s. — (1) Ta xes on the sa le or pur ch as e o f good s and ta xe s on the
c ons ign ment of good s s ha ll be le vi ed and co ll ec te d b y the Go ve rn me nt o f
Ind ia but sha ll be a ss igne d a nd s ha ll be de e med to have b een a ss i gn ed to
th e Sta te s on or a fte r th e 1 st da y of Ap ri l, 1996 in the man ne r provid ed in
c la us e (2) .
Exp lanation .— For the purpo se s of this c la us e, -
( a) th e e xp re ss ion "ta xe s on th e s al e or purch as e of goods " sha ll
me a n ta xes on sa le or pur ch as e o f good s othe r than ne wsp ap er s, wh er e
su ch sa le or pur ch as e t ake s pla ce in th e cour se of int er-St at e tr ade or
c o mme r ce ;
( b) the e xp re ss ion "t a xes on the con si gn me nt o f good s " sh all me a n
t axe s on th e con si gn me nt of good s ( whe the r th e c ons ign ment is to the
p er son m a ki ng it or to an y oth er pe rson ), wh e re suc h c ons ign men t t ake s
pl ac e in the cou rs e of inte r- Sta te t rad e or co mme r c e.
(2) The ne t proc e ed s in an y fin anc ia l ye ar o f a n y su ch t ax, e xc ept in so
fa r as thos e pro ce e ds rep re s ent proc ee ds at tr ibuta ble to Un ion te rr ito rie s,
sh al l not for m p art o f the Con sol ida ted Fund of Ind ia , but sh al l b e a ss i gn ed
to the St at es with in wh ic h th at t ax i s le vi ab le in tha t ye a r, and sh al l b e
di st ribut ed a mo ng thos e Sta te s in ac co rda nc e wit h s uch prin cip le s of
di st ribut ion a s ma y be for mul at e d b y P arli a men t b y l a w.
(3) P arl ia me nt ma y b y la w fo r mu la t e prin cip le s fo r de te r mi nin g whe n a
s al e or purc ha se of, or cons ign men t o f, good s t ake s pl ac e in the cour se of
int er-St at e tr ade or co m me r ce .
270. Tax e s l evie d and di st ri but e d betw e e n the U ni on and t he Stat es .
— (1) All t a xe s and duti es re fe rr ed to in th e Union Li s t, e xc e pt the duti es
a nd t axe s r e fer re d to in ar ti cl es 268 and 269, r es pe ct ivel y, su rc harge on
114 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

ta xes and dutie s


re fe rr e d to in a rt ic le
271 and an y c es s le vi ed fo r s pe ci fi c purpo se s under an y l a w mad e b y
P ar lia men t s ha ll be le vi ed and co ll ec te d b y the Go ver n ment o f Indi a and
sh al l be dist ribu ted be t wee n the Union and th e Sta te s in th e man ne r
pro vi ded in cl au se (2 ).
(2) Su ch p er ce nta ge, a s ma y be pr es cr ib ed, of the net pro ce ed s of an y
su ch ta x or dut y in a n y fi na nc ia l ye a r sh al l not fo r m pa rt of the
Con sol ida ted Fund of Ind ia , but sh al l b e a s si gn ed to th e Sta te s wi thin
whi c h tha t ta x or dut y i s l evia bl e in th at ye ar, a nd sh al l be di st ribut ed
a mon g tho se St at es in su ch man ne r and fro m su ch ti me a s ma y be
pr es cr ib ed in th e man ne r provid ed in c la us e (3).
(3) In this a rt ic le , "p re sc ri bed " me a ns , —
( i) until a Fina nc e Co m mi ss ion h as b een cons ti tute d, pr es cr ib ed b y
th e Pr es iden t b y orde r, and
( ii) a ft er a Finan ce Co m mis s ion ha s b een cons titu te d, pr es cr ib ed b y
th e P re sid ent b y ord er a ft e r c ons ide rin g the r ec o mme nd at ions of the
Fin an ce Co m mi ss ion.
271. Surc har ge on ce r t ai n dut ie s and tax e s f or pur pos e s of the U ni on.
— Not wit hs tand ing an yt hin g in a rt ic le s 269 a nd 270, P arli a me nt ma y at an y
ti me in cr ea s e an y o f th e duti es or t axe s re fe rr ed to in thos e a rt ic le s b y a
su rc ha rge for pu rpo se s o f the Un ion and the whol e proc e ed s of a n y s uch
su rc ha rge sh al l for m par t o f th e Con sol ida te d Fund of India .
272. [Tax es wh ic h a re l ev ie d and col le ct ed by the Un ion and may b e
di st ribut ed be tw ee n th e Union and th e Sta te s.] —R ep. by th e Con st itut ion
(E ight ie th A mend me nt ) Ac t, 2000 , s .4.
273. Gr ant s in li e u of ex por t dut y on j ut e and j ut e product s .— (1 )
The r e s ha ll be cha rge d on the Con sol ida te d Fund of Indi a in ea ch ye a r a s
gr ant s- in- aid o f the r e ve nue s of the St at es o f As s a m, Bih ar, Or is sa a nd
We st B enga l, in l ieu of as si gn men t of an y sh ar e o f the n et pro ce ed s in e a ch
ye ar of e xpor t dut y on jut e and jute produ ct s to thos e Sta te s, su ch su ms a s
ma y b e pr es cr ib ed.
(2) The su ms so pr es c rib ed s ha ll con tinu e to be cha rge d on the
Con sol ida ted Fund of Ind ia so lon g as a n y expor t dut y on ju te or jute
produ ct s cont inue s to b e l e vi ed b y th e Go ve rn me nt of Ind ia or unti l th e
e xpir at ion o f t en ye ar s fro m th e co m men c e me nt o f this Cons titu tion
whi c he ver i s ea rl ie r.
(3) In this a rt ic le , the e xp re ss ion “p re s cr ibe d” ha s the s a me m e an ing a s
in ar ti cl e 270.
274. Pr ior rec o m me ndat ion of Pre si de nt re quire d to B ill s af f ec ti ng
t ax ati on i n w hic h S tate s are int eres t e d. — (1) No Bi ll or a mend me nt whi ch
i mpos e s or va ri e s a n y ta x or dut y in wh ic h Sta te s ar e in te re st ed , or whi ch
va ri es the me an in g of the e xp re ss ion “a gri cu ltu ra l in co me ” a s de fine d for
th e purpo se s o f the ena ct me nt s r el at ing to Ind ian inco me - ta x, or whi ch
a ffe c ts th e prin cip le s on whi ch unde r a n y of th e fo re goin g pro vi sion s of
115 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

this Cha pte r mo ne ys


ar e or ma y be
di st ribut abl e to S ta te s, or wh i ch i mpo se s a n y s uch su rc harge fo r th e
purpo se s of the Union a s is me nt ion ed in th e for e go ing provis ion s o f th is
Ch apt er, sh al l be in trodu ce d or mo ved in eith er Hou se of P arl ia me nt exc ep t
on the re co m men da tion of the P re sid ent.
(2) In this ar ti cl e, the e xpr es si on “t a x or dut y in whi ch Sta te s a re
int er e st ed ” me an s—
( a) a ta x or dut y the wh ol e or p ar t of th e net proc ee ds whe r eo f ar e
a ss i gn ed to a n y S ta te ; or
( b) a ta x or dut y b y re fe r en ce to the net proc ee ds wh e re o f su ms ar e
for the ti me b eing pa ya bl e out o f th e Con sol ida te d Fund of India to an y
St at e.
275. Gr ant s fro m t he U ni on to ce r t ai n St at e s. —(1 ) Su ch su ms as
P ar lia men t ma y b y la w provid e sha ll be ch arge d on the Con sol ida ted Fund
o f India in ea c h ye a r as gra nt s- in- aid o f the re venu es of su ch St at es as
P ar lia men t ma y d ete r min e to b e in ne ed o f as si st an ce , and diffe r en t su ms
ma y b e fi xed for di ffe re nt St at es :
P rovid ed th at the re sha ll b e pa id out of th e Cons olid at ed Fund o f India
a s gr a nt s- in- aid of the re venu es of a St at e su ch ca pit al and r ec ur rin g su ms
a s m a y be n ec es s ar y to e nab le tha t Sta te to me e t th e c os ts o f suc h sc he me s
o f de velop me nt a s ma y be under ta ken b y th e Sta te wi th th e a ppro va l of the
Go ver n men t o f Indi a fo r th e purpos e of pro mot ing the we l fa re of th e
S che dule d Tri be s in th at S ta te or ra is ing th e l evel of ad mi nis tr at ion o f th e
S che dule d Ar e a s the re in to th at of the ad min is tr at ion o f th e re st o f the
a re a s of tha t St at e:
P rovid ed fur th er tha t the re sh al l be p aid out o f th e Con sol ida ted Fund of
Ind ia a s gr a nts - in-a id of th e re venu es o f th e Sta te o f As s a m su ms, c ap ita l
a nd r ec ur rin g, equ ival e nt to—
( a) the a ve r a ge exc e ss o f e xp end itur e over th e re venu es dur ing th e
t wo ye a r s i mme di at el y pre c edin g the c o mme nc e me nt of thi s Con sti tution
in r es pe ct of th e ad min is tr at ion of th e tr iba l ar e as sp ec i fi e d in P art I of
th e tab le app end ed to pa ra gra ph 20 of the Si xth S chedu le ; and
( b) th e co st s o f su ch s ch e me s of de ve lop me nt a s ma y be under ta ken
b y th at St at e with the a ppro va l of the Go ve rn me nt o f Ind ia fo r the
purpo se of r ai sin g the l eve l o f ad mi ni st ra tion o f the sa id a re as to th at o f
th e ad mini st ra tion o f the r es t of th e ar ea s o f th at Sta te .

(1 A) On and fro m the for ma ti on of th e autono mou s S ta te unde r ar ti cl e


244 A, —
( i) an y su ms pa ya bl e under c lau se ( a) of th e se cond pro vi so to
c la us e (1) sh al l, if the au tono mou s Sta te co mp ri se s a ll the t riba l ar e as
r e fer r ed to th er ei n, be paid to th e autono mou s Sta te , and, i f the
a utono mo us St at e co mpr is es onl y so me of thos e trib al a re as , be
a pport ioned be t wee n the St at e of As s a m and th e a utono mous St at e as the
116 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

P res ide nt ma y, b y
orde r, sp ec i fy;
( ii) the re sha ll b e pa id out of th e Cons olid at ed Fund o f India as
gr ant s- in- aid o f the r e ve nue s of the au tono mou s Sta te su ms, c ap ita l and
r ec ur rin g, equ ival e nt to th e cos ts o f su ch sc he me s o f de velop me nt a s
ma y be und ert a ke n b y th e autono mou s St at e wi th th e a ppro va l o f the
Go ver n men t of Indi a for th e purpo se of ra is in g th e l evel o f
a d mi ni st ra tion o f th at Sta te to tha t o f th e ad mi nis tr at ion o f th e r es t o f
th e Sta te o f As s a m.
(2) Un til prov is ion i s ma d e b y P ar lia men t und er cl au se (1 ), the po wer s
c on fe rr e d on P arli a men t unde r th at c la us e sh al l be exe rc is a ble b y the
P re sid ent b y orde r and an y orde r mad e b y the P re sid ent unde r th is cl au se
sh al l have e ffe c t subj ec t to a n y provis ion so mad e b y P arli a men t:
P rovid ed th at a ft er a Finan ce Co m mis s ion ha s b een cons titu te d no orde r
sh al l be mad e unde r this c la us e b y th e Pr es iden t e xc ept a ft er c ons ide rin g
th e re co m men da tions o f th e F inan ce Co mmi ss ion.
276. Tax es on prof es si ons , tr ade s, c al li ngs and e mpl oy me nts .—
(1 ) Not with st and in g an yt hin g in ar ti cl e 246, no l a w o f th e Le gi sl atu re o f a
St at e r el at ing to t axe s fo r th e ben e fi t of the Sta te or o f a muni ci pa lit y,
di st ric t boa rd, loc al boa rd or oth er lo ca l a utho rit y th er ein in re sp ec t of
pro fe ss ion s, tr ade s, c al lin gs or e mp lo ymen ts s ha ll be inval id on th e ground
th at it re la te s to a ta x on in co me.
(2 ) Th e tot al a moun t p a yab le in r esp ec t o f an y one pe rson to the St at e or
to a n y one mu ni cip al it y, dis tr ic t boa rd, lo ca l boa rd or oth er loc al autho rit y
in the St at e b y wa y o f ta xes on pro fes si ons , t ra de s, ca ll ings a nd
e mpl o yme nt s sha ll not exc e ed t wo thou sand and fi ve hundr ed rup ee s pe r
a nnu m.
(3) Th e powe r o f the Le gi sl at ur e o f a Sta te to ma ke l a ws a s a for e sa id
wi th re sp ec t to t a xe s on pro fe s sion s, tr ad es , ca ll ings and e mplo yme nt s sh all
not b e con st rued as li mit ing in an y wa y th e po we r of P arl ia me nt to ma ke
l a ws wi th re spe ct to t axe s on in co me ac cr uin g fr o m or a ri sin g out of
pro fe ss ion s, tr ade s, c al lin gs and e mp lo ymen ts .
277. Savi ngs .— An y ta xes , duti es , c e ss e s or fe es wh ic h, i mme di at el y
b e fo re th e c o mme nc e me nt o f thi s Cons titu tion, we r e bein g l a wfu ll y l e vi ed
b y the Go ve rn me nt o f an y St at e or b y an y mun ic ipa li t y or oth er lo ca l
a uthor it y or bod y fo r th e purpo se s of the Sta te , mun ic ipa li t y, di st ri ct or
oth er lo ca l ar ea ma y, not wi th st andin g tha t thos e ta xe s , dutie s, c es s es or
fe e s ar e m en tion ed in th e Un ion Lis t, continu e to be l evie d and to be
a ppli ed to th e sa me purpos es until provis ion to the con tr ar y i s m ad e b y
P ar lia men t b y la w.
278. [ Agre em en t with Stat es in Par t B of the Fi rs t Sche dule w ith re gard
to c e rta in finan cia l mat te rs .] Rep. by th e Cons ti tution (S ev e nth
A me ndm ent ) A ct, 1956, s. 29 and Sch.
279. Calc ul at i on of “net proc e e ds” , et c. — (1) In the fo re goin g
pro vi si ons o f this Ch apt er, “n et proc e ed s” me a ns in r el at ion to an y t ax or
117 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

dut y th e proc e ed s
the re o f re duc ed b y th e
c os t o f co lle ct ion, and for th e purpos es of tho se pro vi si ons th e n et proc ee ds
o f an y t ax or dut y, or o f a n y pa rt o f an y t ax or dut y, in or a tt ribu tab le to
a n y a re a s ha ll be as c er ta in ed and ce rt i fi ed b y the Co mp tr oll er and Aud itor-
Ge ne r al o f Indi a, who se c er ti fi ca t e sha ll be fin al .
(2) Subj ec t a s a fo re sa id , and to a n y oth er e xpr es s pro vi si on o f thi s
Ch apt er, a la w mad e b y P arli a men t or a n ord er o f th e Pr es iden t ma y, in a n y
c as e wh er e und er thi s P ar t the proc e ed s of a n y dut y or ta x a re , or ma y be,
a ss i gn ed to a n y St at e, pro vi de fo r th e ma nn er in whi ch th e pro ce e ds a re to
b e ca lc ul at ed, fo r th e ti me fr o m or at wh i ch a nd the man ne r in whi c h an y
p a yme nt s a re to be mad e , fo r the ma ki ng o f ad jus t men ts be t wee n one
fi nan ci al ye ar and anoth er, and fo r an y othe r inc iden ta l or a nc ill ar y
ma t te rs .
280. Financ e C o m mi s si on.— (1) Th e P re sid ent sh all , wi th in t wo ye a rs
fr o m the co mme n ce men t o f thi s Con st itut ion and th er e a ft e r a t th e
e xpir at ion of e ver y fi ft h ye a r or at su ch ea rl ie r ti me a s th e P re sid en t
c ons ide rs nec e ss a r y, b y orde r c ons titu te a Fin anc e Co mmi ss ion wh ic h sh al l
c ons is t o f a Ch ai r man and fo ur oth er me mb e rs to be appo int ed b y th e
P re sid ent .
(2 ) P ar lia men t ma y b y la w det er mi ne th e qual i fi ca ti ons whi ch sh al l b e
r equi si te fo r a ppoint me nt as me mb er s of th e Co mmi s si on and th e ma nn er in
whi c h th e y sha ll be s el ec te d.
(3) I t sh all be th e dut y o f the Co m mi ss ion to ma ke r ec o mme nd at ions to
th e Pr es iden t a s to—
( a) the dis tr ibution be t we e n th e Union and th e St at es of th e net
pro ce e ds o f ta xes whi ch a re to b e, or ma y be, divided bet we en the m
und er this Ch apt er a nd th e al loc at ion bet we en th e S ta te s of the
r es pe ct ive s ha re s of suc h pro ce e ds ;
( b) th e prin cip le s whi c h should go ve rn the gr ant s- in- ai d of th e
r e ve nue s of the St at es out of the Con solid at ed Fund o f Ind ia ;
( bb) th e me a su re s nee ded to aug men t th e Cons olid at ed Fund o f a
St at e to suppl e men t th e re sou rc es of th e P ancha yat s in the St at e on th e
b as is of the r ec o mme nda tion s mad e b y the Fin anc e Co m mis s ion of th e
St at e;
(c ) th e me a s ur es nee ded to aug men t the Cons olid at ed Fund o f a
St at e to suppl e men t th e re sou rc es of th e Munic ipa li tie s in the St at e on
th e bas is o f th e r ec o mme nd at ions ma de b y th e F inan ce Co mmi ss ion of
th e Sta te ;
( d) an y othe r ma tt e r r e fer r ed to th e Co m mis s ion b y th e P res ide nt in
th e inte re st s o f sound fin anc e.
(4 ) Th e Co m mis s ion sha ll de te r min e thei r proc edu re and sh al l have su ch
po wer s in the pe r fo r man ce of th ei r fu nc tions a s P arl ia me nt ma y b y la w
c on fe r on th e m.
118 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

281.
Re c o mme n dati ons of
t he Financ e C o mmi s s i on. — Th e Pr es iden t sh al l ca us e e ver y
r ec o mme nd at ion ma d e b y th e Fina nc e Co mmi s sion unde r the pro vi sion s of
thi s Cons ti tution toge the r wit h a n e xpl ana tor y me mor andu m a s to th e
a ct ion ta ken the re on to be la id be fo re e a ch Hou se o f P arl ia me nt .
Mi s ce llan eou s Financ ial Prov is ions
282. Ex pe ndi t ure de fr ayabl e by the U ni on or a St at e out of it s
reve nue s .— Th e Union or a St at e ma y ma ke an y gr an ts fo r a n y publi c
purpo se , not with st andin g tha t the purpos e i s not one wit h re sp ec t to wh ic h
P ar lia men t or th e Le gi sl atu re o f th e Sta te , a s th e c a se ma y be, ma y ma ke
l a ws.
283. C us t ody, e tc ., of C ons ol idat e d F unds, C onti nge nc y F unds and
mo ney s cre di te d t o the publ ic acc ount s .— (1 ) Th e cus tod y o f the
Con sol ida ted Fund of Ind ia a nd th e Contin gen c y Fund o f Indi a, th e
p a yme nt of mon e ys into suc h Funds , the withd ra wa l of mon e ys th er e fr o m,
th e cu stod y of publi c mo ne ys oth er than thos e c re dit ed to su ch Fund s
r ec e ive d b y or on beh al f of th e Go ve rn me nt of Indi a, th ei r pa yme nt into th e
publi c a c coun t of Indi a a nd the wit hdr a wal of mon e ys fr o m suc h ac c ount
a nd a ll othe r ma tt er s conn ec t ed wit h or an ci ll ar y to ma tt er s a for es a id sha ll
b e re gula te d b y la w ma d e b y P ar li a men t, and , until provis ion in th at beha l f
i s so m ad e, sh al l be re gu la te d b y rul es ma d e b y th e Pr es iden t.
(2 ) Th e c us tod y o f th e Conso lida te d Fund of a Sta te a nd th e
Con tinge nc y Fund of a Sta te , the pa ymen t of mon e ys in to su ch Funds , th e
wi thd ra wa l o f mo ne ys the re fr o m, the cu stod y o f public mon e ys oth er th an
tho se c re dit ed to such Fund s r ec e ive d b y or on beh al f o f th e Go ver n men t of
th e St at e, thei r pa yme nt into th e publi c a cc ount of the Sta te and th e
wi thd ra wa l of mo ne ys fr o m s uch a cc ount and al l othe r ma t te r s conn ec te d
wi th or anc il la r y to ma t te r s a for es a id sh al l be re gu la te d b y la w ma d e b y th e
Le gis la tu re of th e Sta te , a nd, unti l provis ion in th at beha l f is s o mad e ,
sh al l be re gu la te d b y rul es ma d e b y th e Go ver nor o f the St at e.
284. Cus t ody of s ui t or s ' de posi ts and ot her mo ney s rec ei ve d by
pu bl ic se r vants and c our ts .— All mo ne ys r ec ei ved b y or d epos ite d wi th —
(a) an y o ffi c er e mplo yed in conne ct ion wi th th e a ffa ir s of the
Un ion or o f a St at e in hi s ca pa ci t y as su ch, oth er th an r e ve nue s or public
mo ne ys r ai se d or r ec e i ve d b y the Go ve rn me nt o f India or th e
Go ver n men t o f th e S ta te , a s th e c a se ma y be, or
(b) an y cou rt wi thin the t er ri tor y of Indi a to th e c re di t o f an y
c au se , ma tt er, ac coun t or p er sons ,
sh al l be paid into the publi c ac c ount of Ind ia or th e publ ic a cc ount of
St at e, a s the c as e ma y b e.
285. Ex e mpt i on of proper ty of t he U ni on f ro m Stat e tax at ion.— (1)
The prop er t y o f th e Un ion sh al l, s ave in so fa r as P arl ia me nt ma y b y l a w
119 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

othe r wi s e provide , be
e xe mp t fr o m al l ta xes
i mpos ed b y a Sta te or b y a n y autho rit y wi thin a St at e.
(2 ) Nothin g in cl au se (1 ) s ha ll, unti l P ar lia men t b y la w othe r wi s e
pro vi de s, pre vent an y a uthor it y wi th in a St at e fro m l ev yin g a n y t ax on an y
prop er t y o f the U nion to whi ch suc h prope rt y wa s i mme di at el y be for e th e
c o mme nc e me nt o f thi s Con st itut ion liab le or tr ea te d as l iab le , s o lon g as
th at ta x c ontinu es to be le vie d in tha t Sta te .
286. Re st ri ct i ons as to i mposi ti on of t ax on t he s al e or purc has e of
g oods .— (1) No l a w o f a St at e sha ll i mp os e, or autho ri se th e i mpo si tion of,
a ta x on th e s al e or purch as e of goods wh er e su ch s al e or purch as e ta kes
pl ac e—
(a) out side th e Sta te ; or
(b) in the c our se of th e i mp ort of the goo d s into , or e xpo rt o f the
goods out of, the t er rito r y of India .
(2) P arl ia me nt ma y b y la w fo r mu la t e prin cip le s fo r de te r mi nin g whe n a
s al e or purc ha se o f goods t ake s pla ce in a n y o f th e wa ys me nt ione d in
c la us e (1) .
(3) An y l a w o f a St at e sha ll , in so fa r as it i mpo se s, or au thori se s th e
i mpos it ion o f, —
(a) a t ax on the sa le or pur ch as e o f good s de cl ar ed b y P ar lia men t
b y la w to b e o f sp ec ia l i mp ort an ce in int er- Sta te tra de or co m me rc e ; or
( b) a ta x on th e sa le or pur ch as e of good s, bein g a ta x of the natu re
r e fer r ed to in s ub- cl aus e (b) , sub- cl au se (c ) or sub- cl au se (d) of cl au se
(29 A) o f ar ti cl e 366,
b e sub je ct to su ch re st ri ct ions and cond ition s in r ega rd to the s ys te m of
l ev y, r at es a nd oth er in cid ent s of th e ta x a s P arli a me nt ma y b y l a w sp ec i f y.
287. Ex e mpt i on f ro m t ax e s on e le ct ri ci ty. — Sa ve in s o fa r a s
P ar lia men t ma y b y l a w othe r wi s e provide , no la w o f a St at e sh al l i mpos e,
or autho ris e the i mpo sit ion o f, a t ax on the c onsu mpt ion or s al e of
e le ct ri ci t y ( whe th er produc ed b y a Go ve rn me nt or othe r pe rson s) wh i ch i s

(a) consu me d b y th e Go ve rn me nt of Indi a, or sold to the
Go ver n men t o f Indi a fo r con su mpt ion b y tha t Go ver n men t; or
(b) consu me d in th e con st ruc tion , ma in ten an ce or ope ra tion of an y
r ai l wa y b y th e Go ve rn me nt of India or a r ai l wa y co mpa n y oper at ing tha t
r ai l wa y, or so ld to th at Go ver n men t or an y suc h ra il wa y co mpa n y for
c onsu mpt ion in th e con st ruc tion, mai nt en anc e or ope ra tion o f a n y
r ai l wa y,
a nd an y s uch la w i mpos ing, or autho ris ing th e i mpos ition of, a ta x on th e
s al e o f el ec tr ic it y s ha ll se cu re th at th e pr ic e of el ec tr ic it y so ld to th e
Go ver n men t o f Indi a fo r con su mpt ion b y tha t Go ver n men t, or to an y su ch
r ai l wa y co mp an y as a fo re s ai d fo r cons u mp tion in th e c ons tru ction ,
ma i nt ena nc e or oper at ion o f an y r ai l wa y, sha ll be le ss b y the a moun t o f th e
120 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

t ax th an the pri ce
c harged to othe r
c onsu me rs of a s ubs tan ti al quant it y o f e le ct ri ci t y.
288. Ex e mpt i on fro m t ax ation by S tate s i n res pe ct of w ate r or
e le ct r ic it y i n c er t ai n cas e s. —(1 ) Sa ve in s o fa r a s the P re sid ent ma y b y
ord er oth er wi se provide , no la w of a Sta te in fo r ce i mme di at el y b e fo re th e
c o mme nc e me nt o f thi s Con st itut ion sha ll i mp os e, or autho ri se th e
i mpos it ion of, a ta x in re sp ec t o f an y wa t er or e le ct ri ci t y s tor ed, ge ne ra te d,
c onsu me d, di st ribut ed or sold b y an y autho ri t y e st abl ish ed b y a n y e xi st ing
l a w or an y la w ma d e b y P ar lia me nt fo r re gu la tin g or deve lopin g a n y int er-
St at e ri ver or ri ver-val le y.
E xplanat ion.— Th e e xp re ss ion “ la w of a Sta te in fo r ce ” in thi s cl aus e
sh al l in clud e a la w o f a Sta te pa ss ed or mad e be for e th e co m men c e men t o f
thi s Con st itut ion and not pre vi ous l y r epe al ed , not wi th st andin g th at it or
p art s of it m a y not be th en in ope ra tion ei the r at a ll or in pa rt icu la r ar ea s .
(2 ) Th e Le gis la tu re o f a St at e ma y b y l a w i mpos e, or au thori se the
i mpos it ion of, a n y su ch t ax a s i s me nt ioned in cl au se (1) , but no suc h la w
sh al l have a n y effe c t unl es s it has , a ft er havin g be en re se r ved fo r th e
c ons ide ra tion o f the Pr es iden t, r ec ei ved his a s se nt; and i f an y s uch la w
pro vi de s for th e fi xa ti on of th e ra te s and oth er incid en ts o f suc h ta x b y
me a ns o f ru le s or orde rs to be ma d e und er th e l a w b y an y a uthor it y, the la w
sh al l pro vid e for th e pr eviou s con se nt o f the P re sid ent bein g obtain ed to
th e ma kin g of an y suc h ru le or orde r.
289. Ex e mpt i on of proper ty and i nc o me of a St at e fro m U nion
t ax ati on. — (1) Th e prop er t y and inco me of a S ta te sh al l b e e xe mpt fr o m
Un ion ta xa ti on.
(2) Noth ing in cl au se (1) sha ll pre vent the U nion fr o m i mpo sin g, or
a uthor is ing the i mpo si tion o f, an y ta x to s uch exte nt , i f a n y, a s P arli a men t
ma y b y la w provid e in r es pe ct o f a tr ade or bus ine ss of a n y kind c ar ri ed on
b y, or on beh al f of, the Go ve rn me nt o f a Sta te , or an y oper at ions c onne ct ed
th er e with , or an y prop er t y us ed or o ccup ied for th e purpos es of su ch tr ad e
or bus ine ss , or a n y inco me a c cr uin g or ar is ing in conn ec tion th er e wi th .
(3) Nothin g in cl au se (2) s ha ll a ppl y to a n y tr ad e or bu sine ss , or to an y
c la ss o f t ra de or busin es s, whi ch P ar li a men t ma y b y l a w de cl ar e to be
in cid ent al to the ordin ar y fu nc tions o f Go ver n ment .
290. A dj ust me nt in res pe ct of c er t ai n ex pe ns es and pe ns ions .— Whe r e
und er th e pro vi sion s o f this Cons titu tion th e e xp en se s o f an y c ourt or
Co m mis s ion, or the pens ion pa ya bl e to or in re sp ec t o f a pe rs on who h as
s er ved be fo re the co m men ce men t o f th is Con st itut ion unde r th e Cro wn in
Ind ia or a ft e r s uch co mme n ce men t in conn ec tion wit h the a ffai rs o f th e
Un ion or o f a St at e, ar e ch arged on th e Con sol ida te d Fund of India or th e
Con sol ida ted Fund of a S ta te , th en, i f—
( a) in th e c a se of a c ha rge on th e Conso lida te d Fund o f Indi a, the
c ourt or Co mmi s si on se r ve s an y of the se pa ra te ne eds of a Sta te , or th e
121 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

p er son ha s s er ved
who ll y or in p art in
c onne ct ion wi th th e a ffa ir s o f a St at e; or
( b) in th e ca s e of a c ha rge on th e Con solid at ed Fund of a St at e, the
c ourt or Co mmi ss ion se rve s an y o f the s ep ar at e nee ds of the Union or
a nothe r Sta te , or the pe rson ha s se r ve d wh oll y or in pa rt in c onne ct ion
wi th the a ffa ir s o f the Un ion or ano the r Sta te ,
th er e s ha ll be cha rge d on and pa id out of th e Cons olid at ed Fund o f the
St at e or, as th e ca s e ma y be , the Conso lid at ed Fund o f Ind ia or the
Con sol ida ted Fund of the othe r St at e, such cont ribut ion in r es pe ct of the
e xpen se s or pen sion as ma y be agr ee d, or as ma y in de fau lt of a gre e men t b e
d ete r min ed b y an a rbi tr ato r to be appo inte d b y the Ch ie f Jus ti ce o f Indi a.
290A. A nnual pay me nt t o ce rt ai n De vasw om F unds. — A su m of for t y-
s ix l akhs and fi ft y thous and rup ee s sha ll b e ch arge d on, and paid out o f,
th e Conso lida te d Fund o f the St at e of Ke ra la eve r y ye a r to the Tr a van cor e
D e va s wo m Fund; and a su m o f thi rt ee n l a kh s a nd fi ft y thous and rupe es
sh al l be cha rge d on, and paid out of, the Con solid at ed Fund o f th e Sta te o f
Ta mi l N adu eve r y ye a r to th e D e va s wo m Fund e st ab li shed in tha t St at e for
th e ma i nte nan ce o f H indu t e mp le s and sh rin es in the te rr itor ie s t ran s fer r ed
to th at Sta te on th e 1s t da y of No ve mb er, 1956, fr o m th e Sta te o f
Tr a van co re -Co ch in.
291. [ Pr iv y pu rs e su ms of Rul er s. ] Rep . by th e Con st itut ion (Tw e nty -
s ix th A me ndm ent ) A ct, 197l, s. 2.
C H A P T E R II. —B O R R O W I N G
292. B orrow ing by t he G ove r n me nt of I ndi a.— Th e e xec ut ive po we r o f
th e Un ion e xt end s to bor ro wi ng upon the se cu rit y of th e Cons olid at ed Fund
o f India wit hin su ch l i mi ts , i f an y, as ma y fro m ti me to ti me b e fi xe d b y
P ar lia men t b y la w a nd to the gi ving o f gua ra nt ee s with in su ch li mi ts , i f
a n y, as ma y be so fi xe d.
293. B orrow ing by St at e s. — (1 ) Subje ct to the pro vi sion s of this a rt ic le ,
th e e xec ut ive power o f a St at e e xt end s to bor ro wi ng wi thin the t er ri tor y of
Ind ia upon th e s ec ur it y o f the Conso lida te d Fund of th e St at e wi thin suc h
li mi ts , i f an y, as ma y fr o m ti me to ti me be fi xe d b y the Le gi sl at ur e o f s uch
St at e b y l a w and to th e givin g o f gu ar an te es wit hin s uch li mi ts , i f an y, a s
ma y b e so fi xed .
(2) The Go ve rn me nt of Indi a ma y, sub je ct to suc h condi tion s a s ma y be
l aid do wn b y or unde r an y la w mad e b y P arli a men t, ma ke loan s to an y St at e
or, so lon g as a n y li mi ts fi xe d under a rti cl e 292 a re not e xce e ded , gi ve
gua ra nt ee s in re sp ec t of lo ans r ai se d b y an y St at e, and an y su ms requ ir ed
for th e purpos e of ma kin g s uch loan s sh al l be c ha rged on th e Con sol ida ted
Fund of India .
(3) A Sta te ma y not wit hout the con se nt of the Go ve rn me nt o f Indi a ra is e
a n y lo an i f the re i s st ill outs ta nding an y pa rt of a lo an wh ic h has b een
ma d e to th e St at e b y th e Go ver n men t of Indi a or b y its pred ec e ss or
Go ver n men t, or in r es pe ct of whi ch a gua ra nt ee has bee n gi ve n b y the
Go ver n men t o f Indi a or b y it s pred ec e s so r Go ver n men t.
122 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(4) A cons en t und er


c la us e (3) ma y be
gr ant ed subj ec t to s uch cond ition s, i f an y, as th e Go ve rn me nt of India ma y
thin k fi t to i mpos e.

C H A P T E R I II. —P R O P E RT Y . C O N T R A C T S , R I G H T S , L I A B I L I T I E S , O B L I G AT I O N S AN D
SUITS
294. S ucc e ss i on t o proper ty, as se ts , ri ghts , li abi li ti es and obli gati ons
i n c er t ai n cas e s. —As fro m the c o mme nc e me nt o f thi s Con st itut ion—
(a) al l prope rt y and a s se ts whi ch i mme di at el y be fo re su ch
c o mme nc e me nt we r e ves t ed in H is M aje st y fo r the purpo se s o f the
Go ver n men t of th e Do min ion of Indi a a nd al l prop er t y and as se ts whi ch
i m med ia te l y b e fo re suc h co m men c e men t we r e ve s te d in Hi s M aj es t y for
th e purpo se s o f the Go ver n men t o f e a ch Go ver nor 's P ro vinc e sha ll ve st
r es pe ct ive l y in th e Union and th e c or re spondin g St at e, and
(b) a ll ri gh ts , li ab ili tie s and obli ga ti ons o f the Go ver n ment o f the
Do mi nion o f Ind ia and o f the Go ver n men t of e ac h Go ver nor 's P rovinc e,
wh et he r ar is ing out of an y cont ra ct or oth er wi se , sha ll be th e r ight s,
li ab ili tie s and obli ga ti ons r esp ec ti vel y of th e Go ve rn me nt of India a nd
th e Go ve rn me nt of e a ch co rr es ponding Sta te ,
sub je ct to an y adju st me nt ma d e or to be ma de b y r ea son of the cr ea ti on
b e fo re the c o mme nc e me nt of thi s Con sti tution of the Do minion of P akis tan
or of the Pro vin ce s of Wes t B en ga l, Ea st B en ga l, We s t P unj ab and Ea st
P unjab,
295. S ucc e ss i on t o proper ty, as se ts , ri ghts , li abi li ti es and obli gati ons
i n ot her c ase s .— (1) As fro m the c o mme nc e me nt o f thi s Con st itut ion—
(a) al l prope rt y and a s se ts whi ch i mme di at el y be fo re su ch
c o mme nc e me nt we r e ves t ed in a n y India n St at e co rr es pondin g to a St at e
sp ec i fie d in P ar t B o f th e Fi rs t Sch edu le sha ll ve st in the Union , i f th e
purpo se s fo r wh ic h su ch prop er t y and as se ts we r e held i m med ia te l y
b e fo re such co mme n ce men t wi ll th er e a ft e r b e purpos es o f th e Un ion
r el at ing to an y o f th e ma t te r s enu me ra te d in th e Union Lis t, and
(b) al l ri gh ts , lia bil iti es and obligat ion s o f th e Go ver n ment of an y
Ind ian Sta te co rr espond ing to a Sta te spe ci fi ed in P art B of the Fir st
S che dule , wh e the r ar is ing out o f an y con tr ac t or othe r wi s e, sh al l b e th e
r ights , li abi lit ie s a nd obli ga tion s o f the Go ver n men t o f Ind ia , i f th e
purpo se s for wh ic h s uch ri gh ts we r e a cqui re d or li abi lit ie s or
obli gat ions we re in cur re d be for e su ch co m men c e me nt wil l the re a ft er be
purpo se s o f the Go ver n men t o f Indi a re la tin g to an y of the ma tt er s
e nu mer at ed in the Un ion Li st ,
sub je ct to an y a gr e e me nt en te re d into in tha t b eha l f b y th e Go ve rn me nt of
Ind ia wi th the Go ve rn me nt o f tha t Sta te .
123 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2) Subj ec t as
a for es a id, the
Go ver n men t of e ac h St at e sp ec i fie d in P ar t B o f th e Fi rs t Sch edu le sha ll, as
fr o m th e co mme n ce men t of thi s Cons ti tution, be th e suc ce s so r of th e
Go ver n men t o f th e c or re spondin g Ind ian St at e as r e ga rd s al l prop er t y and
a ss e ts a nd a ll ri gh ts , l iab ili tie s and obli gat ions , wh et he r ar is ing out o f an y
c ontr ac t or othe r wi s e, oth er th an tho se r e fer r ed to in c lau se (1).
296. Proper ty ac c r ui ng by e s c he at or laps e or as bona v aca ntia. —
Subj ec t a s her ein a ft e r pro vi de d, an y prope rt y in the te rr itor y of Indi a
whi c h, i f this Cons titu tion h ad not co me into op er at ion, wou ld ha ve
a c cr ued to Hi s Ma je st y or, a s the c a se ma y be, to th e Ru le r o f a n Indi an
St at e b y e s ch ea t or l aps e, or a s bona vac antia for wan t of a r ight fu l owne r,
sh al l, i f it is prop er t y situ at e in a Sta te , ve st in su ch Sta te , and sha ll , in
a n y oth er c as e , ve s t in th e Union:
P rovid ed th at an y prop er t y whi ch at the d ate whe n it wo uld h ave so
a c cr ued to Hi s Ma je st y or to th e Rul er of an India n St at e wa s in th e
pos se s si on or unde r the cont rol o f the Go ver n ment o f Indi a or the
Go ver n men t of a Sta te sha ll , ac c ordin g as the purpos es for wh i ch it wa s
th en use d or he ld we r e purpo se s o f the Un ion or o f a St at e, ves t in th e
Un ion or in tha t Sta te .
Exp lanation .—In thi s ar ti cl e, the e xp re s sion s “R ule r” and “I ndia n St at e ”
h ave th e s a me me an ings a s in a rt ic le 363.
297. T hi ngs of val ue w it hi n t er ri t or i al w at er s or cont i ne nt al s he lf and
res ource s of t he ex cl us i ve ec ono mi c z one to ve st in the U ni on. — (1) All
l ands , min er al s and othe r things o f val ue unde rl yi ng the oc ea n wi th in th e
t er ri tori al wa t er s, or th e c ontin ent al sh el f, or the e xclu si ve ec ono mic zone ,
o f Indi a sh all ve st in the Un ion a nd b e h eld fo r the purpo se s o f the Un ion.
(2) Al l oth er re sou rc es o f th e e xcl us ive ec ono mi c zone of Ind ia sha ll
a ls o ve st in the Un ion a nd b e h eld fo r th e purpo se s o f the Un ion.
(3) Th e li mit s o f the t er rito ri al wa t er s, th e cont inen ta l s he l f, th e
e xcl us ive e cono mi c zon e, and othe r ma ri ti me zone s, o f Indi a sha ll be su ch
a s ma y be sp ec i fi e d, fro m ti me to ti me, b y or under an y l a w ma d e b y
P ar lia men t.
298. P ow er to c ar ry on t r ade, e tc .— Th e e xec ut ive po we r o f the Un ion
a nd of e ac h St at e sh al l e xt end to the ca rr yin g on o f a n y tr ad e or bus ine ss
a nd to the a cqu is ition, holdin g and di spos al o f prope rt y a nd th e ma kin g of
c ontr ac ts fo r an y purpo se :
P rovid ed tha t—
( a) th e sa id e xe cut ive powe r o f the Union sh al l, in s o fa r a s such
t rad e or busin es s or suc h purpo se is not on e wi th re sp ec t to wh ic h
P ar lia men t ma y ma ke la ws , be subj ec t in e a ch St at e to l egis la ti on b y the
St at e; a nd
( b) the sa id e xe c uti ve powe r of ea ch St at e sh all , in so fa r as suc h
t rad e or busin es s or suc h purpos e is not on e wit h re sp ec t to wh ic h th e
124 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

St at e Le gi s la tur e
ma y ma ke la ws , be
sub je ct to le gi sl a tion b y P ar li a men t.
299. C ontr ac ts .— (1 ) Al l con tr ac ts ma d e in th e e xe r ci se of th e exe cu ti ve
po wer of th e Un ion or o f a Sta te sh al l be e xpr es se d to be mad e b y the
P re sid ent , or b y th e Go ve rno r o f th e St at e, as the ca se ma y be, a nd al l su ch
c ontr ac ts and al l a ss ur an ce s o f prope rt y ma d e in th e e xe r ci se of th at po we r
sh al l be exe cu ted on b eha l f of the Pr es iden t or th e Go ve rno r b y su ch
p er sons and in suc h ma nn er a s he ma y dir ec t or autho ri se .
(2) Ne ith er the P re sid en t nor th e Go ve rno r sh al l be p er sona ll y lia ble in
r es pe ct o f an y con tr ac t or as su ran ce mad e or e xec ut ed fo r the purpo se s o f
thi s Cons ti tution, or fo r th e purpos es o f an y e na ct me nt r el at ing to the
Go ver n men t of Indi a h er eto for e in for c e, nor sh al l an y per son ma ki ng or
e xe cut ing a n y suc h c ontr ac t or as su ra nc e on beh al f of a n y of th e m b e
p er sona ll y li abl e in r es pe ct th er eo f.
300. Suit s and proc e e di ngs .— (1) The Go ve rn me nt of Indi a ma y sue or
b e su ed b y th e na me o f th e U nion of Ind ia and th e Go ver n men t of a St at e
ma y su e or be sue d b y the na me of th e Sta te a nd m a y, subj ec t to a n y
pro vi si ons whi ch ma y be ma de b y Ac t of P arli a men t or o f th e Le gi sl at ur e
o f such Sta te en ac te d b y vi rt ue of powe rs con fe rr ed b y this Cons titu tion,
su e or be su ed in r el at ion to th ei r re sp ec ti ve affa i rs in th e li ke c as e s a s the
Do mi nion o f Ind ia and th e co rr es pondin g P ro vinc e s or the c or re spondin g
Ind ian St at es mi ght ha ve su ed or b een su ed i f thi s Con st itut ion had not
b een en ac te d.
(2) I f a t the co m men c e men t of this Con sti tution —
( a) an y le gal proc ee din gs a re pendin g to wh i ch th e Do min ion o f
Ind ia is a pa rt y, the Union o f India sh al l be d ee me d to be subs ti tute d fo r
th e Do mi nion in thos e proc ee din gs ; and
( b) an y le gal proc ee din gs a re pendin g to wh i ch a P rovin ce or a n
Ind ian Sta te is a pa rt y, the co rr espond ing St at e sh al l be dee me d to b e
sub st itut ed fo r th e Pro vin ce or th e Ind ia n St at e in thos e proc ee din gs .
C H A P T E R IV. —R I G H T TO P R O P E RT Y
300A. Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law.— No person
shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law.
125 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART XIII
TRADE, COMMERCE AND INTERCOURSE WITHIN THE
TERRITORY OF INDIA
301. F re e do m of tr ade , c o mme rce and i nte rc our s e. —Subj ec t to th e
oth er pro vi sion s of this P ar t, tr ad e, co m me rc e and inte rc our se th roughout
th e te rr itor y o f Indi a sh all be fr e e.
302. P ow er of P arl ia me nt to i mpos e res tr ic ti ons on tr ade , co m me rc e
and i nt erc our se . —P ar lia men t ma y b y l a w i mpos e su ch re st ri ct ions on th e
fr e edo m o f tra de , co m me rc e or int er cou rs e b et we en on e St at e and anoth er
or wi thin an y pa rt of the t er rito r y of Ind ia as ma y be r equi re d in the publi c
int er e st .
303. R es t ri ct i ons on t he l egi sl at i ve pow e rs of t he Uni on and of t he
S tate s w it h regar d t o t r ade and c o m me rc e. —(1 ) No t wi ths ta nding
a n ythin g in ar ti cl e 302, ne ith er P arli a men t nor th e Le gis la tu re of a Sta te
sh al l ha ve po wer to ma ke an y la w gi vi ng, or a uthor is ing the gi ving o f, an y
pr e fer e nc e to on e St at e o ve r anoth er, or ma ki ng, or a uthor is ing th e ma kin g
o f, an y di sc ri mi na tion be t wee n one Sta te and a nothe r, b y vi rtu e o f a n y
e ntr y re la tin g to tra de a nd co m me rc e in an y of the Li s ts in the Se ve nth
S che dule .
(2) No thing in c la us e (1) sh al l pr e ve nt P arl ia me nt fro m ma kin g an y l a w
gi vin g, or au thor is ing the gi vi ng of, a n y pr e fer en ce or ma ki ng, or
a uthor is ing th e ma kin g of, an y di sc ri min at ion if it is de cl ar ed b y su ch la w
th at i t is nec e ss ar y to do so fo r th e purpo se of de al ing wi th a situ at ion
a ri sin g fr o m s ca r ci t y of goods in an y pa rt of the t er rito r y of Ind ia .
304. R es t ri ct i ons on tr ade , c o mme rc e and inte rc ours e a mong Stat es .
— Not wit hs tand ing a n yth ing in ar ti cl e 301 or a rt ic le 303, the Le gis la tu re
o f a St at e ma y b y l a w—
( a) i mpos e on goods i mpo rt ed fr o m othe r St at es or th e Union
t er ri tori es an y ta x to wh ic h si mil ar good s man u fa c tur ed or produc ed in
th at St at e ar e subj ec t, so , ho we ve r, a s not to di sc ri mi na te be t wee n good s
so i mpor ted and goods so ma nu fa ctu re d or produ ce d; and
( b) i mpos e s uch re as onab le re st ri ct ions on th e fr e edo m o f tra de ,
c o mme r ce or in te rc our se wit h or wi thin that Sta te as ma y be r equi red in
th e public int er e st :
P rovid ed th at no B ill or a men d men t fo r the purpo se s of cl au se ( b) sh al l
b e introdu ce d or mo ve d in the Le gi sl at ur e o f a St at e wi thout the pr e viou s
s an ct ion o f th e P re sid en t.
126 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

305. Savi ng of
ex is ti ng l aw s and law s
provi di ng for Stat e mo nopol ie s. — Noth ing in ar ti cl es 301 and 303 sh all
a ffe c t th e pro vi si ons o f an y e xi st ing la w exc ep t in so fa r a s the P re sid ent
ma y b y orde r oth er wis e dir ec t; and nothin g in ar ti cl e 301 sh al l a ffe ct the
op er ation o f an y l a w ma d e be for e the co m men c e me nt of the Cons ti tution
( Fourth A me nd me nt ) Act , 1955, in so fa r a s it re la te s to, or pr eve nt
P ar lia men t or th e Le gi sl atu re o f a St 125
at e fro m ma kin g an y l a w r el at ing to,
a n y s uch ma t te r as is re fe rr e d to in s ub- cl aus e ( ii) o f cl au se (6 ) of a rt ic le
19.
306. [Po we r of c e rta in Stat es in Par t B of th e Fi rs t Sch edul e to i mpos e
re st ri ct ions on trad e and co mm e rc e . ] Rep . by th e Con st itut ion (S e ve nth
A me ndm ent ) A ct, 1956, s. 29 and Sch.
307. A ppoi nt me nt of aut hori ty for c ar r yi ng out t he pur pos es of
ar ti cl es 301 to 304.— P arli a me nt ma y b y la w a ppoint s uch a uthor it y as it
c ons ide rs approp ri at e for c ar r yi ng out the purpos es of a rt ic le s 301, 302,
303 and 304, and con fe r on th e autho rit y so appo int ed su ch po wer s and
su ch duti es a s it thin ks n ec es s ar y.
127 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART XIV
SERVICES UNDER THE UNION AND THE STATES
C H A P T E R I.— S E RV I C E S
308. I nte r pret ati on. — In this P art , unl es s th e c ont ext othe r wi s e r equi re s,
th e expr es si on “St at e ” doe s not in clude th e Sta te o f J a mmu and Ka sh mi r.
309. Re c r ui t me nt and c ondit i ons of se r vi c e of per s ons se r vi ng t he
U ni on or a St at e. — Subje ct to the pro vi si ons o f this Con st itut ion, Act s o f
th e app ropr ia te Le gi sl at ur e ma y re gula te the re cr uit me nt , and c ondit ions of
s er vic e of pe rson s a ppoint ed, to public se r vi c es and po sts in conn ec tion
wi th the a ffa ir s o f th e U nion or o f an y St at e:
P rovid ed tha t it s ha ll be co mpe te nt fo r th e P re sid ent or su ch per son as h e
ma y di re ct in the c a se of s er vic e s and post s in c onne ct ion with th e affa i rs
o f the U nion, a nd fo r the Go ver nor of a St at e or suc h pe rson as he ma y
di re ct in the c as e o f s er vi c es and post s in conn ec ti on wi th the a ffa ir s o f the
St at e, to ma ke rule s re gu la tin g th e r ec ru it men t, a nd the condi tions of
s er vic e of pe rson s appo int ed, to s uch se rvi ce s and pos ts until pro vi si on in
th at b eha l f is ma d e b y or under an Ac t o f the a pprop ri at e Le gis la tu re under
thi s a rt ic le , and an y ru le s so mad e sha ll have e ffe ct subj ec t to th e
pro vi si ons o f an y su ch Ac t .
310. Te nure of off i ce of pe r s ons s e r vi ng t he U nion or a S tate .— (1 )
E xc e pt a s e xpr es sl y provid ed b y thi s Con st itut ion, e ve r y pe rson wh o is a
me mbe r o f a de fe nc e se r vi c e or of a ci vi l se r vi ce of th e Union or of an
a ll -Ind ia se rvi ce or hold s an y post c onne ct ed with de fen ce or an y ci vi l pos t
und er the Un ion hold s offic e dur ing th e ple as ur e of the P res ide nt, and
e ver y pe rson who i s a me mb er o f a c ivil s er vic e o f a St at e or hold s an y
c ivil pos t under a St at e holds offi ce durin g th e ple as ur e of th e Go ve rno r
o f th e St at e.
(2) No t wi ths ta nding tha t a p er son holding a c i vi l po st under th e Union or
a St at e holds o ffi c e durin g th e pl ea su re o f th e P re sid en t or, a s the c as e m a y
b e, of th e Go ve rno r o f th e St at e, a n y c ont ra ct un de r wh ic h a per son, not
b eing a me mb er of a d e fe nc e s er vi c e or of an all -Ind ia s er vic e or o f a ci vi l
s er vic e of th e Union or a St at e, is appoint ed und er th is Cons titu tion to hold
su ch a post ma y, if th e P re sid ent or the Go ver nor, as th e ca s e ma y be ,
d ee ms it n ec es s ar y in ord er to se c ur e th e se r vi c es of a per son ha vi ng
sp ec i al qual i fi ca ti ons, provid e fo r the p a yme nt to hi m of co mpe ns at ion, i f
b e fo re th e e xpir at ion of a n a gre e d p eriod th at post i s a boli she d or he i s, fo r
r ea son s not c onne ct ed wi th an y mi sc onduc t on hi s p ar t, requ ir ed to va ca t e
th at post .
311. D is mi ss al, re moval or re duc ti on i n r an k of pe r s ons e mpl oye d in
c ivil capac it ie s unde r t he U ni on or a Stat e. — (1 ) No p er son wh o is a
me mbe r of a c i vi l se r vi c e o f the Un ion or a n al l- Indi a s er vi c e or a c ivil
s er vic e of a St at e or holds a ci vil po st unde r the Union or a St at e s ha ll b e
di s mi s s ed or re mo ve d b y an autho rit y subord ina te to tha t b y whi ch h e wa s
a ppoint ed. 127
128 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2) No su ch per son


a s a fo re s ai d s ha ll be
di s mi s s ed or re mo ve d or r edu ce d in ra nk e xc ep t a ft er a n inqu ir y in wh ic h
h e h as be en in fo r med of the ch arge s a gai ns t hi m and gi ven a r ea son abl e
oppor tunit y o f be ing h ea rd in r es pe ct o f thos e ch arge s:
P rovid ed th at wh er e it i s propos ed a ft er su ch inqui r y, to i mp os e upon
hi m an y su ch pena lt y, such pen al t y ma y be i mpo se d on the ba si s of the
e vide nc e a dduc ed dur ing su ch inqui r y and it sh al l not be nec es s ar y to gi ve
su ch p er son an y opportuni t y o f m a ki ng re pr es en ta tion on the pena lt y
propo se d:
P rovid ed fu rt he r tha t th is cl au se s ha ll not a ppl y—
( a) whe r e a pe rson is di s mis s ed or re mo ve d or r edu ce d in r ank on
th e ground o f conduc t whi ch has led to his convic ti on on a c ri min al
c harge; or
( b) wh er e th e autho ri t y e mp o we r ed to dis mis s or r e mo ve a pe rs on or
to re duc e hi m in ra nk i s sa ti s fi ed th at fo r so me re as on, to b e r ec ord ed b y
th at au thori t y in wr it ing, it is not re a son abl y pr ac ti ca bl e to hold suc h
inqui r y; or
( c ) wh er e th e P res ide nt or th e Go ve rno r, as th e ca s e ma y be, i s
s at is fi ed tha t in th e in te re st o f th e s e cu rit y o f the St at e it is not
e xped ien t to hold suc h inqui r y.
(3) I f, in r es pe ct o f an y su ch per son as a fo re sa id , a qu es tion ar is es
wh et he r it i s r ea son abl y pra ct ic a ble to hold su ch inqui r y a s i s r e fer re d to in
c la us e (2) , th e dec is ion the re on o f th e a uthor it y e mpo we re d to di s mi s s or
r e mo ve s uch pe rson or to re duc e hi m in ra nk sh al l be fi na l.
312. All -I ndi a se r vi c es .— (1 ) No t wi ths ta nding an yt hin g in Chap te r V I of
P ar t V I or P ar t X I, i f th e Coun ci l of St at es has d ec la re d b y re so lution
suppo rt ed b y not le ss th an t wo -thi rds o f th e m e mb er s pr es en t a nd votin g
th at it is ne ce s sa r y or e xp edi en t in the na tion al int er es t so to do,
P ar lia men t ma y b y la w provid e fo r the c re at ion of one or mo r e al l India
s er vic e s (in clud ing an al l- India jud ic ia l s er vic e ) co m mo n to th e Union and
th e Sta te s, and , s ubje ct to th e oth er pro vi si ons of this Ch apt er, re gu la te th e
r ec ru it men t, and the cond ition s of se r vi ce of p er sons appo int ed, to a n y
su ch se r vi c e.
(2) The s er vi c es kno wn a t th e co m men c e me nt o f this Cons titu tion a s th e
Ind ian Ad min is tr at ive S er vi ce and the Indi an Poli ce S er vi c e sh al l b e
d ee me d to be s er vic e s cr e at ed b y P ar li a men t und er thi s ar tic le .
(3) Th e a ll- Indi a judic ia l s er vic e r e fer r ed to in cl au se (1 ) sha ll not
in clud e an y post infe ri or to th at of a di st ric t jud ge a s de fin ed in a rt ic le
236.
(4) The l a w providin g for th e c re at ion o f th e a ll -Ind ia judic ia l s er vi c e
a for es a id ma y cont ain su ch provis ion s fo r the a me nd me nt of Ch ap te r V I of
P ar t V I a s ma y be nec e ss ar y for givin g effe c t to the pro vi si ons of tha t l a w
a nd no such l a w sh al l be dee me d to b e a n a mend me nt of this Con st itut ion
for the purpos es of a rt ic le 368.
129 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

312A. P ow er of
P ar li a me nt t o var y or
revo ke condi ti ons of se r vic e of of fi c er s of c er t ai n se r vi c es .— (1 )
P ar lia men t ma y b y la w—
( a) var y or r e vo ke , wh et he r pro spe ct i ve l y or re tro sp ec ti ve l y, th e
c ondit ions o f se r vi ce s as r esp ec ts r e mu ne ra tion , le a ve a nd pen sion a nd
th e right s as r es pe ct s di sc iplin ar y m at te r s of per son s wh o, havin g be en
a ppoint ed b y th e Se cr et a r y o f Sta te or S ec re ta r y of Sta te in Coun ci l to a
c ivil se r vi c e o f the C ro wn in Indi a be for e th e c o mme nc e me nt o f this
Con st itut ion, con tinu e on and a ft er the co mme n ce men t of th e
Con st itut ion ( Twe nt y- e ighth Am en d men t) Act , 1972, to se r ve unde r th e
Go ver n men t o f Indi a or of a Sta te in an y s er vic e or post ;
( b) va r y or r evoke , wh e the r pros pe ct ive l y or re tro spe ct ive l y, th e
c ondit ions of se r vi ce as r es pe ct s pen sion o f pe rson s who, ha vi ng b een
a ppoint ed b y th e Se cr et a r y o f Sta te or S ec re ta r y of Sta te in Coun ci l to a
c ivil s er vic e o f th e C ro wn in Indi a be fo re th e co m men ce men t of th is
Con st itut ion, r et ir ed or oth er wi se c ea s ed to be in s er vic e at a n y ti me
b e fo re th e c o mme nc e me nt o f the Con st itut ion ( Twe nt y- e ighth
A me nd me nt) Ac t, 1972:
P rovid ed th at in the c a se o f an y suc h pe rson wh o i s holding or h as held
th e offic e of th e Chi e f Ju st ic e or othe r Judge o f th e Sup re me Cour t or a
H igh Court , th e Co mp tro ll er and Audi tor- Gen er a l of Ind ia , the Cha ir ma n or
oth er me mbe r o f the Un ion or a St at e P ubli c Se rvi ce Co mmi ss ion or the
Ch ie f Ele ct ion Co mmi s sion er, nothing in sub -c la us e ( a) or sub -c la us e ( b)
sh al l be cons tru ed as e mp o wer ing P arli a men t to va r y or re vo ke, a ft er hi s
a ppoint me nt to suc h po st, the cond ition s of his se r vi c e to hi s dis adva nt age
e xc ept in so fa r as suc h cond ition s o f s er vic e ar e appl ic abl e to hi m b y
r ea son o f his be ing a pe rson appo inte d b y the S ec re ta r y o f Sta te or
S ec re ta r y o f St at e in Counc il to a c ivil s er vic e o f th e C ro wn in Indi a.
(2) E xc ep t to th e e xte nt pro vid ed fo r b y P arli a men t b y l a w unde r this
a rt ic le , nothin g in this ar ti cl e sh al l a ffe ct the powe r o f a n y Le gis la tu re or
oth er autho rit y unde r an y oth er provis ion o f th is Con st itut ion to r egul at e
th e condi tions of s er vic e o f pe rson s re fe rr e d to in cl aus e (1 ).
(3) Ne ith er the Sup re me Cou rt nor an y oth er cour t sh al l ha ve jur isd ic tion
in —
( a) an y dispu te ar is ing out of an y provis ion o f, or an y endo rs e men t
on, a n y co ve na nt, agr ee men t or othe r s i mi l ar ins tru me nt whi c h wa s
e nte re d into or exe cu ted b y an y per son re fe rr e d to in cl aus e (1 ), or
a ri sin g out of an y le tte r i ss ued to suc h pe rson, in re la tion to his
a ppoint me nt to a n y c ivil se r vi ce o f th e C ro wn in Indi a or hi s
c ontinu anc e in se rvi ce unde r th e Go ve rn me nt o f the Do mi nion o f Ind ia
or a P rovinc e the re o f;
( b) an y dispu te in r es pe ct of an y ri ght , li abi lit y or obli ga tion under
a rt ic le 314 as or igina ll y en ac t ed.
130 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(4) Th e pro vi sion s


o f this ar ti cl e sh al l
h ave e ffe ct not wi ths tand ing an yth ing in ar ti cl e 314 a s ori gi na ll y en ac te d or
in an y oth er provis ion o f thi s Cons titu tion.
313. Tr ansi ti onal provis i ons .— Unt il othe r provis ion is mad e in thi s
b eha l f und er th is Con st itut ion, a ll th e l a ws in fo rc e i mme di at el y be for e th e
c o mme nc e me nt o f thi s Con st itut ion and appli ca bl e to a n y public s er vic e or
a n y po st wh ic h cont inue s to e xis t a ft e r the co m men c e me nt of this
Con st itut ion, as a n a ll -Ind ia s er vi c e or as s er vic e or pos t und er the Un ion
or a St at e sha ll con tinue in for c e so far as c ons is ten t wi th th e pro vi si ons o f
thi s Cons ti tution.
314. [ Prov is ion fo r prot ec ti on of ex is ti ng off ic er s of ce r tain s er vi c es . ]
R ep. by the Con st itut ion (Tw ent y- e ighth Am endm en t) A ct , 1972, s. 3 (w. e .f.
29- 8-1972) .
C H A P T E R II.— P U B L I C S E RV I C E C O M M I S S I O N S
315. Publi c Se r vi ce C o mmi ss i ons f or t he U ni on and for the St at es .—
(1 ) Subje ct to the pro vi sion s o f this a rt ic le , the re sh al l be a Publi c
S er vi c e Co m mis si on fo r the Un ion a nd a P ublic S er vi c e Co m mis si on fo r
e a ch Sta te .
(2) Two or mo r e Sta te s ma y a gr e e tha t the re sh all be one Publi c S er vi ce
Co m mis s ion fo r tha t gr oup o f St at es , and i f a re so lution to that e ffe c t is
p as se d b y the Hous e or, whe r e th er e a re t wo Hou se s, b y ea ch Hous e o f the
Le gis la tu re of e ac h o f tho se Sta te s, P arl ia me nt m a y b y la w pro vi de fo r th e
a ppoint me nt o f a Jo int St at e P ublic Se rvic e Co mmi s si on (r e fer r ed to in th is
Ch apt er a s Jo int Co mmi ss ion ) to s er ve th e nee ds o f thos e Sta te s.
(3) An y su ch la w as a for es a id ma y cont ain su ch inc ide nta l and
c ons eque nti al provis ion s as ma y be ne ce s sa r y or de si ra ble fo r gi ving e ffe c t
to the purpo se s o f the l a w.
(4) Th e P ubli c Se rvi ce Co mmi ss ion fo r th e Union, i f r eque st ed so to do
b y the Go ve rno r of a S ta te ma y, with th e a ppro va l o f the P re sid ent, a gr e e to
s er ve a ll or an y of the ne eds of th e Sta te .
(5) R e fer en ce s in this Con st itut ion to th e U nion Publi c Se rvic e
Co m mis s ion or a S ta te P ubl ic S er vi ce Co mmi ss ion sh al l, unle ss th e cont ext
oth er wi se r equi re s, be con st rue d as re fe r en ce s to the Co mmi ss ion s er ving
th e nee ds o f the Un ion or, a s th e c a se ma y be, the St at e as r es pe ct s th e
p art icu la r ma tt er in qu es tion.
316. A ppoi nt me nt and t er m of off ic e of me mbe r s .— (1) The Ch ai r man
a nd othe r me mbe rs o f a Publi c S er vi ce Co m mis s ion sh al l be a ppoint ed, in
th e c as e of th e Union Co m mi ss ion or a Jo int Co m mis si on, b y th e
P re sid ent , a nd in the c as e o f a St at e Co m mis si on, b y th e Go ver nor o f the
St at e:
Pro vid ed th at a s n ea rl y as ma y b e one -ha l f o f the me mb er s of e ve r y
P ublic S er vi c e Co mmi s sion sh al l be per sons wh o a t the da te s of th ei r
r es pe ct ive a ppoint me nt s have h eld offic e for at l ea st t en ye a r s ei the r under
131 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

th e Go ver n ment of
Ind ia or unde r th e
Go ver n men t of a Sta te , and in co mp utin g the s ai d pe riod o f ten ye a rs an y
p eriod be for e the co m men c e me nt o f this Con st itut ion dur ing wh ic h a
p er son ha s he ld offi ce unde r the Cro wn in Ind ia or unde r the Go ve rn me nt
o f an Ind ian St at e sha ll be in clud ed.
(1 A) I f the offi ce o f th e Ch ai r man of the Co mmi ss ion bec o mes va ca nt or
i f an y such Cha ir ma n i s b y re as on o f a bs en ce or for an y othe r re a son
un able to pe r fo r m the dutie s o f his o ffi c e, thos e duti es sh al l, unti l so me
p er son appo inte d unde r cl au se (1) to the va c an t offi ce ha s e nte re d on the
duti es the reo f or, as th e ca s e ma y be, unti l th e Cha ir ma n has r es u med hi s
duti es , b e pe r fo r med b y s uch one of th e othe r me mbe r s o f the Co m mi ss ion
as th e P re sid ent, in the ca se o f th e Un ion Co m mis si on or a Join t
Co m mis s ion, and th e Go ver nor o f the St at e in the ca s e o f a Sta te
Co m mis s ion, ma y appo int fo r th e purpo se .
(2) A me mb er o f a Publi c S er vi c e Co m mis s ion sh al l hold o ffi c e for a
t er m o f si x ye a rs fr o m the d at e on wh i ch he ent er s upon hi s offi ce or unti l
h e a tt ain s, in the ca s e o f the Un ion Co m mi ss ion, th e age o f s ixt y- fi ve
ye ar s , and in th e ca s e of a Sta te Co m mi ss ion or a Joint Co m mis si on, the
a ge o f s ixt y- t wo ye ar s , wh ic he ver is ea rl ie r:
P rovid ed tha t—
( a) a me mb er o f a P ubl ic S er vi ce Co mmi s sion ma y, b y wri ti ng under
hi s hand add re ss ed , in the c as e o f th e Union Co mmi s sion or a Jo int
Co m mis s ion, to the P res ide nt, and in the ca s e o f a Sta te Co m mi ss ion, to
th e Go ve rno r o f th e St at e, r es i gn his o ffi c e;
( b) a me mb er of a Publi c S er vi ce Co m mis s ion ma y be r e mo ved fro m
hi s offi ce in th e ma nn er provide d in cl au se (1) or cl au se (3) o f ar ti cl e
317.
(3) A per son wh o holds offi ce as a me mb er o f a P ubli c Se rvi ce
Co m mis s ion sha ll , on the e xpi ra tion o f his t er m of offic e , be inel igibl e fo r
r e- appo int men t to th at offi ce .
317. R e moval and s us pe nsi on of a me mb e r of a Publi c S er vic e
C o mmi s si on. — (1) Subj ec t to th e provis ions o f c lau se (3), th e Ch ai r man or
a n y othe r me mbe r of a P ublic Se rvic e Co mmi s si on sh all onl y be r e mo ve d
fr o m hi s offic e b y orde r of the P res ide nt on the ground o f mi sb eha viour
a ft er the Supre me Court , on re fe re nc e bein g m ad e to it b y the P res ide nt,
h as, on inqu ir y held in a c co rdan ce wi th th e pro ce dur e pr es cr ib ed in th at
b eha l f unde r a rt ic le 145, re port ed tha t the Cha ir ma n or suc h oth er me mbe r,
a s the c as e m a y be, ough t on an y su ch gr ound to be r e mo ve d.
(2) Th e P re sid ent, in the c as e o f the Union Co mmi s sion or a Join t
Co m mis s ion, a nd the Go ve rno r in th e ca s e o f a St at e Co m mis s ion, ma y
su sp end fro m offic e th e Cha ir ma n or an y othe r me mb er of th e Co mmi s sion
in r es pe ct of who m a re fe re nc e h as bee n mad e to the Supr e me Court under
c la us e (1 ) unti l the Pr es iden t ha s pa ss ed orde rs on re ce ip t of the repo rt o f
th e Supre me Cour t on suc h r e fer e nc e.
132 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(3) Not with st andin g


a n ythin g in cl au se (1),
th e P re sid ent m a y b y orde r r e mo ve fro m offic e the Cha ir ma n or a n y othe r
me mbe r of a P ublic Se rvic e Co mmi s si on i f th e Ch ai r man or suc h othe r
me mbe r, a s th e c a se ma y be, —
( a) is adjud ged an inso lven t; or
( b) enga ges durin g his t er m of o ffi c e in an y pa id e mpl o yme nt outsid e
th e dutie s of his offi ce ; or
( c ) i s, in th e opinion o f the P re sid en t, un fi t to con tinue in o ffi c e b y
r ea son o f in fi r mit y of mi nd or bod y.
(4) I f th e Cha ir ma n or a n y oth er me mbe r o f a P ubl ic S er vi ce
Co m mis s ion i s or be co me s in an y wa y con ce rn ed or int er e st ed in an y
c ontr ac t or agr ee men t mad e b y or on beha l f o f the Go ver n men t o f Indi a or
th e Go ve rn me nt of a Sta te or pa rt ic ipa te s in a n y wa y in th e pro fit th er eo f
or in an y ben e fi t or e mo lu men t ar is ing th er e fro m othe r wi s e th an a s a
me mbe r and in c o mmon wi th th e oth er m e mb er s of an in corpo ra te d
c o mp an y, he s ha ll, fo r th e purpo se s o f cl au se (1), be de e me d to be gui lt y of
mi s beh a viou r.
318. Pow er to ma ke reg ul ati ons as t o c ondi ti ons of se r vi c e of
me mb e rs and s t af f of the C o mmi s s i on. — In th e ca s e of the Union
Co m mis s ion or a J oint Co m mis si on, the P re sid ent and, in the c as e o f a
St at e Co mmi s si on, the Go ve rno r of th e Sta te ma y b y re gula tion s—
( a) det er mi ne th e nu mbe r of m e mb er s o f the Co m mis si on and thei r
c ondit ions of se r vi ce ; and
(b) ma ke provis ion wi th r es pe ct to the nu mb er of me mb er s of th e
s ta ff of the Co m mis si on a nd th ei r condi tions o f s er vi c e:
P rovid ed th at the c ondit ions of se r vi c e o f a me mb e r o f a P ubl ic Se rvic e
Co m mis s ion sha ll not be va ri ed to his di sad vant a ge a ft er his appo int men t.
319. P rohi bi ti on as t o t he hol di ng of off ic e s by me mbe r s of
C o mmi s si on on ce as i ng to be s uc h me mbe r s .— On c ea s ing to hold offi ce —
( a) the Cha ir ma n of the Union P ubl ic S er vi ce Co mmi ss ion sh al l b e
in el igibl e for fu rt he r e mpl o yme nt e ithe r und er th e Go ver n men t of Indi a
or unde r the Go ve rn me nt of a Sta te ;
( b) the Cha ir ma n of a Sta te P ubl ic S er vi ce Co mmi s sion sh al l b e
e li gi ble for appoin t ment a s the Ch ai r man or an y oth er me mb e r of the
Un ion Public S er vi c e Co m mis si on or a s the Ch ai r man o f an y oth er Sta te
P ublic S er vi c e Co mmi s sion , but not fo r an y oth er e mp lo yme nt e ith er
und er the Go v er n ment o f Indi a or under th e Go ver n men t o f a St at e;
( c ) a me mb er othe r th an th e Cha ir ma n o f the U nion P ubl ic Se rvic e
Co m mis s ion sh al l be eli gi bl e for appoin t men t as th e Cha ir ma n o f the
Un ion Public S er vi c e Co m mis si on or a s the Ch ai r man o f a Sta te Public
S er vi c e Co mmi s si on, but not fo r an y oth er e mplo yme nt e ith er unde r the
Go ver n men t o f Indi a or under th e Go ver n men t of a St at e;
133 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

( d) a me mb er
oth er th an th e
Ch ai r man of a S ta te Publi c S er vi ce Co m mis si on sh al l be e li gi ble fo r
a ppoint me nt as the Cha ir ma n or an y othe r me mb er o f th e Union Publi c
S er vi c e Co mmi s si on or a s the Ch ai r man of tha t or an y oth er St at e Publi c
S er vi c e Co mmi s si on, but not fo r an y oth er e mplo yme nt e ith er unde r the
Go ver n men t o f Indi a or under th e Go ver n men t of a St at e.
320. F unct i ons of Publi c S er vi c e C o mmi s s i ons. — (1) It sh al l b e th e
dut y o f the Un ion a nd th e Sta te P ublic S er vi c e Co mmi s si ons to conduc t
e xa min at ions for appoint me nt s to th e se r vi ce s o f th e U nion and the s er vi c es
o f th e St at e r esp ec ti vel y.
(2) It sh al l a ls o b e th e dut y of th e Union Publi c Se rvic e Co m mi ss ion, i f
r equ es te d b y an y t wo or mor e St at es so to do, to a ss is t thos e Sta te s in
fr a mi ng a nd op er at ing s ch e me s o f joint re cr ui t men t for an y se r vi ce s for
whi c h c and ida te s pos se ss in g sp ec ia l qual i fi ca ti ons a re r equi re d.
(3) The Un ion Publi c S er vi c e Co m mis s ion or th e St at e P ublic Se rvic e
Co m mis s ion, as the ca s e ma y be , s ha ll be cons ult ed —
( a) on al l ma tt er s re la tin g to me thod s o f r ec ru it men t to c ivil se r vi ce s
a nd for ci vi l post s;
( b) on the prin ci ple s to be fo llo we d in ma kin g appo int me nt s to c ivil
s er vic e s a nd post s a nd in ma kin g pro mo tion s and tra ns fe rs fro m one
s er vic e to anoth er and on th e su ita bil it y o f ca ndida te s fo r s uch
a ppoint me nt s, pro mo tion s or t ra ns fer s ;
( c ) on al l dis ci plin ar y ma tt er s a ffe ct ing a per son s er vin g und er th e
Go ver n men t o f Indi a or the Go ve rn me nt o f a Sta te in a c ivil c ap ac it y,
in clud ing me mor ia ls or p eti tions r el at ing to su ch ma tt er s;
( d) on an y c la i m b y or in r es pe ct of a p er son who is s er vin g or has
s er ved unde r the Go ve rn me nt o f Indi a or th e Go ve rn me nt of a Sta te or
und er th e C ro wn in India or unde r th e Go ve rn me nt of an Ind ian Sta te , in
a ci vi l c ap ac it y, th at a n y co st s in cur re d b y hi m in de fend ing le gal
pro ce e dings ins titu ted aga ins t hi m in r es pe ct of ac ts done or purpor tin g
to b e done in th e e xe cut ion of hi s dut y shou ld be p aid out o f the
Con sol ida ted Fund of Ind ia , or, as th e ca se ma y be, out of th e
Con sol ida ted Fund of th e Sta te ;
( e ) on an y c la i m for the a war d o f a pen sion in re spe ct o f inju ri es
su st ai ned b y a p er son wh il e se r vi ng und er the Go ver n men t o f Indi a or
th e Go ve rn me nt of a S ta te or unde r th e Cro wn in Ind ia or unde r th e
Go ver n men t of an India n St at e, in a ci vil c ap ac it y, a nd an y ques tion a s
to the a moun t o f an y su ch a wa rd,
a nd it sh al l be the dut y of a P ublic Se rvic e Co mmi s si on to ad vi se on an y
ma t te r so re fe rr e d to th e m and on a n y othe r m at te r whi ch th e Pr es iden t, or,
a s the c as e m a y b e, the Go ve rno r of th e Sta te , ma y re fe r to the m:
Pro vid ed th at th e P re sid ent a s re sp ec ts the al l- India se r vi c es and al so a s
r es pe ct s othe r se r vi c es a nd po sts in conn ec tion wi th the a ffa ir s of the
Un ion, a nd the Go ve rno r, a s r es pe ct s oth er se r vi ce s and po sts in conn ec tion
134 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

wi th th e a ffa ir s of a
St at e, ma y ma ke
r e gul at ions spe ci f yin g the ma tt er s in wh i ch e ith er ge ne ra ll y, or in an y
p art icu la r cl as s o f ca s e or in a n y par ti cul ar c ir cu mst a nc es , it sha ll not be
n ec es s ar y fo r a Publi c Se rvic e Co m mis s ion to b e c onsu lte d.
(4) Nothin g in cl au se (3) s ha ll r equi re a P ublic Se rvic e Co mmi s si on to
b e c onsu lte d a s r esp ec ts the ma nn er in wh ic h an y provis ion re fe rr e d to in
c la us e (4) o f ar ti cl e 16 ma y be ma de or a s r esp ec ts the ma nn er in wh ic h
e ffe c t ma y be gi ven to the pro vi sion s of ar tic le 335.
(5) Al l r e gu la tions mad e unde r the provis o to c lau se (3 ) b y the Pr es iden t
or th e Go ver nor o f a Sta te s ha ll be la id for not l es s tha n fou rt ee n d a ys
b e fo re e ac h Hous e of P arli a men t or th e Hous e or ea c h H ous e of th e
Le gis la tu re of th e Sta te , a s th e c as e ma y b e, a s s oon as pos sibl e a ft er th e y
a re ma de , a nd sh all be sub je ct to suc h mod i fi ca ti ons , wh e th er b y wa y of
r ep ea l or a me nd me nt, as both Hou se s o f P arli a men t or th e Hou se or both
Hou se s of th e Le gi sl a tur e o f the S ta te ma y ma ke dur ing the se ss ion in
whi c h th e y ar e so la id.
321. Pow er to ex te nd f unct i ons of Publi c S er vic e Co m mi s s ions .— An
Ac t ma d e b y P ar lia men t or, a s th e c a se ma y be, the Le gis la tu re o f a Sta te
ma y pro vi de for th e exe rc is e o f add ition al fun ct ions b y the Union P ubl ic
S er vi c e Co mmi s si on or th e St at e P ubli c Se rvi ce Co mmi ss ion as re sp ec ts th e
s er vic e s of the Un ion or th e St at e and a lso a s re sp ec ts th e se r vi ce s o f an y
lo ca l autho rit y or oth er bod y c orpo ra te con st itut ed b y l a w or o f an y publi c
in sti tution .
322. Ex pe nse s of P ubl ic Se rvic e C o m mi s si ons. — Th e e xp en se s of the
Un ion or a Sta te Publi c S er vi c e Co m mi ss ion, inc luding an y sa la ri e s,
a llo wa nc es and pens ions pa yab le to or in r es pe ct o f the me mbe r s or st aff o f
th e Co mmi ss ion , sh al l be cha rge d on the Cons olid at ed Fund o f Indi a or, as
th e ca s e ma y be, th e Con sol ida te d Fund of the Sta te .
323. R e port s of Publ ic S er vic e C o mmi s si ons. — (1 ) It sha ll be the dut y
o f th e U nion Co mmi ss ion to pre se nt annu al l y to th e P re sid ent a r epor t as to
th e wor k done b y th e Co m mis s ion and on r ec e ipt of su ch r epor t the
P re sid ent sh al l c au se a cop y the re o f toget he r wit h a me mor a ndu m
e xpla inin g, as re sp ec ts th e ca s e s, if an y, wh er e the a dvic e of th e
Co m mis s ion wa s not a cc e pte d, th e r ea son s for su ch non- ac c ept an ce to be
l aid be for e ea ch Hou se of P ar lia men t.
(2) I t sh all be th e dut y o f a St at e Co m mis s ion to pr es en t annu al l y to th e
Go ver nor o f the Sta te a r epor t a s to th e wor k done b y th e Co m mis s ion, a nd
it sha ll be th e dut y o f a Join t Co mmi s si on to pre s ent annua ll y to the
Go ver nor of ea ch o f the St at es the ne eds o f whi ch a re s er ve d b y the Jo int
Co m mis s ion a repo rt as to the wo r k done b y the Co mmi s sion in re la tion to
th at St at e, and in e ith er c a se the Go ve rno r, sha ll , on re ce ip t o f su ch repo rt ,
c au se a c op y the reo f toget he r with a me mor andu m e xp la ining, as re sp ec ts
th e ca s es , i f an y, wh er e th e advic e o f th e Co mmi ss ion wa s not ac c ep ted , th e
r ea son s for su ch non- ac c ep tan ce to be la id be for e th e Le gi s la tur e o f the
St at e.
135 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PA RT XI VA
TR IB UN ALS
323A. A d mi nis t r at ive t ri bunal s. —(1 ) P arli a men t ma y, b y l a w, provid e
for th e adjud ic at ion or t ri al b y a d mi ni st ra tive tr ibuna ls of dispu te s a nd
c o mp la int s with r es pe ct to re cr uit me nt and cond ition s of s er vic e o f pe rs ons
a ppoint ed to publi c se r vi c es and post s in conn ec ti on wi th the a ffa ir s o f the
Un ion or o f an y St at e or of a n y loc al or othe r autho rit y wi thin th e t er ri tor y
o f Indi a or under th e c ont rol of th e Go ve rn me nt of India or o f an y
c orpo ra tion owne d or con tro lle d b y the Go ver n ment .
(2) A la w mad e unde r cl au se (1 ) m a y—
( a) pro vid e for th e es ta bl ish me nt o f an ad mi nis tr at ive tr ibuna l fo r
th e Union and a se pa ra te ad mini st ra ti ve tribun al for ea ch St at e or for
t wo or mo re Sta te s;
( b) sp ec i fy the juri sdi ct ion, po wer s (inc ludin g the po wer to puni sh
for con te mpt ) a nd autho ri t y whi ch m a y be e xer c is ed b y ea ch of the sa id
t ribuna ls ;
( c ) provid e for the proc edu re ( inc ludin g provis ion s as to li mit at ion
a nd ru le s of evid enc e) to be fol lo wed b y th e sa id tribun al s;
( d) e xclud e th e jur isd ic tion o f al l cou rts , e xce pt th e ju ris dic tion of
th e Supre me Cour t under a rti cl e 136, with r es pe ct to the di spute s or
c o mp la int s re fe rr ed to in c la us e (1) ;
( e ) pro vid e for th e tr an s fe r to ea c h suc h ad min is tr at ive tribun al of
a n y ca s e s p ending be for e a n y cou rt or othe r au thori t y i m med ia te l y
b e fo re th e e st ab li sh men t o f su ch tribun al a s would ha ve be en wit hin the
ju ris dic tion of suc h tr ibuna l i f the c au se s of ac ti on on wh ic h su ch su it s
or pro ce ed ings a re b as ed had ar is en a fte r su ch es ta bli sh me nt;
( f) r epe al or a me nd an y orde r mad e b y the P re sid ent unde r cl aus e (3 )
o f a rti cl e 371D ;
( g) cont ain su ch suppl e men ta l, inc ide nta l and cons equ ent ia l
pro vi si ons (inc ludin g provis ions as to fe e s) as P arl ia me nt ma y de e m
n ec es s ar y for the e ffe ct ive fu nc tionin g of, and fo r th e sp ee d y di spos al of
c as e s b y, and the e n fo rc e men t of th e orde rs o f, s uch tr ibuna ls .
(3) The pro vi sion s o f this ar ti cl e sh al l ha ve e ffe c t not with st andin g
a n ythin g in an y oth er provis ion o f this Cons titu tion or in an y oth er la w for
th e ti me be ing in for c e.
323B . Tri bunal s f or ot her mat t er s. — (1 ) Th e approp ri at e Le gis la tu re
ma y, b y l a w, provide for the adjud ic at ion or t ri al b y t ribun al s of a n y
di sput es , co mp la int s, or offe nc es with r es pe ct to al l or an y o f th e m at te r s
sp ec i fie d in c la us e (2) wit h re spe ct to whi ch su ch Le gi sl at ur e ha s po wer to
ma ke la ws .
(2) Th e ma tt e rs r e fer r ed to in c lau se (1) ar e th e fol lo win g, na me l y: —
( a) le vy, a s se s s men t, co lle ct ion and en for ce me nt o f an y t ax;
( b) fo re i gn e xc ha nge, i mpo rt and expor t a cr os s cu sto ms front ie rs ;
135
136 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(c) indust ri al
a nd l abour di spute s;
( d) land re for ms b y wa y o f ac qui si tion b y th e St at e o f an y es ta t e as
d e fin ed in a rt ic le 31 A or of an y ri gh ts the re in or the e xt ingui sh men t or
mo di fi c at ion of a n y suc h r ights or b y wa y o f c ei lin g on a gr ic ul tur al la nd
or in an y othe r wa y;
( e ) ce il ing on urban prop er t y;
( f) el ec tion s to e ith er Hous e of P arli a me nt or the H ous e or eith er
Hou se of th e Le gi sl at ur e of a S ta te , but e xc lud ing th e ma tt er s r e fer re d to
in ar ti cl e 329 and a rt ic le 329 A;
( g) produc tion, proc ur e men t, suppl y a nd di st ribut ion o f food -s tuffs
( inc ludin g edib le oil se e ds and oil s) and su ch othe r good s a s th e
P re sid ent ma y, b y publi c noti fi c at ion, de cl ar e to b e e s se nti al goods for
th e purpos e of this a rt ic le and con tro l o f pri ce s o f su ch good s;
( h) r ent, its re gu la tion a nd con trol and t enan c y is sue s in clud ing the
r ight, tit le a nd int er e st o f la ndlord s and ten ant s;
( i) o ffe nc e s a ga in st la ws with r es pe ct to an y of the ma tt e rs s pe ci fi ed
in sub -c lau se s ( a) to ( h) and fe es in r esp ec t o f an y of thos e ma tt er s;
( j) an y ma t te r in cid ent al to an y of the ma tt er s spe ci fi ed in s ub-
c la us es ( a) to ( i) .
(3) A la w mad e unde r cl au se (1 ) m a y—
( a) provide for the es ta bl ish me nt of a hie ra rc h y of t ribun al s;
( b) sp ec i fy the juri sdi ct ion, po wer s (inc ludin g the po wer to puni sh
for con te mpt ) a nd autho ri t y whi ch m a y be e xer c is ed b y ea ch of the sa id
t ribuna ls ;
( c ) provid e for the proc edu re ( inc ludin g provis ion s as to li mit at ion
a nd ru le s of evid enc e) to be fol lo wed b y th e sa id tribun al s;
( d) e xclud e th e jur isd ic tion o f al l cou rts , e xce pt th e ju ris dic tion of
th e Supr e me Cour t unde r a rti cl e 136, with re sp ec t to a ll or an y o f the
ma t te rs fal lin g wi thin th e ju ri sdi ction o f the s ai d t ribuna ls ;
( e ) provide for the tr an s fe r to ea c h su ch tr ibuna l o f an y c a se s
p ending be for e a n y cou rt or an y oth er autho rit y i mme di at el y be for e th e
e st ab lis h men t of su ch t ribuna l a s wo uld ha ve b een with in th e
ju ris dic tion of suc h tr ibuna l i f the c au se s of ac ti on on wh ic h su ch su it s
or pro ce ed ings a re b as ed had ar is en a fte r su ch es ta bli sh me nt;
( f) con ta in s uch supp le me nt al , in cid ent al and con se que nti al
pro vi si ons (inc ludin g provis ions as to fe e s) as th e app ropr ia te
Le gis la tu re ma y d ee m n ec es s ar y for the e ffe ct ive fu nc tion ing of, a nd fo r
th e sp ee d y di spos al of ca s e s b y, and th e en for ce men t of th e orde rs o f,
su ch tr ibuna ls .
(4) The pro vi sion s o f this ar ti cl e sh al l ha ve e ffe c t not with st andin g
a n ythin g in an y oth er provis ion o f this Cons titu tion or in an y oth er la w for
th e ti me be ing in for c e.
137 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Exp lanation .—In


thi s ar ti cl e,
“ app ropr ia te Le gis la tu re ”, in re la tion to an y ma tt er, me an s P arl ia me nt or,
a s th e c as e ma y b e, a Sta te Le gi sl a tur e c o mp et en t to ma ke l a ws wi th
r es pe ct to su ch mat t er in ac c ord anc e wi th the pro vi sion s of P art X I.
138 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART XV
ELECTIONS
324. Supe r i nt e nde nc e, di rec ti on and c ontrol of el ec ti ons to be ves te d
i n an Ele ct i on Co m mi s s ion.— (1) The sup er in t ende nc e, dire ct ion a nd
c ontro l of th e pr epa ra tion of the el ec to ra l rol ls fo r, and th e condu ct of, a ll
e le ct ion s to P arl ia me nt and to th e Le gis la tu re of e ve r y Sta te and o f
e le ct ion s to th e o ffi c e s of Pr es iden t a nd Vice - Pr es iden t h eld under thi s
Con st itut ion s ha ll be ve s te d in a Co m mis si on ( re fe rr e d to in this
Con st itut ion a s th e E le ct ion Co m mi ss ion ).
(2) The El ec tion Co mmi ss ion sha ll c ons is t of th e Chi e f Ele ct ion
Co m mis s ione r a nd su ch nu mb er of oth er Ele ct ion Co m mis si one rs , i f an y, as
th e Pr es iden t m a y fr o m ti me to ti me fi x and th e appoint me nt o f the Ch ie f
El ec ti on Co m mi ss ion er and oth er El ec tion Co mmi s si one rs sh al l, subj ec t to
th e provis ions o f an y l a w ma d e in th at beh al f b y P arl ia me nt , b e m ad e b y
th e Pr es iden t.
(3) Whe n an y othe r El ec tion Co mmi ss ion er is s o appoin te d the Chie f
El ec ti on Co m mi ss ion er sh al l a ct a s th e Ch ai r man o f th e E le ct ion
Co m mis s ion.
(4) B e fo re e a ch gen er al e le ct ion to th e Hous e of the P eople a nd to the
Le gis la ti ve As s e mb l y o f ea ch Sta te , and b e fo re the fi r st ge ne ra l e le c tion
a nd the re a fte r be fo re ea c h bie nnia l e le ct ion to th e Le gis la ti ve Coun ci l o f
e a ch Sta te h avin g suc h Coun ci l, the P re sid ent ma y a lso appo int a ft e r
c onsu lta tion wi th the El ec tion Co m mis si on s uch R egion al Co m mis si one rs
a s h e ma y c ons ide r ne ce s s ar y to a ss is t th e El ec tion Co mmi ss ion in the
p er for ma nc e of the fu nc tion s con fer r ed on th e Co m mi ss ion b y c la us e (1).
(5) Subj ec t to th e provis ions o f an y l a w ma d e b y P ar lia me nt , the
c ondit ions of se r vi ce and tenu re o f o ffi c e of the El ec tion Co mmi s si one rs
a nd th e Re gi ona l Co mmi ss ion er s sh all be su ch as the P res ide nt ma y b y rul e
d ete r min e:
P rovid ed tha t the Chi e f El ec ti on Co m mis s ione r sh al l not be re mo ved
fr o m hi s offic e e xc ept in like m an ne r and on the li ke gr ounds a s a Jud ge of
th e Supr e me Cour t and the c ondit ions of se r vi c e o f the Ch ie f El ec ti on
Co m mis s ione r s ha ll not b e var ie d to hi s dis ad va nt age a ft e r hi s
a ppoint me nt:
P rovid ed fur th er tha t an y othe r El ec tion Co m mi ss ion er or a R e gion al
Co m mis s ione r s ha ll not b e re mo ved fr o m o ffi c e e xc ept on th e
r ec o mme nd at ion o f th e Ch ie f Ele ct ion Co mmi s si one r.
(6) The P re sid ent, or the Go ve rno r of a Sta te , sh al l, wh en so requ es te d
b y the El ec tion Co m mis si on, ma ke a vai la bl e to th e Ele ct ion Co mmi ss ion or
to a Re giona l Co mmi s sion er s uch s ta ff as m a y b e n ec es s ar y fo r the
di sc harge o f the fu nc tions con fer r ed on th e El ec tion Co mmi ss ion b y c la us e
(1 ).
325. N o pe r s on t o be i ne li gi bl e 138f or i ncl usi on in, or t o c lai m to be
i ncl ude d i n a s pe ci al, e le ct or al rol l on grounds of re lig ion, r ac e, cas te
139 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

or s ex .— The r e s ha ll
be one ge ne ra l
e le ct or al rol l for eve r y t er rito ri al con st itue nc y for el ec tion to ei the r Hous e
o f P arl ia me nt or to th e Hous e or ei the r Hous e o f the Le gis la tu re o f a St at e
a nd no per son sh al l be inel igibl e for in clu sion in a n y su ch ro ll or c la i m to
b e in clud ed in a n y s pe ci al e le ct or al rol l for an y su ch cons titu en c y on
ground s onl y o f r el igion, ra c e, c as te , se x or a n y of th e m.
326. E le ct ions to t he H ous e of the P eopl e and to the L egi sl at i ve
A ss e mbli es of S tate s t o be on t he bas is of adul t s uf f r ag e. — Th e e le ct ions
to the Hou se of th e P eople and to the Le gi sl a ti ve As se mb l y of eve r y St at e
sh al l be on the ba si s of adul t su ffr a ge; th at is to sa y, e ve r y p er son wh o i s a
c it iz en o f India and wh o is not le ss than ei gh te en ye ar s of a ge on su ch d ate
a s ma y be fi xed in th at beh al f b y or unde r a n y l a w m ad e b y th e app ropri at e
Le gis la tu re a nd i s not oth er wis e di squa li fie d under thi s Cons titu tion or an y
l a w ma d e b y th e approp ri at e Le gi sl at ur e on th e ground o f non-r es id enc e,
unsoundn es s of mi nd, c ri me or c or rupt or i lle gal p r ac ti ce , sh al l be enti tl ed
to be re gis te re d as a vot er a t an y suc h e le ct ion.
327. Pow er of Par li a me nt to ma ke provis i on w it h res pe ct t o e le ct i ons
t o Leg is lat ure s. — Subj ec t to th e pro vi sion s o f this Cons titu tion,
P ar lia men t ma y fr o m t i me to ti me b y l a w m a ke pro vi sion wi th re sp ec t to a ll
ma t te rs re la tin g to, or in conn ec ti on wi th, e le ct ions to ei the r Hous e o f
P ar lia men t or to th e Hou se or e ith er Hous e o f the Le gi sl atu re of a Sta te
in clud ing the prep ar at ion o f el ec tor al roll s, the d eli mi ta tion of
c ons titu enc ie s and a ll othe r ma tt er s ne ce s sa r y for se cu rin g th e du e
c ons titu tion of s uch Hou se or Hou se s.
328. Pow er of Le gi sl at ure of a St at e to ma ke provis i on w it h res pe ct t o
e le ct i ons to s uc h Le gis lat ure .— Subj ec t to th e provis ion s of thi s
Con st itut ion a nd in so fa r as provis ion in th at beh al f i s not ma d e b y
P ar lia men t, th e Le gi s la tur e o f a St at e ma y fro m t i me to ti me b y l a w ma ke
pro vi si on wi th re sp ec t to all ma t te rs re la tin g to, or in c onne ct ion wi th , th e
e le ct ion s to th e Hou se or ei the r H ous e o f th e Le gis la tu re of th e Sta te
in clud ing th e prep ar at ion of el ec tor al ro lls a nd a ll oth er ma tt er s n ec es s ar y
for se cu rin g the due con st itut ion o f su ch Hou se or Hou se s.
329. B ar t o int er f ere nce by c ourt s in e le ct or al mat t e rs .—
No t wi th st andin g an yt hin g in th is Cons ti tution —
(a) the val idit y o f an y l a w r el at ing to th e d eli mi ta tion o f
c ons titu enc ie s or the al lot me nt o f s e at s to s uch cons ti tuen ci es , ma d e or
purpo rtin g to be ma d e und er a rt ic le 327 or ar ti cl e 328, s ha ll not b e
c al le d in que st ion in an y cou rt ;
(b) no el ec ti on to ei the r Hous e o f P arl ia me nt or to th e Hous e or
e ith er Hous e of the Le gi sl at ur e o f a Sta te sh al l be c al le d in que st ion
e xc ept b y an el ec tion pe tit ion pr es e nte d to su ch autho rit y a nd in su ch
ma nn er as ma y be pro vid ed for b y or und er a n y la w m ad e b y th e
a pprop ria te Le gi sl atu re .
329A. [ Spe cial pro vi sion a s to el e ct ions to Par liam en t in the ca se of
P ri me Mi nis te r and Sp eak er.] R ep. b y the Cons titu tion (F or ty -fou rth
140 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

A me ndm ent ) Ac t, 1978,


s . 36 (w. e .f. 20- 6-
1979) .
141 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART XVI
SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING
TO CERTAIN CLASSES
330. R es e r vat i on of se at s for Sc he dul e d C as t es and S c he dul e d Tri be s
i n the H ouse of t he Pe opl e . — (1) Se at s sh al l be r es e r ve d in th e Hou se of
th e P eople fo r —
( a) the Sch edul ed Ca st e s;
( b) th e Sch edul ed Tr ib es e xc e pt th e Sch edu led Tr ib es in the
a utono mo us di str ic ts o f As s a m; and
( c ) the Sch edul ed Tri be s in th e autono mou s dist ri ct s of As s a m.
(2) The nu mb er of s ea ts r es er ved in an y S ta te or Union te rr itor y fo r the
S che dule d C as te s or th e S che dule d Tr ib es und er cl au se (1 ) sha ll be ar, a s
n ea rl y a s ma y be, the s a me proport ion to th e to ta l nu mbe r of s e at s al lott ed
to tha t Sta te or Union t er rito r y in th e Hous e o f the P eopl e as th e populat ion
o f th e S che dule d C as te s in the St at e or Union te rr ito r y or o f th e S che dul ed
Tr ib es in th e St at e or Union t er rito r y or p ar t o f th e St at e or Union t er rito r y,
a s the c as e m a y b e, in r es pe ct o f whi ch s ea ts a re so re se r ved, be ar s to the
tot al popul at ion o f th e St at e or Union t er rito r y.
(3) Not with st andin g an yth ing con ta ined in cl au se (2) , the numbe r o f
s ea ts re se r ved in th e Hous e o f the P eopl e fo r the S chedu led Tri be s in the
a utono mo us di str ic ts o f As s a m sha ll be ar to the tot al nu mbe r of s ea ts
a llo tte d to tha t Sta te a propo rtion not le ss th an the popul ation o f the
S che dule d Tr ib es in the s aid au tono mo us dis tr ic ts be ar s to the tot al
popul at ion o f th e St at e.
Exp lanation . — In this a rt ic le and in ar ti cl e 332, th e expr es si on
“ popula tion ” me an s th e popul at ion a s a sc e rt ain ed at th e la st pre c ed ing
c en sus o f whi ch th e r el e vant fi gu re s ha ve be en publish ed :
P rovid ed tha t the re fe r en ce in thi s Exp lanation to the l as t pre ce din g
c en sus o f whi ch th e r el e vant fi gu re s ha ve be en publis hed sh al l, until the
r el e va nt fi gur es fo r the fi r st ce nsu s t ake n a ft e r th e ye ar 2026 ha ve be en
publi sh ed, be con st rued a s a re fe r en ce to the 2001 c en su s.
331. R e pre s e nt ati on of t he A ng lo- I ndi an Co m muni ty i n t he Hous e of
t he Pe opl e. — Not with st andin g an yth ing in a rt ic le 81, the P re sid en t ma y, i f
h e is of opinion th at th e An gl o- India n co m mu nit y is not ade qua te l y
r ep re se nt ed in th e H ous e of the P eople , no min at e not mo re than t wo
me mbe r s of tha t c o mmun it y to th e Hous e o f the P eopl e.
332. R es e r vat i on of se at s for Sc he dul e d C as t es and S c he dul e d Tri be s
i n the Le gis lati ve As se mbli e s of the St at e s. — (1) S ea ts sha ll be r es er ve d
for the Sch edul ed Ca st e s and the S chedu le d Tri be s, e xc ept th e Sch edul ed
Tr ib es in th e a utono mo us di st ric ts o f As s a m, in the Le gi s la ti ve As se mb l y of
e ver y Sta te .
(2) Se at s sh al l be r es e r ve d a lso fo r th e au tono mo us di st ri ct s in th e
Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y o f th e St at e o f As
141sa m.
142 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(3) Th e nu mb er o f
s ea ts r es er ve d fo r the
S che dule d C as te s or th e S che dule d Tr ib es in the Le gis la ti ve As s e mb l y o f
a n y S ta te unde r cl aus e (1 ) s ha ll bea r, a s ne ar l y as ma y b e, the sa me
propo rtion to the tot al nu mb er o f s ea ts in th e As s e mbl y as th e popula tion of
th e S chedu led Ca st es in th e St at e or o f the Sch edul ed Tri be s in the St at e or
p art of the Sta te , a s th e c as e ma y b e, in r es pe ct of whi ch s e at s a re so
r es er ve d, bea rs to th e tota l populat ion of th e Sta te .
(3 A) No t wi th st andin g a n ythin g cont ain ed in c la us e (3 ), unt il th e t aking
e ffe c t, unde r ar tic le 170, o f the r e- adju st me nt , on the ba si s of th e fi r st
c en sus a ft e r th e ye ar 2026, o f th e nu mbe r o f s e at s in th e Le gis la ti ve
As s e mbl ie s o f the St at es of Ar una ch al P rad es h, Me gh al a ya , Miz or a m a nd
N a ga l and, th e s e at s wh i ch sha ll be r es er ve d for the Sch edul ed Tri be s in th e
Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y o f an y su ch Sta te sha ll be, —
( a) if a ll th e s ea ts in th e Le gi s la ti ve As s e mbl y of su ch St at e in
e xis te nc e on th e d at e of c o mi ng in to for c e o f the Con st itut ion ( Fi ft y-
s e ve nth A me nd me nt ) Act , 1987 (h er ea ft er in thi s c la us e r e fer r ed to a s
th e e xi st in g As s e mbl y) a re he ld b y me mb e rs o f th e S chedu led Tr ib es , a ll
th e se at s e xce pt one;
( b) in an y oth er ca s e, such nu mb er of se at s as be ar s to th e tot al
nu mbe r of s e at s, a propo rtion not le ss th an the nu mb er ( as on the sa id
d ate ) of me mb er s be longin g to th e Sch edul ed Tri be s in th e exis ti ng
As s e mbl y bea rs to th e to ta l nu mbe r of se at s in the e xi st ing As s e mbl y.
(3B ) Not with st andin g an yt hin g con ta ined in cl au se (3 ), until th e r e-
a djus t men t, unde r a rt ic le 170, ta kes e ffe ct on the bas is of the fir st ce ns us
a ft er th e ye a r 2026, of th e nu mb er o f se at s in the Le gis la ti ve As s e mb l y o f
th e St at e o f Tr ipu ra , the se at s wh ic h sh al l be re se r ve d for the Sch edul ed
Tr ib es in th e Le gis l at ive As s e mbl y s ha ll be, su ch numbe r of se at s a s be ar s
to the tot al nu mbe r of s ea ts , a propor tion not le ss th an the nu mb er, as on
th e dat e of c o mi ng into fo rc e o f th e Con st itut ion ( Se ven t y- se cond
A me nd me nt) Ac t, 1992, of me mb er s be longin g to th e Sch edul ed Tr ib es in
th e Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y in e xi st e nc e on th e sa id d ate be ar s to th e tot al
nu mbe r of s e at s in th at As s e mb l y.
(4) Th e nu mb er o f s ea ts re se r ve d fo r an au tono mou s dis tri ct in the
Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y o f th e St at e o f As sa m s ha ll be ar to the tot al nu mb er
o f s ea ts in th at As se mb l y a propor tion not l es s th an th e popula tion of th e
di st ric t be ar s to th e tota l popula tion of th e Sta te .
(5) Th e con st itue nc ie s fo r th e se at s re s er ved for a n y autono mous di st ri ct
o f As s a m sha ll not co mp ri se an y ar e a outs ide th at dis tr ic t.
(6) No pe rson wh o i s not a me mb er of a Sch edul ed Tri be of an y
a utono mo us di str ic t of th e Sta te o f As s a m sha ll be e li gib le for e le c tion to
th e Le gi sl at ive As s e mbl y of th e Sta te fr o m a n y cons ti tuen c y of tha t
di st ric t:
P rovid ed th a t fo r el ec ti ons to the Le gi sl a ti ve As se mb l y of the St at e of
As s a m, th e rep re s ent at ion of th e Sch edul ed Tr ib es and non-S chedu led
143 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Tr ib es in th e
c ons titu enc ie s inc luded
in th e Bodo land Te rr ito ri al Ar e a s D is tr ic t, so noti fi ed , and e xis tin g prior to
th e cons ti tution of Bodol and Te rr ito ri al Ar ea s D is tr ic t, sha ll be ma in ta ine d.
333. R e pre s e nt ati on of t he A ng lo- I ndi an co m muni ty i n t he Leg is lati ve
A ss e mbli es of t he St at e s. — No t wi ths ta nding an yth ing in a rt ic le 170, the
Go ver nor o f a St at e ma y, i f he i s o f opin ion tha t the An glo -Indi an
c o mmun it y n eed s r epr es e nta tion in the Le gi sl at ive As se mb l y of the Sta te
a nd is not ade qua te l y r epr es e nte d the re in, nomin at e on e me mb e r o f that
c o mmun it y to th e As se mb l y.
334. Reservation of seats and special representation to cease after sixty years.—
Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Part, the provisions of this
Constitution relating to—
(a) the reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in the
House of the People and in the Legislative Assemblies of the States; and
(b) the representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the House of the People and
in the Legislative Assemblies of the States by nomination,
shall cease to have effect on the expiration of a period of sixty years from the commencement
of this Constitution:
Provided that nothing in this article shall affect any representation in the House of the
People or in the Legislative Assembly of a State until the dissolution of the then existing
House or Assembly, as the case may be.
335. Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to services and posts.—The
claims of the members of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes shall be taken into
consideration, consistently with the maintenance of efficiency of administration, in the
making of appointments to services and posts in connection with the affairs of the Union or of
a State:
Provided that nothing in this article shall prevent in making of any provision in favour of
the members of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes for relaxation in qualifying
marks in any examination or lowering the standards of evaluation, for reservation in matters
or promotion to any class or classes of services or posts in connection with the affairs of the
Union or of a State.
336. Special provision for Anglo-Indian community in certain services.— (1) During
the first two years after the commencement of this Constitution, appointments of members of
the Anglo-Indian community to posts in the railway, customs, postal and telegraph services of
the Union shall be made on the same basis as immediately before the fifteenth day of August,
1947.
During every succeeding period of two years, the number of posts reserved for the
members of the said community in the said services shall, as nearly as possible, be less by ten
per cent. than the numbers so reserved during the immediately preceding period of two years:
Provided that at the end of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution all such
reservations shall cease.
(2) Nothing in clause (1) shall bar the appointment of members of the Anglo-Indian
community to posts other than, or in addition to, those reserved for the community under that
144 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

clause if such members are


found qualified for
appointment on merit as compared with the members of other communities.
337. Special provision with respect to educational grants for the benefit of Anglo-
Indian community.— During the first three financial years after the commencement of this
Constitution, the same grants, if any, shall be made by the Union and by each State for the
benefit of the Anglo-Indian community in respect of education as were made in the financial
year ending on the thirty-first day of March, 1948.
During every succeeding period of three years the grants may be less by ten per cent. than
those for the immediately preceding period of three years :
Provided that at the end of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution such
grants, to the extent to which they are a special concession to the Anglo-Indian community,
shall cease:
P rovid ed fur th er tha t no educ at ion al in st itut ion sha ll be en tit led to
r ec e ive an y gr an t unde r thi s ar ti cl e unl es s at l ea st for t y p er c en t. o f th e
a nnua l ad mis s ions the re in a re ma de a vai la ble to me mb e rs o f c o mmun iti es
oth er th an th e An glo -Indi an co m mu ni t y.
338. National Commission for Scheduled Castes.— (1) There shall be a Commission
for the Scheduled Castes to be known as the National Commission for the Scheduled Castes.
(2) Subject to the provisions of any law made in this behalf by Parliament, the
Commission shall consist of a Chairperson, Vice- Chairperson and three other Members and
the conditions of service and tenure of office of the Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and other
Members so appointed shall be such as the President may by rule determine.
(3) Th e Ch ai rpe rs on, Vice - Cha irp er son and othe r Me mbe rs of th e
Co m mis s ion sh al l be appoint ed b y th e P re sid ent b y wa r r ant under his h and
a nd s ea l.
(4) Th e Co m mis si on s ha ll ha ve the po we r to re gu la te it s o wn proc edu re .
(5) It sh al l b e th e dut y of th e Co mmi ss ion —
( a) to in ve st i ga te and mo ni tor a ll mat t er s r el at ing to th e s a fe gu ar ds
pro vi ded for th e Sch edul ed Ca st es unde r th is Con sti tution or unde r a n y
oth er l a w for the ti me b ein g in for c e or unde r a n y orde r of th e
Go ver n men t a nd to e va lu at e the wor kin g of suc h s a fe gu ar ds ;
( b) to inqui re into sp ec i fic co mp la int s wit h r es pe ct to the
d epri vat ion of r ights a nd s a fe gu ar ds o f the S che dule d C as te s ;
( c ) to pa rt ic ipa te and ad vi s e on th e pl anning pro ce s s o f soc io-
e cono mi c d evel op men t of th e S chedu led Ca st es and to e val ua te the
pro gr e ss of th ei r deve lop men t under th e U nion and an y Sta te ;
( d) to pr es en t to the P res ide nt, a nnua ll y a nd at suc h othe r ti me s as
th e Co m mis si on ma y dee m fi t, re port s upon th e wor king o f tho se
s a fe gu ar ds ;
( e ) to ma ke in su ch r epo rt s re co m men da tion s a s to th e me a s ur es tha t
shou ld be ta ke n b y th e U nion or a n y Sta te for th e e ffe ct ive
i mpl e men ta tion of thos e s a fe gu ar ds and oth er me a su re s for the
145 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

pro te ct ion, we l fa r e
a nd so ci o- ec ono mi c
d evel op men t o f th e S che dule d C as te s ; and
( f) to dis cha rge su ch othe r fu nc tion s in r el at ion to th e pro te ct ion,
we l fa r e and de ve lop me nt and ad va nc e me nt of the S chedu led C as te s a s
th e Pr es iden t m a y, subj ec t to th e provis ion s of a n y l a w m ad e b y
P ar lia men t, b y rul e sp ec i fy.
(6) Th e P re sid ent sh all c au se a ll su ch repo rt s to b e l aid be for e ea ch
Hou se o f P ar li a men t al ong wit h a me mor a ndu m expl ain ing the ac tion ta ke n
or propos ed to b e ta ken on th e re co m men da tion s r el at ing to th e Union and
th e r ea son s for the non-a c ce pt anc e, i f a n y, of an y o f suc h
r ec o mme nd at ions .
(7) Whe re an y su ch r epor t, or a n y pa rt th er eo f, r el at es to an y ma tt er wi th
whi c h an y S ta te Go ve rn me nt i s con ce rn ed, a cop y of su ch r epor t sh all be
for wa r ded to the Go ve rno r of th e Sta te who s ha ll c au se it to b e la id be for e
th e Le gi sl at ur e o f th e Sta te a long wit h a me mor andu m e xp la inin g the a ct ion
t ake n or propo se d to be ta ken on th e re co m mend at ions r el at ing to th e S ta te
a nd the re as ons fo r th e non- ac c ep tan ce , i f an y, o f a n y of su ch
r ec o mme nd at ions .
(8) Th e Co m mis si on s ha ll, whi le in ve s ti gat ing a n y ma tt er r e fer r ed to in
sub -c la us e (a) or inquir ing into a n y co mp la int r e fer re d to in sub -c lau se ( b)
o f cl aus e (5), have al l the powe rs o f a ci vi l c ou rt t r yin g a su it and in
p art icu la r in r es pe ct o f th e fol lo win g ma tt er s , na mel y :—
( a) su m mo nin g a nd en for cin g the a tt end anc e of an y p er son fr o m an y
p art o f Indi a and exa mi nin g hi m on oath ;
( b) requ irin g th e dis cove r y and produc tion o f an y docu me nt ;
( c ) re ce i vin g e vi de nc e on a ffid a vi ts ;
( d) r equi sit ionin g a n y publi c r ec ord or cop y th er eo f fro m an y cou rt
or o ffi c e;
( e ) is suin g co m mis si ons for th e exa mi na tion o f wit ne ss e s and
do cu ment s;
( f) an y oth er ma tt e r wh i ch the P re sid ent ma y, b y rul e, det er mi ne .
(9) Th e Un ion a nd e ver y Sta te Go ver n men t s ha ll con sult th e Co m mi ss ion
on all ma j or polic y ma tt es affe c ti ng S che dule d C as te s .
(10) In this a rt ic le , re fe re nc e s to th e Sch edul ed Ca st es sha ll be con st rue d
a s inc ludin g re fe r en ce s to suc h oth er ba c kwa rd cl as s es as th e Pr es iden t
ma y, on re c ei pt of th e repo rt o f a Co mmi s sion appo int ed under c lau se (1)
o f a rti cl e 340, b y orde r sp ec i fy a nd a ls o to the An gl o- India n c o mmun it y.
338A. National Commission for Scheduled Tribes.—(1) There shall be a Commission
for the Scheduled Tribes to be known as the National Commission for the Scheduled Tribes.
(2) Subject to the provisions of any law made in this behalf by Parliament, the
Commission shall consist of a Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and three other Members and
the conditions of service and tenure of office of the Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and other
Members so appointed shall be such as the President by rule determine.
146 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(3) The Chairperson,


Vice-Chairperson and other
Members of the Commission shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand
and seal.
(4) The Commission shall have the power to regulate its own procedure.
(5) It shall be the duty of the Commission—
(a) to investigate and monitor all matters relating to the safeguards provided for
the Scheduled Tribes under this Constitution or under any other law for the time being
in force or under any order of the Government and to evaluate the working of such
safeguards;
(b) to inquire into specific complaints with respect to the deprivation of rights and
safeguards of the Scheduled Tribes;
(c) to participate and advise on the planning process of socio-economic
development of the Scheduled Tribes and to evaluate the progress of their development
under the Union and any State;
(d) to present to the President, annually and at such other times as the Commission
may deem fit, reports upon the working of those safeguards;
(e) to make in such reports recommendation as to the measures that should be
taken by the Union or any State for the effective implementation of those safeguards
and other measures for the protection, welfare and socioeconomic development of the
Scheduled Tribes; and
(f) to discharge such other functions in relation to the protection, welfare and
development and advancement of the Scheduled Tribes as the President may, subject to
the provisions of any law made by Parliament, by rule specify.
(6) The President shall cause all such reports to be laid before each House of Parliament
along with a memorandum explaining the action taken or proposed to be taken on the
recommendations relating to the Union and the reasons for the non-acceptance, if any, of
any such recommendations.

(7) Where any such report, or any part thereof, relates to any matter with which any
State Government is concerned, a copy of such report shall be forwarded to the Governor of
the State who shall cause it to be laid before the Legislature of the State along with a
memorandum explaining the action taken or proposed to be taken on the recommendations
relating to the State and the reasons for the non-acceptance, if any, of any of such
recommendations.
(8) The Commission shall, while investigating any matter referred to in sub-clause (a) or
inquiring into any complaint referred to in sub-clause (b) of clause (5), have all the powers
of a civil court trying a suit and in particular in respect of the following matters, namely: —
(a) summoning and enforcing the attendance of any person from any part of India
and examining him on oath;
(b) requiring the discovery and production of any document;
(c) receiving evidence on affidavits;
(d) requisitioning any public record or copy thereof from any court or office;
(e) issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses and documents;
(f) any other matter which the President may, by rule, determine.
147 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(9) The Union and


every State Government
shall consult the Commission on all major policy matters affecting Scheduled Tribes.
339. Cont rol of t he U nion ove r t he ad mi nis t r at i on of Sc he dule d A re as
and t he w el fare of S che dul e d Tri be s. —(1 ) The Pr es iden t ma y a t an y ti me
a nd sha ll , at the expi ra tion o f ten ye a rs fro m the c o mme nc e me nt of thi s
Con st itut ion b y orde r a ppoint a Co mmi s si on to re por t on the a d mi ni st ra tion
o f th e S che dule d Ar e a s and the we l fa re of th e Sch edul ed Tri be s in th e
St at es .
The ord er ma y de fin e th e co mpo sit ion, po wer s and pro ce dur e o f th e
Co m mis s ion and ma y cont ain su ch inc iden ta l or a nc ill ar y provis ions a s the
P re sid ent ma y co n sid er n ec es s ar y or d es ir abl e.
(2) Th e e xe c uti ve po wer of th e Union sha ll exte nd to th e givin g o f
di re ct ions to a St at e a s to the dra win g up a nd e xe c ution o f sc he me s
sp ec i fie d in th e dir ec ti on to be e ss e nti al fo r th e we l fa r e o f the S che dule d
Tr ib es in th e St at e.
340. A ppoi nt me nt of a C o mmi ss i on to i nve s tig at e t he c ondit i ons of
bac kw ar d cl ass e s. —(1 ) Th e Pr es iden t ma y b y ord er appoin t a Co m mi ss ion
c ons is ting of s uch pe rson s as he thinks fit to in ve st i ga te the cond ition s of
so ci al l y a nd edu ca tion al l y ba c kwa rd c la ss e s with in th e te rr ito r y o f Ind ia
a nd th e diffi cu lti es und er whi ch the y l abour and to ma ke r ec o mme nd at ions
a s to the st ep s that shou ld b e t a ke n b y the Un ion or a n y S ta te to re mo ve
su ch di ffi cul ti es and to i mpro ve th ei r cond ition and a s to th e gra nt s th at
shou ld be mad e fo r th e purpo se b y the Union or an y St at e a nd the
c ondit ions s ubje ct to whi ch such gr an ts should b e ma de , a nd the orde r
a ppoint ing suc h Co mmi s si on sh all de fi ne the proc edu re to be fol lo wed b y
th e Co mmi ss ion .
(2) A Co mmi ss ion so appo inte d sh all inves ti gat e the mat t er s r e fer r ed to
th e m a nd pr es e nt to th e Pr es iden t a r epo rt se tt ing out th e fa c ts as found b y
th e m a nd m a ki ng suc h r ec o mme nd at ions a s the y thin k prop er.
(3) Th e P re sid ent sh all c au se a c op y of th e repo rt so pre s ent ed toget he r
wi th a me mo r andu m expl ain ing th e ac tion t aken th er eon to b e l aid be for e
e a ch Hous e o f P arl ia me nt.
341. S c he dul e d C ast e s. — (1) Th e P re sid ent ma y wit h r es pe ct to an y
St at e or Union t er ri tor y, and wh er e it i s a Sta te , a fte r cons ult at ion wit h the
Go ver nor th er eo f, b y publi c not i fi ca ti on, sp ec i fy the ca st e s, ra ce s or tr ibe s
or pa rt s of or group s wi th in c a st es , ra c es or t ribe s whi ch sh al l for the
purpo se s of thi s Cons ti tution be de e med to be S che dul ed C as te s in re la tion
to tha t Sta te or Union t er rito r y, a s the c as e m a y b e.
(2) P arl ia me nt ma y b y la w includ e in or e xcl ude fr o m th e lis t o f
S che dule d C as te s sp ec i fie d in a noti fic a tion i ssu ed unde r c la us e (1) an y
c as t e, ra ce or t ribe or pa rt of or group wi thin an y c a st e, ra ce or t rib e, but
s a ve a s a for e sa id a noti fic at ion i ssu ed und er th e s ai d cl au se sha ll not be
va ri ed b y a n y s ubs equ ent noti fic at ion.
148 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

342. Sc he dule d
Tri be s. — (1) Th e
P re sid ent ma y wi th re sp ec t to a n y S ta te or Union t er rito r y, and wh er e it i s a
St at e, a ft er c onsu lta tion wi th the Go ve rno r the reo f, b y publ ic noti fic a tion,
sp ec i fy the tr ibe s or trib al co m muni ti es or pa rt s o f or gr oups wi th in t ribe s
or trib al co mmun iti es whi ch sha ll for th e purpo se s o f this Cons titu tion b e
d ee me d to be Sch edul ed Tri be s in re la tion to that Sta te or Un ion te rr ito r y,
a s the c as e m a y b e.
(2) Parliament may by law include in or exclude from the list of Scheduled Tribes
specified in a notification issued under clause (1) any tribe or tribal community or part of or
group within any tribe or tribal community, but save as aforesaid a notification issued under
the said clause shall not be varied by any subsequent notification.

PART XVII
149 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

OFFICIAL
LANGUAGE
C H AP T E R I.—L A N G U A G E OF THE UNION
343. O ff ic i al l ang uag e of the U ni on. —(1 ) The offic ia l la ngua ge of the
Un ion sha ll be Hind i in D eva na gar i sc ri pt.
Th e for m o f nu mer al s to be use d for the offi ci al purpo se s o f the Un ion
sh al l be the int ern at iona l fo r m of Ind ia n nu mer a ls .
(2) No t wi ths ta nding an yth ing in c lau se (1), for a p eriod o f fi fte e n ye a rs
fr o m th e co mme n ce men t of thi s Cons ti tution, th e Engli sh l an gu age sh al l
c ontinu e to b e us ed fo r a ll the o ffi ci a l purpos es o f th e Union fo r whi ch it
wa s bein g us ed i mme di at el y b e fo re su ch co mme n ce men t:
P rovid ed tha t the P res ide nt ma y, durin g th e sa id per iod, b y ord er
a uthor is e th e us e o f the H indi lan gu age in add ition to the En gl is h lan gu a ge
a nd of th e De va na gar i for m of nu mer al s in addi tion to th e int ern at iona l
for m o f Indi an nu mer al s for a n y o f th e offic ia l purpos e s of the Union .
(3) Not with st andin g an yth ing in thi s a rt ic le , P arl ia me nt ma y b y la w
pro vi de for th e use , a ft er the s aid pe riod of fi ft e en ye a r s, o f—
( a) the Engli sh lan gu a ge , or
( b) the De va na gar i fo r m of nu me ra ls ,
for such purpo se s a s ma y be spe ci fi ed in the la w.
344. Co m mi s s ion and Co m mi t te e of P ar li a me nt on off ic i al lang uag e.
— (1) The P re sid ent s ha ll, a t th e e xp ir at ion of fi ve ye a rs fr o m the
c o mme nc e me nt of thi s Cons ti tution and th er ea ft er at the expi ra tion o f ten
ye ar s fr o m s uch co m men c e me nt, b y orde r cons ti tute a Co m mi ss ion wh i ch
sh al l con si st of a Ch ai r man and su ch oth er me mb er s re pr es en ting th e
di ffe re nt l angua ge s s pe ci fie d in th e Ei gh th Sch edul e a s the P re sid en t ma y
a ppoint, and th e orde r sha ll de fine th e proc edu re to be fo ll o we d b y th e
Co m mis s ion.
(2) It sh al l b e th e dut y of th e Co mmi ss ion to ma ke r ec o mme nd at ions to
th e Pr es iden t a s to—
( a) th e progr es si ve use of th e H indi l angua ge for th e o ffi ci al
purpo se s o f th e Un ion;
( b) r es tr ic tion s on the use of the Engli sh l angua ge fo r a ll or an y o f
th e offic ia l purpo se s of the Union ;
( c ) th e lan gu a ge to b e use d fo r al l or an y of th e purpos es me nt ione d
in ar ti cl e 348;
( d) the fo r m of nu me r al s to b e u sed for a n y on e or mo re spe ci fi ed
purpo se s o f th e Un ion;
( e ) an y othe r ma tt e r r e fer r ed to th e Co m mis s ion b y th e P res ide nt a s
r e ga rd s the o ffi ci al l an gu age o f th e U nion and the la ngua ge fo r
c o mmun ic at ion b et we en the Un ion and a Sta te or be t we e n on e S ta te and
a nothe r and the ir us e.
149
150 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(3) In ma kin g the ir


r ec o mme nd at ions
und er cl au se (2 ), the Co m mis si on sha ll ha ve due re gar d to the indu st ria l,
c ultu ra l and sc ie nti fic ad van ce me nt of Indi a, and th e jus t cl ai ms a nd the
int er e st s o f per son s be longing to th e non- Hindi spe a ki ng ar e as in r ega rd to
th e public s er vic e s.
(4) The r e sh al l be cons ti tute d a Co m mit te e con si stin g of thi rt y me mbe r s,
o f who m t went y sh al l be me mb er s o f the Hou se of th e P eople and t en s ha ll
b e me mb er s of th e Counc il of Sta te s to be e le ct ed re sp ec ti vel y b y the
me mbe r s o f the H ous e o f the P eopl e and the me mb er s of the Counc il o f
St at es in a cc ord an ce wit h th e s ys te m o f propo rtion al re pr es en ta tion b y
me a ns of th e sin gl e tr an s fe r ab le vote .
(5) It sh al l be th e dut y of the Co mmi tt ee to e xa min e th e
r ec o mme nd at ions o f the Co m mis si on cons titu te d und er cl au se (1 ) and to
r epo rt to th e Pr es iden t th ei r opinion th er eon .
(6) Not with st andin g an yth ing in a rt ic le 343, the P re sid en t ma y, a ft e r
c ons ide ra tion of the r epor t r e fer r ed to in c lau se (5), i ssu e dir ec tion s in
a c co rdan ce with th e wh ole or an y p art o f tha t repo rt.
C H A P T E R II. —R E G I O N A L L A N G U A G E S
345. Of fi ci al l ang uag e or language s of a Stat e. —Subj ec t to th e
pro vi si ons of ar ti cl es 346 and 347, th e Le gis la tu re of a St at e m a y b y la w
a dopt an y one or mo r e of the la ngua ges in us e in th e Sta te or H indi as th e
l angua ge or lan gu a ge s to be u sed fo r a ll or an y o f the offic ia l purpo se s of
th at St at e:
P rovid ed th at , until the Le gis l atu re of th e St at e oth er wis e provid es b y
l a w, the En gl ish la ngua ge sha ll con tinu e to be us ed fo r tho se o ffi ci al
purpo se s wi thin th e St at e for whi c h it wa s bein g us ed i mme di at el y be for e
th e co mme n ce men t o f thi s Cons titu tion.
346. Of fi ci al l ang uag e f or c o mmu nic ati on be tw ee n one Stat e and
anot he r or be tw ee n a St at e and t he U ni on. — Th e l angua ge for th e ti me
b eing autho ri sed for u se in the Un ion for offic ia l purpos e s sha ll be th e
o ffi c ia l l angua ge fo r c o mmun ic at ion be t we e n one S ta te and ano the r St at e
a nd b et we en a Sta te a nd th e Union :
P rovid ed th at if t wo or mor e St at es a gr e e th at th e H indi l angua ge should
b e the offic ia l lan gu age fo r co mmu nic at ion b et we en su ch S ta te s, that
l angua ge ma y be us ed fo r su ch co mmu nic at ion.
347. Spe ci al provi si on rel at i ng to lang uag e s po ke n by a se ct i on of t he
pop ul ati on of a Stat e. —On a de ma nd bein g ma de in th at beh al f the
P re sid ent ma y, if he is sa ti s fi e d th at a sub st ant ia l proport ion o f th e
popul at ion of a Sta te des ir e th e us e o f an y l angua ge spoke n b y the m to be
r ec ogni se d b y tha t Sta te , di re ct tha t su ch l angua ge s ha ll a lso be o ffi ci a ll y
r ec ogni se d th roughout tha t St at e or an y pa rt the re o f fo r su ch purpos e as he
ma y sp ec i f y.
C H A P T E R II I.— L A N G U A G E OF THE S U P R E M E C O U RT ,
151 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

H I G H C O U RT S , ETC.

348. L ang uage t o


be us e d in the S upre me C ourt and i n t he Hi gh Cour ts and f or A ct s ,
B ill s, e tc . —(1 ) No t wi ths ta nding an yt hin g in the for e goin g pro vi si ons of
thi s P art, unti l P ar li a men t b y la w othe r wis e pro vi de s—
( a) all pro ce ed ings in the Supr e me Cou rt and in eve r y H igh Cou rt,
( b) the autho ri ta ti ve te xt s—
( i) of al l Bi lls to be in trodu ce d or a me nd men ts the re to to b e
mo ved in ei the r Hou se of P ar lia me nt or in th e Hou se or e ithe r
Hou se of th e Le gi sl at ur e of a S ta te ,
( ii) of al l Ac ts pa ss ed b y P ar li a men t or th e Le gis la tu re of a
St at e and of al l O rdin an ce s pro mul ga t ed b y th e Pr es iden t or th e
Go ver nor of a Sta te , and
( iii ) of a ll orde rs , rul es , re gu la tion s and b ye - la ws is sue d und er
thi s Con st itut ion or unde r an y la w ma d e b y P ar li a men t or th e
Le gis la tu re o f a St at e,
sha ll be in th e Engli sh lan gu a ge .
(2) No t wi ths ta nding an yth ing in sub -c la us e ( a) o f cl au se (1 ), the
Go ver nor o f a St at e ma y, wi th th e pr eviou s con se nt o f the Pr es iden t,
a uthor is e th e us e o f the H indi lan gu age , or a n y oth er l angua ge use d fo r an y
o ffi c ia l purpo se s of the Sta te , in pro ce ed ings in the Hi gh Cou rt h aving it s
pr inc ipa l se at in tha t Sta te :
P rovid ed tha t nothing in thi s cl aus e sh al l a ppl y to an y judgme nt , d ec re e
or ord er pa ss ed or mad e b y su ch Hi gh Cour t.
(3) No t wi ths ta nding an yth ing in sub -c la us e ( b) of c la us e (1) , wh er e th e
Le gis la tu re of a Sta te has pre s cr ibe d an y lan gu age othe r th an th e Engli sh
l angua ge fo r u se in Bil ls introdu ce d in, or Ac t s pas se d b y, th e Le gis la tu re
o f th e St at e or in O rdin an ce s pro mul ga t ed b y th e Go ver nor o f the St at e or
in an y ord er, ru le , r e gul at ion or b ye - la w re fe rr e d to in p ar agr aph ( iii ) of
th at sub -c lau se , a tr ans la tion o f the s a me in th e En gl is h l angua ge publi she d
und er the au thor it y of the Go ve rno r of th e Sta te in the O ffi ci al Ga z e tt e of
th at St at e sha ll be de e med to be the au thor ita ti ve te xt the reo f in th e
En gl ish l angua ge unde r this a rt ic le .
349. Spe ci al proce dure for e nac t me nt of c er t ai n l aw s re lati ng t o
l ang uage .— Dur ing the pe riod of fi ft e en ye a r s fro m th e c o mme nc e me nt o f
thi s Con st itut ion, no Bi ll or a mend me nt m a ki ng pro vi sion fo r th e l angua ge
to be us ed fo r an y of the purpo se s men ti oned in cl au se (1 ) o f a rt ic le 348
sh al l be introdu ce d or mo ved in ei the r Hous e of P arli a men t wit hout the
pr e viou s sa nc tion of the P res ide nt, and th e P re sid ent sh al l not give hi s
s an ct ion to the int roduc tion o f an y su ch Bil l or th e mo vin g of an y su ch
a me nd me nt e xc e pt a ft er he has t ake n in to c ons ide ra tion th e
r ec o mme nd at ions o f the Co m mis si on cons titu te d und er cl au se (1 ) of a rt ic le
344 and the re port o f the Co m mit te e con st itut ed unde r c la us e (4) o f tha t
a rt ic le .
152 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

C H A P T E R IV.— S P E C I A L
DIRECTIVES
350. L ang uage t o be us e d i n re pre se nt ati ons f or re dres s of gr ie vanc es .
— Ever y p er son sh al l be e nti tle d to sub mit a r ep re se nt at ion fo r the r ed re ss
o f an y gri e van ce to an y o ffi c er or au thori t y of th e Union or a Sta te in an y
o f th e l angua ge s us ed in th e U nion or in th e St at e, a s the c as e m a y b e.
350A. F aci li tie s for i ns t r uct i on in mot he r- tong ue at pri mar y s t ag e. —
I t sh all be th e end ea vour of e ve r y Sta te and o f eve r y loc al a utho rit y with in
th e Sta te to provid e ade qua te fa c il iti es fo r ins tru ct ion in the mo the r- tongue
a t the pri ma r y s ta ge o f edu ca tion to child re n b elon gin g to lingui st ic
mi nor it y group s; and the P re sid ent ma y is su e suc h di re ct ions to an y St at e
a s he con sid er s ne ce ss a r y or prope r fo r s ec ur ing th e provis ion of such
fa c il iti es .
350B . Spe ci al Of fi ce r f or li nguis ti c mi nor it ie s .— (1) Th er e sh al l be a
Sp ec ia l O ffi c er fo r lin gui st ic mi nor iti es to be appo int ed b y the P re sid ent .
(2) It sh al l b e th e dut y of th e Spe ci al O ffic e r to inves ti gat e a ll ma tt er s
r el at ing to th e sa fe gua rd s pro vi ded fo r l inguis ti c mi nor iti es unde r thi s
Con st itut ion a nd r epo rt to th e Pr es iden t upon thos e ma tt er s a t s uch
int er val s a s the P re sid ent ma y dir ec t, and th e Pr es iden t s ha ll ca us e al l such
r epo rts to be l aid be fo re ea c h Hous e of P arl ia me nt, and s ent to the
Go ver n men ts o f the St at es c onc er ned .
351. Di re ct i ve f or de ve l op me nt of the Hi ndi language . — It s ha ll be the
dut y o f the Un ion to pro mo te the sp re ad of the Hind i lan gu age , to de vel op
it so th at it ma y s er ve as a me di u m of e xp re ss ion for a ll th e e le me nt s o f the
c o mpo si te cu ltu re o f Indi a and to s ec ur e it s enr ich me nt b y a s si mi la tin g
wi thout inte r fer in g wi th its ge niu s, th e for ms, st yl e and e xp re s sion s us ed in
H indus ta ni and in the othe r lan gu a ge s of Indi a s pe ci fi ed in th e Ei gh th
S che dule , and b y dr a wi ng, wh e re ve r ne ce s sa r y or de si rab le , fo r its
voc abu la r y, pr i mar il y on S ans kri t and se cond ar il y on oth er l angua ges .
153 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PA RT X VI I I
EM ER GEN C Y P ROV IS IO NS
352. Proc l a mat ion of E me r ge nc y. — (1) I f th e P re sid ent i s s at is fi ed th at
a gr a ve e mergen c y e xis ts whe r eb y the s e cu rit y of Indi a or o f an y p art of
th e t er rito r y th er eo f is thre at e ned , wh e th er b y wa r or e xte rn al aggr es si on or
a r med re be llion , he ma y, b y P roc la ma ti on, ma ke a dec la ra ti on to tha t e ffe c t
in re sp ec t of the whol e of Indi a or o f su ch par t of th e te rr itor y th er eo f a s
ma y b e sp ec i fie d in th e Pro cla ma t ion.
Exp lanation .— A P rocl a ma tion of E mergen c y d ec la rin g that the se cu rit y
o f India or an y pa rt o f th e t er rito r y th er eo f is thr ea te ned b y war or b y
e xte rn al a ggr e ss ion or b y a r med r ebe ll ion ma y b e ma d e be for e the a ctu al
o ccu rr en ce of wa r or of an y su ch a ggr e ss ion or reb el lion, i f th e P re sid ent i s
s at is fi ed tha t the re i s i m min ent dan ger th er eo f.
(2) A Pro cla mat ion is sue d und er cl au se (1 ) ma y be va ri ed or re voked b y
a sub se que nt Pro cl a mat ion.
(3) The P re sid ent s ha ll not i ssu e a P rocl a mat ion under cl aus e (1) or a
P roc la ma ti on va r yi ng s uch P rocl a ma tion unl es s the de ci sion o f the Un ion
C abin et (th at i s to s a y, the Counc il c ons is tin g o f the P ri me Mini st er and
oth er Minis te rs o f C abin et ra nk appoin ted under ar ti cl e 75) th at suc h a
P roc la ma ti on ma y b e i ss ued ha s bee n c o mmun ic at ed to hi m in wri tin g.
(4) Ever y P rocl a ma tion is sue d unde r this ar ti cl e s ha ll be la id be for e e ac h
Hou se of P ar li a men t a nd s ha ll, e xce pt whe r e it is a P rocl a mat ion r evokin g
a pre vious P rocl a mat ion, ce a se to ope ra te at the expi ra tion o f one mon th
unl es s b e fo re the expi ra tion o f that per iod it h as bee n app roved b y
r es olut ions o f both H ous es o f P ar lia me nt :
P rovid ed tha t if an y suc h P roc la ma ti on (not bein g a P rocl a mat ion
r e vo kin g a pr eviou s P rocl a ma tion ) i s is su ed a t a t i me wh en the H ous e o f
th e P eopl e ha s be en di ss olve d, or th e di sso lution of the Hous e of the
P eopl e t ake s pl ac e durin g th e pe riod o f one mo nth r e fer re d to in thi s
c la us e, and i f a r es olut ion a ppro vin g th e P roc la ma ti on has be en pa ss ed b y
th e Coun ci l of St at es , but no re so lution with re sp ec t to su ch P roc la ma ti on
h as be en pas s ed b y th e Hous e of the P eople b e fo re th e e xpir at ion of th at
p eriod , the Pro cl a mat ion sh al l ce a s e to op er at e a t th e e xpi ra tion of thi rt y
d a ys fro m th e da te on wh ic h the Hous e of the P eople fi rs t sit s a ft er it s
r ec ons titu tion, unl es s be for e the e xpi ra tion o f the s aid pe riod o f thir t y da ys
a re so lution a ppro vi ng the P roc la ma ti on ha s be en a ls o pa ss ed b y th e Hou se
o f th e P eopl e.
(5) A Pro cla mat ion so app roved sh al l, unle ss r e vo ke d, ce a s e to op er at e
on the e xpi ra tion o f a pe riod of s ix month s fro m the da te o f th e p as sin g o f
th e se cond o f the r es olut ions app rovin g the P rocl a ma tion und er cl au se (4 ):
P rovid ed th at if and so o ft en a s a r eso lution appro vi ng th e cont inua nc e
in for c e of su ch a Pro cla ma t ion i s pa ss ed b y both H ous es of P ar lia me nt the
P roc la ma ti on s ha ll, unle ss re vo ked, con tinu e in for c e fo r a fur the r pe riod

153
154 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

o f s ix mo nths fr o m th e
d ate on wh ic h it wo uld
oth er wi se have c e as ed to ope ra te unde r this c la us e:
P rovid ed fur th er tha t i f th e di sso lution of the Hous e of the P eople ta ke s
pl ac e durin g an y s uch pe riod of si x mon ths and a re so lution app rovin g the
c ontinu anc e in fo r ce o f su ch P roc la ma ti on ha s be en p as se d b y the Counc il
o f St at es but no r es olut ion wi th re sp ec t to the cont inua nc e in for c e o f su ch
P roc la ma ti on ha s be en p as se d b y the Hous e o f the P eople dur ing the sa id
p eriod , the Pro cl a mat ion sh al l c ea s e to oper at e a t th e e xp ir at ion of thi rt y
d a ys fro m th e da te on wh ic h the Hous e of the P eople fi rs t sit s a ft er it s
r ec ons titu tion unl es s be fo re the expi ra tion o f the s ai d pe riod o f thi rt y
d a ys, a r es olut ion app rovin g th e con tinu anc e in fo rc e of the P rocl a mat ion
h as be en al so pas s ed b y th e Hous e of the P eople .
(6) For th e pu rpo se s o f cl au se s (4 ) a nd (5 ), a re so lution ma y be pa ss ed
b y e ith er Hous e o f P arli a men t onl y b y a ma jo rit y of th e tot al m e mb er sh ip
o f that Hous e and b y a m aj or it y o f not le ss than t wo -thi rds of th e Me mbe r s
o f th at Hous e pr es en t a nd votin g.
(7) Not with st andin g an yth ing con ta ined in the fo re goin g c la us es , th e
P re sid ent sha ll r e vo ke a Pro cl a mat ion i ssu ed und er c la us e (1 ) or a
P roc la ma ti on var yin g s uch Pro cla ma t ion i f the Hous e o f the P eopl e p as se s
a r es olut ion di sa ppro vi ng, or, as th e ca se ma y be, dis app rovin g the
c ontinu anc e in fo r ce of, suc h P roc la ma ti on.
(8) Whe re a notic e in wri tin g si gn ed b y not l es s th an one -t enth of the
tot al nu mbe r of me mb er s of the Hou se o f th e P eopl e ha s bee n gi ven, o f
th ei r int ent ion to mo ve a re solu tion for di sapp rovin g, or, a s th e c as e ma y
b e, fo r dis app roving the con tinua nc e in for c e o f, a P roc la ma ti on is sued
und er cl au se (1 ) or a P roc la ma ti on va r yi ng suc h P roc la ma ti on,—
( a) to th e Sp ea ker, i f th e H ous e is in se ss ion; or
( b) to th e P re sid en t, if the Hou se is not in se s si on,
a sp ec i al s itt ing o f th e H ous e sha ll be he ld wi th in fou rt ee n d a ys fr o m th e
d ate on wh ic h su ch noti ce i s re c ei ved b y th e Sp ea ker, or, as the ca s e m a y
b e, b y the P re sid ent , for the purpos e o f con sid er ing suc h r es olut ion.
(9) Th e po we r con fe rr ed on th e P res ide nt b y thi s ar ti cl e sha ll inc lude th e
po wer to is sue diffe r en t P rocl a mat ion s on diffe r ent gr ounds , bein g wa r or
e xte rn al a ggre s si on or a r med reb el lion or i mmi nen t dan ge r of wa r or
e xte rn al a ggr e ss ion or ar me d reb el lion, wh eth er or not the re i s a
P roc la ma ti on al re ad y is sue d b y the Pr es iden t unde r cl au se (1) and su ch
P roc la ma ti on is in op er at ion.
* * * * *

353. Ef fe ct of P rocl a mati on of E me r ge ncy.— Whil e a Pro cl a mat ion


o f E me rge nc y i s in ope ra tion , th en—
( a) not wi ths tand ing an yth ing in thi s Cons titu tion, the e xec ut ive
po wer of th e Union sh al l e xte nd to th e gi vi ng o f dir ec ti ons to an y Sta te
155 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

a s to the man ne r in
whi c h the exe cu ti ve
po wer the re o f is to be exe rc is e d;
( b) the po we r o f P arl ia me nt to ma ke l a ws wit h re spe ct to an y ma t te r
sh al l inc lude po we r to ma ke l a ws con fe rr ing powe rs a nd i mpo sin g
duti es , or autho ri sin g the con fe rr ing of po wer s a nd th e i mpo si tion of
duti es , upon th e Union or offi ce r s a nd autho ri tie s of the Union a s
r es pe ct s th at ma tt er, not with st andin g tha t it i s one wh ic h is not
e nu mer at ed in the Un ion Li st :
P rovid ed th at wh er e a P roc la ma ti on of E mergen c y i s in ope ra tion onl y
in an y pa rt of the te rr ito r y of Ind ia ,—
( i) the e xe cut ive powe r o f the Union to gi ve dir ec tion s und er c la us e
( a), and
( ii) th e powe r o f P arli a me nt to m a ke l a ws unde r c la us e (b ),
sh al l a lso exte nd to a n y St at e oth er th an a Sta te in wh i ch or in an y p art of
whi c h th e Pro cla mat ion of E mergen c y is in oper at ion i f and in so fa r a s the
s ec ur it y o f Indi a or a n y par t o f th e t er ri tor y th er eo f i s th re at en ed b y
a ct ivit ie s in or in r el at ion to the par t of th e te rr ito r y o f Ind ia in wh ic h th e
P roc la ma ti on of E me rge nc y i s in ope ra tion .
354. A ppl ic ati on of provi si ons re lati ng t o di st r i but i on of re ve nue s
w hil e a Procl a mat i on of E me rg e ncy is i n oper ati on.— (1) The P re sid ent
ma y, whi le a Pro cla ma t ion of E me rgen c y is in op er at ion, b y ord er di re ct
th at a ll or an y of the provis ions of a rt ic le s 268 to 279 sh all fo r s uch
p eriod , not e xt end ing in an y ca s e b e yo nd the e xpi ra tion of the fi na nc ia l
ye ar in whi c h suc h P rocl a mat ion c e as e s to ope ra te , a s m a y be s pe ci fi ed in
th e ord er, ha ve e ffe c t sub je ct to s uch exc ep tion s or mo di fi c at ions as he
thin ks fit .
(2) E ve r y ord er ma de under c lau se (1) sh all , a s soon a s ma y be a ft e r it is
ma d e, be l aid be for e ea ch Hou se o f P arl ia me nt .
355. D ut y of t he U ni on to prot e ct St at e s agai nst ex t er nal agg re ss i on
and i nt e r nal di st ur banc e .— It sh all be th e dut y o f th e U nion to pro te ct
e ver y St at e a gain st ext er na l a ggr e ss ion a nd inte rn al distu rba nc e a nd to
e nsu re tha t the go ve rn me nt of e ve r y Sta te is c ar ri e d on in ac co rda nc e wi th
th e provis ions o f thi s Cons titu tion.
356. Provi si ons in c as e of f ai lure of cons ti t ut i onal mac hi ne r y in
S tate s. — (1) I f th e Pr es iden t, on re c ei pt of a r epo rt fro m the Go ver nor of a
St at e or othe r wi s e, is s at is fi ed that a s itu ation has ar is en in wh ic h th e
Go ver n men t o f th e S ta te c annot be c ar ri ed on in a c co rdan ce with th e
pro vi si ons o f this Con st itut ion, the P re sid ent ma y b y P roc la ma ti on—
(a) a ss u me to hi ms e l f al l or an y of th e fu nc tion s o f th e Go ver n men t
o f the St at e and a ll or a n y o f th e po wer s ve st e d in or e xer ci s abl e b y th e
Go ver nor or an y bod y or au thori t y in th e Sta te othe r th an the
Le gis la tu re o f th e St at e;
(b) de cl ar e th at the po wer s of the Le gi sl at ur e o f the St at e sha ll b e
e xer c is ab le b y or und er the au thor it y of P arli a men t;
156 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

( c ) ma ke su ch
in cid ent al and
c ons eque nti al provis ion s as app ea r to the Pr es iden t to be n ec es s ar y or
d es ir abl e for gi vin g e ffe c t to th e obj ec ts of the P rocl a mat ion, in clud ing
pro vi si ons for su sp endin g in wh ol e or in pa rt the ope ra tion of an y
pro vi si ons o f this Cons titu tion re la tin g to an y bod y or autho ri t y in th e
St at e:
P rovid ed th at nothing in thi s c lau se sh al l au thori se th e P res ide nt to
a ss u me to hi mse l f an y of the powe rs ves t ed in or exe rc is a ble b y a H igh
Cou rt, or to su spe nd in whol e or in par t th e ope ra tion o f an y pro vi si on of
thi s Cons ti tution re la tin g to Hi gh Cou rts .
(2) An y su ch P rocl a ma tion ma y be re vo ked or va ri e d b y a sub se que nt
P roc la ma ti on.
(3) Ever y P rocl a ma tion under this ar ti cl e sh al l be laid be fo re ea ch
Hou se of P ar li a men t a nd s ha ll, e xce pt whe r e it is a P rocl a mat ion r evokin g
a pre vious P rocl a mat ion, ce a se to ope ra te at the expi ra tion o f t wo mo nth s
unl es s b e fo re the expi ra tion o f that per iod it h as bee n app roved b y
r es olut ions o f both H ous es o f P ar lia me nt :
P rovid ed tha t if an y suc h P roc la ma ti on (not bein g a P rocl a mat ion
r e vo kin g a pr eviou s P rocl a ma tion ) i s is su ed a t a t i me wh en the H ous e o f
th e P eopl e is dis sol ve d or th e di sso lution of the Hous e o f the P eopl e t ake s
pl ac e durin g th e per iod o f t wo mo nth s r e fer r ed to in thi s cl au se , a nd i f a
r es olut ion a ppro vi ng th e Pro cla mat ion has b een pa ss ed b y the Counc il o f
St at es , but no re so lution with re sp ec t to su ch P roc la ma ti on ha s be en
p as se d b y the Hous e o f the P eople b e fo re the e xpi ra tion o f th at per iod, th e
P roc la ma ti on s ha ll ce a se to ope ra te at the e xp ir at io n o f thi rt y da ys fro m th e
d ate on wh ic h th e Hou se of th e P eople fir st si ts a ft er it s r ec ons titu tion
unl es s be for e the e xp ir at ion o f th e s ai d p eriod o f thi rt y da ys a re solu tion
a ppro vin g the P roc la ma ti on ha s be en a ls o pa ss ed b y th e Hou se o f th e
P eopl e.
(4) A Pro cla mat ion so appro ved sh all , unl es s r evoke d, ce a se to ope ra te
on the e xpi ra tion o f a pe riod of s ix month s fro m the da te o f i ssu e of th e
P roc la ma ti on:
P rovid ed th at if and so o ft en a s a r eso lution appro vi ng th e cont inua nc e
in fo r ce of s uch a P rocl a ma tion i s p as se d b y both Hous es of P ar li a men t,
th e P rocl a ma tion sha ll , unle ss re vo ked, cont inue in fo rc e fo r a fur th er
p eriod of si x mo nth s fr o m the dat e on wh ic h unde r thi s c la us e it wo uld
oth er wi se ha ve c e as ed to oper at e, but no s uch Pro cla mat ion sh al l in an y
c as e r e ma in in for c e for mor e th an th re e ye ar s :
P rovid ed fur th er tha t i f th e di sso lution of the Hous e of the P eople ta ke s
pl ac e durin g an y s uch pe riod of si x mon ths and a re so lution app rovin g the
c ontinu anc e in fo r ce o f su ch P roc la ma ti on ha s be en p as se d b y the Counc il
o f St at es , but no r es olu tion with r es pe ct to the con tinu anc e in fo r ce of
su ch P rocl a mat ion ha s bee n p as se d b y the Hou se of th e P eople durin g th e
s ai d p eriod , th e Pro cl a mat ion sha ll c ea s e to oper at e at th e expi ra tion of
thi rt y da ys fr o m th e d at e on wh i ch the Hou se o f th e P eople fir s t si ts a fte r
157 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

it s r ec ons ti tution
unl es s be for e the
e xpir at ion o f th e s aid per iod of thi rt y da ys a r es olu tion app rovin g th e
c ontinu anc e in fo r ce o f th e P rocl a ma tion h as bee n al so p as se d b y the
Hou se of th e P eople :
P rovid ed a ls o tha t in th e ca s e of the Pro cl a mat ion i ssu ed und er c la us e
(1 ) on the 11th da y o f Ma y, 1987 wit h r es pe ct to th e St at e o f P unj ab, the
r e fer e nc e in th e fi rs t pro vi so to th is c la us e to “th re e ye a rs ” sha ll be
c ons tru ed as a r e fer en ce to fi ve ye ar s.
(5) No t wi ths ta nding an yth ing cont ain ed in c la us e (4) , a r es olut ion wi th
r es pe ct to the cont inuan ce in for c e o f a P roc la ma ti on app roved under
c la us e (3) for a n y p er iod b e yo nd th e e xpi ra tion o f one ye a r fr o m th e dat e of
i ssu e of suc h P roc la ma ti on s ha ll not b e p as se d b y ei the r Hous e o f
P ar lia men t unl es s—
(a) a P rocl a mat ion of E merge nc y is in op er at ion, in th e wh ol e of
Ind ia or, a s th e c as e ma y b e, in th e whol e or an y p art of the Sta te , a t th e
ti me of the pa ss ing of su ch re so lution , a nd
( b) th e El ec tion Co m mi ss ion c er ti fi es th at th e con tinua nc e in fo rc e of
th e Pro cla mat ion appro ved unde r c la us e (3) dur ing th e per iod s pe ci fi ed
in su ch re solu tion is ne ce s sa r y on a c coun t o f di ffi c ult ie s in hold ing
ge ne ra l el ec tion s to th e Le gi sl at i ve As s e mbl y of th e Sta te c onc er ned :
P rovid ed tha t nothing in thi s cl aus e sh al l a ppl y to the P rocl a mat ion
i ssu ed und er c la us e (1 ) on the 11th da y of Ma y, 1987 wi th r es pe ct to the
St at e of Punjab .
357. Ex erci se of l egi sl at i ve pow er s unde r Procl a mat i on i ss ue d un de r
ar ti cl e 356.— (1 ) Wh er e b y a P rocl a mat ion is su ed under c lau se (1) of
a rt ic le 356, it has b een de cl ar ed th at the po wer s o f the Le gis la tu re o f the
St at e s ha ll b e e xe r ci sa bl e b y or und er th e au thor it y o f P arli a men t, i t sha ll
b e c o mp et en t—
( a) fo r P arli a me nt to c on fe r on th e P res ide nt the po we r o f the
Le gis la tu re o f th e St at e to ma ke l a ws, and to autho ri se th e Pr es iden t to
d ele gat e, subj ec t to such condi tions as he ma y thin k fi t to i mpo se , th e
po wer so c on fe rr e d to an y othe r au thori t y to be spe ci fi ed b y hi m in th at
b eha l f;
( b) fo r P arli a me nt, or fo r th e P re sid en t or oth er autho ri t y in who m
su ch po wer to ma ke l a ws i s ve st ed und er s ub- cl aus e ( a) , to ma ke la ws
c on fe rr in g po we rs and i mpo sin g duti es , or a utho ris ing the con fer ri ng of
po wer s and th e i mp os ition of dutie s, upon the U nion or o ffi c er s and
a uthor iti es the reo f;
( c ) fo r the P re sid ent to autho ris e wh en the Hou se o f th e P eople is
not in s e ss ion e xp enditu re fr o m the Cons olid at ed Fund o f th e St at e
p ending the sa nc tion o f suc h e xpend itu re b y P arli a men t.
(2) An y la w m ad e in exe rc is e of th e po we r of the Le gi sl at ur e o f th e St at e
b y P arli a men t or the P res ide nt or oth er a uthor it y re fe rr e d to in sub- cl au se
( a) o f c la us e (1 ) whi ch P arli a men t or th e P re sid ent or suc h othe r a uthor it y
158 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

wou ld not, but fo r th e


i ssu e of a Pro cl a mat ion
und er ar ti cl e 356, h ave be en co mpe te nt to ma ke sh al l, a ft er the
P roc la ma ti on h as c ea s ed to oper at e, con tinu e in for c e until a lt er ed or
r ep ea le d or a me nde d b y a co mpe te nt Le gi sl a tur e or othe r a utho rit y.
358. S us pe ns i on of provi si ons of art ic le 19 duri ng e me rg e nci e s. —(1 )
Whi le a P roc la ma ti on of E mergen c y dec la rin g tha t the se cu ri t y of Ind ia or
a n y p ar t o f th e t er ri tor y th er eo f i s th re at en ed b y wa r or b y exte rn al
a ggre s sion i s in ope ra tion, nothin g in ar ti cl e 19 sh al l r es tr ic t the po we r o f
th e St at e a s d e fi ned in P art I II to ma ke an y l a w or to t ake an y e xe cut ive
a ct ion whi ch the Sta te wo uld but fo r th e pro vi sion s c onta in ed in th at P ar t
b e c o mp et en t to ma ke or to ta ke, but an y la w so mad e s ha ll, to the e xt en t o f
th e inco mpe te nc y, ce a s e to h ave e ffe c t as s oon a s the P roc la ma ti on c e as e s
to ope ra te , e xc ep t a s re sp ec ts things done or o mi tt ed to b e don e b e fo re th e
l a w so c ea s e s to h ave e ffe c t:
Pro vid ed th at wh er e suc h P rocl a mat ion o f E mergen c y i s in ope ra tion
onl y in an y p art of the te rr itor y of Indi a, an y s uch la w ma y be ma de , or an y
su ch e xe c uti ve ac ti on ma y b e t ake n, under thi s ar ti cl e in r el at ion to or in
a n y St at e or U nion t er rito r y in wh ic h or in an y pa rt o f wh ic h the
P roc la ma ti on of E me rgen c y is not in oper at ion, i f and in s o fa r a s th e
s ec ur it y o f Indi a or a n y par t o f th e t er ri tor y th er eo f i s th re at en ed b y
a ct ivit ie s in or in r el at ion to the par t o f th e t er rito r y o f India in whi ch th e
P roc la ma ti on o f E me rgen c y i s in ope ra tion.
(2) No thing in c la us e (1) sh al l a ppl y—
( a) to an y l a w whi c h do es not cont ain a re ci ta l to the e ffe ct th at su ch
l a w is in re la tion to th e P roc la ma ti on of E me rgen c y in oper at ion wh en it
i s mad e; or
( b) to an y e xe c uti ve a ct ion t aken othe r wi s e th an und er a la w
c onta inin g su ch a re ci ta l.
359. Sus pe nsi on of t he e nf orc e me nt of the rig hts c onfe r re d by P ar t
I II duri ng e me rg e nci es . — (1) Wh er e a P roc la ma ti on o f E mergen c y i s in
op er ation , the P res ide nt ma y b y orde r de cl ar e tha t the right to mo ve an y
c ourt for th e en fo rc e me nt o f su ch of th e right s con fer re d b y P art I II (e xc ep t
a rt ic le s 20 and 21) as ma y be men tion ed in th e orde r and al l pro ce e din gs
p ending in an y c ourt for th e en for ce me nt o f the r ights s o me nt ion ed sha ll
r e mai n sus pend ed fo r th e p eriod dur ing whi c h th e Pro cla mat ion is in fo rc e
or for su ch sho rte r pe riod as m a y b e s pe ci fi ed in th e orde r.
(1 A) Wh il e a n orde r ma d e und er c la us e (1 ) me nt ionin g a n y o f th e r ights
c on fe rr e d b y P art II I (e xce pt ar ti cl es 20 and 21) is in op er at ion, nothing in
th at P ar t con fe rr ing tho se right s sh al l r es tr ic t the powe r o f the Sta te as
d e fin ed in th e sa id P art to m a ke an y l a w or to ta ke an y e xe c uti ve ac tion
whi c h the Sta te wo uld but fo r th e pro vi si ons c ont ain ed in th at P ar t be
c o mp et en t to ma ke or to t ake , but an y la w s o mad e sh all , to th e e xt en t of
th e inco mpe te nc y, ce a s e to h ave e ffe c t as s oon a s the ord er a for es a id ce a se s
to ope ra te , e xc ep t a s re sp ec ts things done or o mi tt ed to b e don e b e fo re th e
l a w so c ea s e s to h ave e ffe c t:
159 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

P rovid ed th at wh er e
a P rocl a mat ion of
E me rge nc y is in oper at ion onl y in a n y pa rt o f the t er ri tor y of Indi a, a n y
su ch l a w ma y b e ma de , or an y su ch e xe cut ive ac tion ma y be ta ken, under
thi s a rt ic le in re la tion to or in an y Sta te or Un ion te rr ito r y in whi ch or in
a n y p ar t o f whi ch th e P roc la ma ti on o f E me rge nc y i s not in oper at ion, i f and
in s o fa r a s th e s ec ur it y of Indi a or a n y pa rt o f the t er ri tor y the reo f i s
th re at en ed b y a ct ivit ie s in or in re la tion to the par t of th e te rr ito r y o f Ind ia
in whi ch the P roc la ma ti on o f E mergen c y i s in ope ra tion.
(1B ) Nothin g in cl au se (1 A) sh al l a ppl y—
( a) to an y l a w whi c h do es not cont ain a re ci ta l to the e ffe ct th at su ch
l a w is in re la tion to th e P roc la ma ti on of E me rgen c y in oper at ion wh en it
i s mad e; or
( b) to an y e xe c uti ve a ct ion t aken othe r wi s e th an und er a la w
c onta inin g su ch a re ci ta l.
(2) An orde r ma d e a s a fo re sa id ma y e xt end to the wh ol e or a n y pa rt o f
th e te rr itor y o f Indi a:
P rovid ed th at wh er e a P roc la ma ti on o f E me rge nc y is in oper at ion onl y in
a pa rt o f th e t er rito r y o f India , an y su ch ord er sha ll not e xte nd to an y othe r
p art of the te rr itor y of Indi a unl es s the P re sid en t, be ing sa ti s fi e d tha t th e
s ec ur it y o f Indi a or a n y par t o f th e t er ri tor y th er eo f i s th re at en ed b y
a ct ivit ie s in or in r el at ion to the par t o f th e t er rito r y o f India in whi ch th e
P roc la ma ti on o f E me rgen c y i s in ope ra tion, con sid er s su ch ext en sion to b e
n ec es s ar y.
(3) E ve r y ord er ma de under c lau se (1) sh all , a s soon a s ma y be a ft e r it is
ma d e, be l aid be for e ea ch Hou se o f P arl ia me nt .
359A. [ Appli cat ion of thi s Pa rt to th e Stat e of Pun jab. ] Rep . by th e
Con st itut ion (Si xt y- th ird Am end me nt) Ac t, 1989, s . 3 (w. e .f. 6- 1-1990) .
360. Provi si ons as to f inanc i al e me rg e ncy. — (1 ) I f the Pr es iden t is
s at is fi ed th at a s itua tion has ar is en wh er e b y th e fin anc ia l s ta bil it y or cr edi t
o f Indi a or of a n y par t o f th e t er ri tor y th er eo f i s th re at en ed, he ma y b y a
P roc la ma ti on ma ke a de cl ar at ion to th at e ffe ct .
(2) A Pro cla mat ion is sue d und er cl au se (1 )—
( a) ma y be re vo ked or va ri ed b y a subs equ ent P rocl a mat ion ;
( b) sha ll be la id be fo re e a ch Hous e o f P arl ia me nt ;
( c ) sha ll ce a s e to op er at e at th e e xpir at ion of t wo mo nth s, unle ss
b e fo re th e e xpir at ion of th at pe riod it has b een app rove d b y re so lution s
o f both Hous es of P ar li a men t:
P rovid ed tha t if an y suc h P roc la ma ti on is is sue d a t a ti me wh en the
Hou se of th e P eople ha s bee n di ss olve d or th e dis solut ion o f th e Hous e of
th e P eopl e ta kes pl ac e during th e pe riod o f t wo mo nths re fe rr e d to in sub -
c la us e ( c ), a nd i f a re so lution appro vi ng the Pro cl a mat ion h as b een pas s ed
b y the Coun cil o f St at es , but no r es olut ion with r es pe ct to suc h
P roc la ma ti on ha s be en p as se d b y the Hous e o f the P eople b e fo re the
160 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

e xpir at ion of th at
p eriod , the
P roc la ma ti on s ha ll ce a se to ope ra te at the e xp ir at io n o f thi rt y da ys fro m th e
d ate on wh ic h th e Hou se of th e P eople fir st si ts a ft er it s r ec ons titu tion
unl es s be for e the e xp ir at ion o f th e s ai d p eriod o f thi rt y da ys a re solu tion
a ppro vin g the P roc la ma ti on ha s be en a ls o pa ss ed b y th e Hou se o f th e
P eopl e.
(3) Dur ing the per iod an y suc h P rocl a mat ion a s is me nt ion ed in c lau se
(1 ) i s in ope ra tion, the e xe cut ive autho ri t y of th e Un ion sha ll exte nd to th e
gi vin g of dir ec tion s to a n y St at e to ob se rve suc h ca nons of fin an ci al
prop ri et y as ma y b e spe ci fi ed in the dire ct ion s, and to the gi vi ng o f su ch
oth er dire ct ion s a s th e P re sid ent ma y de e m ne ce s sa r y and ad equ at e for th e
purpo se .
(4) No t wi ths ta nding an yth ing in thi s Cons titu tion —
( a) an y suc h di re ct ion ma y inc lude —
( i) a pro vi sion requ ir ing the redu ct ion o f s al ar ie s and a llo wa nc es
o f a ll or a n y cl as s o f pe rson s se r vin g in conne ct ion wit h th e a ffai rs
o f a St at e;
( ii) a pro vi sion requ ir ing al l Mone y Bil ls or othe r B ill s to whi c h
th e provis ions o f a rt ic le 207 a ppl y to b e r es e r ve d fo r the
c ons ide ra tion of the P re sid ent a ft e r the y a re pas s ed b y th e
Le gis la tu re o f th e St at e;
( b) it s ha ll b e co mpe te nt for th e P res ide nt dur ing the per iod an y
P roc la ma ti on is su ed unde r thi s a rt ic le is in op er at ion to is su e dir ec ti ons
for th e re duc tion o f sa la ri es and allo wa nc e s o f all or an y cl as s of
p er sons se r vin g in conne ct ion wi th th e a ffa ir s of the Union includ ing th e
Jud ges of th e Supre me Cou rt and the Hi gh Cou rt s.
161 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART XIX
MISCELLANEOUS
361. P rote c ti on of Pres i de nt and G ove r nors and R aj pr a mu khs . — (1 )
The Pr es iden t, or th e Go ve rno r or R ajp ra mu kh o f a Sta te , sha ll not be
a ns we ra bl e to a n y cou rt for th e e xe r ci se and per for ma nc e of the powe rs and
duti es o f hi s o ffi c e or fo r a n y a ct done or purpo rt ing to be don e b y hi m in
th e exe rc is e a nd p er for ma nc e of thos e powe rs and dutie s:
P rovid ed tha t the condu ct of the P re sid ent ma y be brought unde r r e vi e w
b y an y cou rt, tr ibuna l or bod y appoin ted or de si gn at ed b y e ithe r Hou se o f
P ar lia men t for th e inve st iga tion o f a ch arge und er ar ti cl e 61:
P rovid ed fur th er tha t nothin g in th is c la us e s ha ll b e con st rued as
r es tr ic tin g the r ight o f an y pe rs on to brin g approp ri at e pro ce ed ings aga in st
th e Go ve rn me nt of Ind ia or th e Go ver n men t o f a St at e.
(2) No cr i min al proc ee din gs wha ts oe ver sh al l be inst itut ed or cont inued
a gai ns t the Pr es iden t, or the Go ver nor of a St at e, in an y c our t durin g hi s
t er m of offic e .
(3) No proc e ss fo r the a rr es t or i mp ri son men t o f th e Pr es iden t, or th e
Go ver nor of a Sta te , sha ll is su e fro m an y cou rt durin g his t er m of o ffi c e.
(4) No ci vil pro ce e din gs in whi ch re lie f i s c la i med aga in st th e P re sid ent,
or the Go ver nor of a St at e, sha ll be in sti tute d durin g hi s t er m o f offic e in
a n y cou rt in r es pe ct of an y ac t don e or purpo rtin g to be done b y hi m in his
p er sona l ca pa ci t y, whe th er b e fo re or a ft e r he ent er ed upon hi s offic e a s
P re sid ent , or a s Go ver nor o f suc h Sta te , unti l th e e xpi ra tion of t wo mo nth s
n ext a ft er notic e in wri tin g ha s be en deli ver ed to the P re sid ent or the
Go ver nor, a s the c as e ma y b e, or l e ft at his o ffi c e st at ing the natu re o f th e
pro ce e dings , th e ca us e of ac tion the re for, th e na me , de sc ri ption and pl ac e
o f re sid en ce of th e pa rt y b y who m such proc ee din gs a re to be inst itut ed a nd
th e re li e f whi ch he c la i ms.
361A. Prot e ct i on of publi c at i on of proc e e di ng s of P arl ia me nt and
S tate Leg is lat ure s. —(1 ) No p er son sha ll be li abl e to a n y pro ce e din gs , ci vi l
or c ri min al , in an y cou rt in re spe ct of th e public at ion in a n e ws pa pe r of a
sub st an tia ll y tru e r epor t of an y proc e edin gs o f eith er Hou se of P arl ia me nt
or th e Le gis l at ive As s e mbl y, or, as th e ca s e ma y be, e ith er Hou se o f th e
Le gis la tu re , of a St at e, unl es s the publi ca ti on i s proved to have b een ma de
wi th ma li c e:
P rovid ed th at nothing in thi s c lau se sh al l app l y to th e publi ca tion o f an y
r epo rt of th e proc ee din gs of a s e cr et s it ting of e ith er H ous e of P ar li a men t
or th e Le gis l at ive As s e mbl y, or, as th e ca s e ma y be, e ith er Hou se o f th e
Le gis la tu re , of a St at e.

161
165
162 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2) Cl au se (1 ) sha ll
a ppl y in r el at ion to
r epo rts or ma tt e rs broa dc as t b y me a ns o f wi r el es s te le gr a ph y a s p art of an y
pro gr a m me or s er vic e pro vi de d b y me an s of a broad ca s tin g s ta tion as i t
a ppli es in re la tion to re port s or mat t er s publi she d in a ne wsp ap er.
Explanation.—In this article, “newspaper” includes a news agency report containing
material for publication in a newspaper.
361B . D is quali fi c at i on for appoi nt me nt on re mune r ati ve pol it ic al
pos t. —A me mb e r of a Hous e be longing to a n y pol iti ca l pa rt y who is
di squa li fie d for bein g a me mbe r of the Hous e und er p ar agr aph 2 o f th e
Te nth S chedu le sha ll al so be disqu al i fi ed to hold an y r e mu ne ra ti ve pol iti ca l
pos t fo r dura tion of the pe riod co m men ci ng fr o m the da te o f his
di squa li fic a tion ti ll th e da te on wh ic h the te r m of hi s offi ce a s s uch
me mbe r wo uld e xpi re or til l the d at e on wh i ch h e cont es ts an el ec tion to a
Hou se and is de cl ar ed e le ct ed , wh ic he ver i s ea rl ie r.
E xplana tion. - Fo r th e purpos es o f thi s ar ti cl e, —
(a) the expr es si on “ Hou se ” h as the m e an ing as si gne d to it in
c la us e (a ) of par a gr aph 1 o f th e Te nth Sch edul e;
(b) th e e xp re ss ion “ re mu ne ra ti ve pol iti ca l pos t” me an s an y
o ffi c e —
(i) under th e Go ve rn me nt of Ind ia or th e Go ver n men t o f a
St at e whe r e the s al ar y or r e mu ne ra ti on fo r s uch o ffi c e is pa id out
o f th e publ ic r eve nue o f the Go ver n ment o f Indi a or the
Go ver n men t o f th e S ta te , a s th e c a se ma y be; or

(ii ) unde r a bod y, whe th er inco rpor at ed or not, whi ch i s


who ll y or pa rti al l y o wn ed b y th e Go ve rn me nt of Indi a or th e
Go ver n men t of th e St at e, a nd the sa la r y or re mun er at ion for su ch
o ffi c e i s p aid b y su ch bod y,
e xc ept wh er e su ch sa la r y or re mun er at ion paid i s c o mp en sa to r y in na tur e.
362. [Rights and privileges of Rulers of Indian States.] Rep. by the Constitution (Twenty-
sixth Amendment) Act, 1971, s. 2.
363. Bar to interference by courts in disputes arising out of certain treaties,
agreements, etc.—(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution but subject to the
provisions of article 143, neither the Supreme Court nor any other court shall have
jurisdiction in any dispute arising out of any provision of a treaty, agreement, covenant,
engagement, sanad or other similar instrument which was entered into or executed before the
commencement of this Constitution by any Ruler of an Indian State and to which the
Government of the Dominion of India or any of its predecessor Governments was a party and
which has or has been continued in operation after such commencement, or in any dispute in
respect of any right accruing under or any liability or obligation arising out of any of the
provisions of this Constitution relating to any such treaty, agreement, covenant, engagement,
sanad or other similar instrument.
163 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2) In this article—


(a) “Indian State” means any territory recognised before the commencement of this
Constitution by His Majesty or the Government of the Dominion of India as being such a
State; and
(b) “Ruler” includes the Prince, Chief or other person recognised before such
commencement by His Majesty or the Government of the Dominion of India as the Ruler
of any Indian State.
363A. Recognition granted to Rulers of Indian States to cease and privy purses to be
abolished.—Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution or in any law for the time being in
force—
(a) the Prince, Chief or other person who, at any time before the commencement of
the Constitution (Twenty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1971, was recognised by the President as
the Ruler of an Indian State or any person who, at any time before such commencement,
was recognised by the President as the successor of such ruler shall, on and from such
commencement, cease to be recognised as such Ruler or the successor of such Ruler;
(b) on and from the commencement of the Constitution (Twenty-sixth Amendment)
Act, 1971, privy purse is abolished and all rights, liabilities and obligations in respect of
privy purse are extinguished and accordingly the Ruler or, as the case may be, the
successor of such Ruler, referred to in clause (a) or any other person shall not be paid any
sum as privy purse.
364. Spe ci al provi si ons as t o maj or por ts and ae rodro me s .— (1 )
No t wi th st andin g a n yth ing in thi s Cons ti tution , the Pr es iden t ma y b y publ ic
noti fi ca tion di re ct th at as fr o m such da te a s ma y be sp ec i fi e d in the
noti fi ca tion —
( a) an y la w mad e b y P arli a men t or b y the Le gis la tu re o f a St at e sha ll
not appl y to an y ma jo r port or ae rod ro me or sha ll app l y th er et o s ubje ct
to su ch exc ep tions or mod i fi c at ions a s ma y be sp ec i fi ed in the
noti fi ca tion , or
( b) an y exis ti ng l a w s ha ll ce a se to ha ve e ffe ct in an y ma j or port or
a er odro me e xce pt a s re sp ec ts things done or omit te d to be done be for e
th e s aid dat e, or sha ll in its appl ic at ion to su ch por t or a er odro me ha ve
e ffe c t subj ec t to s uch e xce ption s or mo di fic a tion s as ma y b e s pe ci fie d in
th e noti fi c at ion.
(2) In this a rt ic le —
( a) “ maj or port ” me an s a port de cl ar ed to be a ma jo r por t b y or
und er an y la w ma de b y P arl ia me nt or an y e xi st ing la w and inc lude s al l
a re a s fo r th e ti me be ing in clud ed wit hin the li mit s o f su ch port;
( b) “ ae rod ro me ” m e an s a er odro me a s de fin ed for th e purpos es o f th e
e na ct me nt s re la tin g to ai r wa ys , ai rc ra ft and ai r n aviga tion .
365. E ff ec t of fail ure to c o mply w it h, or to give ef fe c t to, direc ti ons
gi ve n by t he U ni on. — Whe r e a n y St at e ha s fa il ed to co mpl y with , or to
gi ve e ffe c t to, a n y dir ec ti ons gi ven in th e e xer c is e of the exe cu ti ve po we r
o f the U nion unde r an y of th e provis ion s o f th is Con st itut ion, it sha ll be
164 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

l a wful for th e
P re sid ent to hold tha t a
s itu at ion ha s ar is en in wh i ch th e Go ver n ment of the Sta te ca nnot be c ar ri ed
on in a cc ord an ce wi th the pro vi si ons o f this Con st itut ion.
366. D ef i ni ti ons. — In this Con sti tution , unl es s th e c ont ext othe r wi s e
r equi re s, th e fo llo win g e xp re ss ion s have th e me an ings h er eb y re sp ec ti vel y
a ss i gn ed to th e m, tha t i s to s a y—
(1 ) “ a gr ic ultu ra l in co me ” me a ns a gr ic ul tur al in co me as de fin ed for
th e purpos es o f th e ena ct me nt s re la tin g to Indi an inco me - ta x;
(2 ) “ an An gl o- Indi an” me an s a pe rson wh os e fat he r or a n y o f who se
oth er ma l e pro ge nito rs in the ma l e lin e is or wa s o f Europ ea n des ce nt
but who is do mi ci le d with in the te rr ito r y of Ind ia and i s or wa s born
wi thin su ch te rr ito r y of p ar ent s habitu al l y re si den t th er ei n a nd not
e st ab lis hed th er e fo r te mpo ra r y purpo se s onl y;
(3 ) “a rt ic le ” me a ns a n a rt ic le o f thi s Cons titu tion;
(4 ) “bo rro w” in clude s the r ai si ng of mon e y b y th e gr ant of annui ti es ,
a nd “ loa n” sh al l be cons tru ed ac c ordin gl y;
* * * * *
(5 ) “c la us e” me an s a cl au se o f th e a rt ic le in whi ch th e e xpr es si on
o ccu rs ;
(6 ) “c orpo ra tion ta x” me an s an y t ax on inco me , so fa r as tha t t ax is
p a yab le b y co mp a nie s and i s a t ax in th e ca se of wh ic h th e fo llo win g
c ondit ions ar e ful fil le d: —
( a) that it i s not ch arge a ble in r esp ec t o f a gr ic ultu ra l inco me ;
( b) that no d educ tion in r es pe ct o f th e ta x paid b y co mp an ie s is ,
b y an y en ac t men ts whi c h ma y a ppl y to th e ta x, a uthor is ed to b e
ma d e fro m divid ends p a yab le b y the co mpa ni es to indi vidu al s;
( c ) that no pro vi si on exis ts fo r ta ki ng th e ta x so pa id in to
a c count in co mp utin g for th e purpos es of Ind ian in co me- t ax the
tot al in co me o f indi vidu al s re c ei ving suc h di vid end s, or in
c o mpu tin g th e Indi an in co me - ta x p a yab le b y, or re funda ble to, su ch
indi vi dua ls ;
(7 ) “c or re spondin g P rovinc e” , “ co rr espond ing India n St at e ” or
“ co rr es pondin g Sta te ” me a ns in c as e s of doubt su ch P rovinc e, Indi an
St at e or Sta te a s ma y be de te r min ed b y the P re sid ent to be the
c or re spondin g Pro vin ce , th e co rr es ponding Ind ian Sta te or the
c or re spondin g St at e, as the ca s e ma y be , for the pa rti cul ar purpo se in
qu es tion;
(8 ) “de bt” in clud es an y lia bil it y in r es pe ct o f an y obl igat ion to r ep a y
c ap ita l su ms b y wa y o f annui tie s and an y lia bil it y und er a n y gua ra nte e,
a nd “ deb t c ha rge s” sha ll be con st rued a cc ord ingl y;
(9 ) “ es ta te dut y” me a ns a dut y to be a ss e ss e d on or b y re fe r en ce to
th e prin ci pa l valu e, as c er ta in ed in a cc ord an ce wit h su ch rul es a s ma y be
pr es cr ib ed b y or unde r l a ws ma de b y P arl ia me nt or the Le gis la tu re o f a
St at e re la tin g to the dut y, o f a ll prope rt y pa ss in g upon de ath or de e med ,
165 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

und er th e pro vi sion s


o f the s ai d la ws , so
to pa ss ;
(10 ) “e xis tin g l a w” me an s an y l a w, Ord inan ce , orde r, b ye - la w, rul e
or r egul at ion p as se d or ma de be fo re th e co m men ce men t of th is
Con st itut ion b y an y Le gi s la tur e, au thor it y or per son ha vin g po wer to
ma ke su ch a la w, Or dina nc e, ord er, b ye - la w, ru le or re gula tion ;
( 11) “F ed er al Cou rt ” me an s the F ede ra l Cour t c ons titu ted unde r the
Go ver n men t o f Indi a Ac t, 1935;
(12 ) “goods ” in clude s a ll ma te ri a ls , co mmod iti es , and ar ti cl es ;
(13 ) “ gu ar an te e” in clud es an y obl igat ion und ert a ke n be for e th e
c o mme nc e me nt of thi s Cons ti tution to ma ke pa ymen ts in th e e ve nt o f the
pro fit s of an under ta ki ng fal lin g sho rt of a spe ci fi ed a mo unt ;
(14 ) “H igh Court ” me a ns an y Cou rt whi ch is de e me d fo r the
purpo se s o f thi s Con st itut ion to be a H igh Cou rt fo r an y St at e and
in clud es —
( a) an y Cour t in the t er rito r y of India c ons titu ted or
r ec ons titu te d und er this Con st itut ion a s a H igh Cou rt, and
( b) an y othe r Cou rt in th e t er rito r y o f Ind ia wh i ch ma y be
d ec la re d b y P arli a me nt b y l a w to be a Hi gh Cou rt fo r al l or a n y of
th e purpos es o f thi s Cons titu tion;
(15 ) “Ind ian St at e” me an s an y t er rito r y wh ic h the Go ve rn me nt o f the
Do mi nion of Ind ia r ec ogni se d a s su ch a Sta te ;
(16 ) “P ar t” m e an s a P art of this Con sti tution ;
(17 ) “pe ns ion” me a ns a p ens ion, wh e the r cont ribu tor y or not, of a n y
kind wha ts oe ver pa yab le to or in r es pe ct o f an y p er son, and inc lude s
r et ir ed pa y so pa ya bl e; a gra tu it y so pa ya bl e and an y su m or s u ms so
p a yab le b y wa y of th e re turn, wi th or withou t in te re st th er eon or an y
oth er add ition th er eto , o f sub sc rip tion s to a pro vid en t fund ;
(18 ) “P roc la ma ti on o f E me rge nc y” me a ns a P roc la ma ti on i ssu ed
und er cl au se (1 ) of a rt ic le 352;
(19 ) “publ ic noti fic a tion ” me an s a noti fic at ion in th e Ga z et te o f
Ind ia , or, a s th e c a se ma y be, the O ffi ci al Ga z e tt e of a Sta te ;
(20 ) “r ai l wa y” doe s not in clud e—
( a) a tra m wa y wh ol l y with in a mu ni cip al a re a, or
( b) an y othe r line o f co m mu ni ca tion who ll y si tua te in one Sta te
a nd d ec la re d b y P arli a me nt b y l a w not to b e a r ai l wa y;
* * * * *
(22 ) “Ru le r” m e an s the P rinc e, Chi e f or oth er pe rson who , a t an y
ti me b e fo re the c o mme nc e me nt of the Cons titu tion ( Twe nt y- s ixth
A me nd me nt) Ac t, 1971, wa s r ec ognis ed b y the P res ide nt as th e Rul er o f
a n Ind ian St at e or an y per son who, a t a n y ti me be for e suc h
c o mme nc e me nt , wa s re co gn is ed b y th e P re sid en t a s the su cc e s so r o f
su ch Rul er ;
(23 ) “S che dule ” me a ns a S che dul e to thi s Cons titu tion;
166 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(24 ) “ Sch edul ed


C as te s ” m e an s su ch
c as t es , ra ce s or tr ibe s or par ts o f or gr oups wi thin su ch ca st e s, r ac e s or
t ribe s a s ar e de e med und er ar ti cl e 341 to be Sch edul ed Ca st es fo r the
purpo se s o f th i s Con st itut ion;
(25 ) “S che dule d Tr ib es ” me a ns su ch tr ibe s or trib al co m mu ni tie s or
p art s o f or gr oups wit hin su ch t ribe s or tr iba l co m mu nit ie s a s ar e
d ee me d under a rt ic le 342 to be Sch edu led Tri be s fo r th e purpo se s o f thi s
Con st itut ion;
(26 ) “s e cu rit ie s” in clud es sto ck;
* * * * *
(27 ) “s ub- cl aus e ” me an s a sub -c la us e of th e cl au se in whi ch the
e xpr es sion oc cu rs ;
(28 ) “t axa tion ” inc lude s the i mpos it ion o f an y t ax or i mpo st,
wh et he r ge ne ra l or loc al or spe ci a l, and “t a x” sha ll be con st rue d
a c co rdingl y;
(29 ) “t ax on inc o me” inc lude s a ta x in the na tur e of a n e xc es s pro fit s
t ax;
(29 A) “ ta x on the sa le or pur ch as e o f good s” includ es —
( a) a ta x on th e t ra ns fer, othe r wis e th an in pur sua nc e of a
c ontr ac t, of prope rt y in an y good s for ca s h, de fe rr ed pa ym en t or
oth er val uab le c ons ide ra tion ;
( b) a ta x on th e tr an s fe r of prope rt y in goods ( whe th er as good s
or in so me othe r fo r m) involve d in th e e xe c ution of a wor ks
c ontr ac t;
( c ) a ta x on th e de live r y of good s on hir e- pur cha se or a n y
s yst e m of pa ymen t b y in st al me nt s;
( d) a ta x on th e tr an s fe r of the ri ght to use an y good s for an y
purpo se ( wh et he r or not fo r a spe ci fi ed per iod) for c as h, d e fe rr e d
p a yme nt or oth er val uab le con sid er at ion;
( e ) a ta x on th e suppl y of goods b y a n y unin corpo ra te d
a ss oc ia tion or bod y of pe rson s to a me mb e r th er eo f fo r ca sh ,
d e fe rr e d p a yme nt or oth er val uab le con sid er at ion;
( f) a t ax on the s uppl y, b y wa y o f or as par t o f a n y se r vi c e or in
a n y oth er ma nn er wh at so e ve r, o f goods, be ing fo od or an y oth er
a rt ic le for huma n c onsu mpt ion or a n y dr ink ( wh eth er or not
into xi c at ing), whe r e s uch suppl y or se r vi ce , i s for ca s h, de fe rr ed
p a yme nt or oth er val uab le con sid er at ion;
a nd suc h tr an s fe r, de live r y or suppl y of an y good s sh al l be d ee me d to b e
a s al e o f thos e good s b y th e p er son ma kin g the tr an s fer, del iver y or
supp l y and a pur cha s e o f thos e goods b y th e p er son to who m su ch
t ran s fer, del iver y or suppl y i s ma d e;
(30) "Un ion t er ri tor y" me a ns a n y Union te rr ito r y s pe ci fi ed in th e
Fi rs t Sch edul e and inc lude s an y othe r te rr ito r y c o mp ri se d with in th e
t er ri tor y of Indi a but not spe ci fi ed in tha t S che dule .
167 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

367. I nt e r pre t at ion.


— (1) Unl es s th e
c onte xt othe r wi s e re qui re s, the Ge ne r al C lau se s Ac t, 1897, sha ll , s ubje ct to
a n y ad apt at ions and mod i fi c at ions tha t ma y b e mad e the re in und er a rt ic le
372, appl y for the int erp re ta tion o f this Con st itut ion a s it app lie s for th e
int er pr et at ion o f an Ac t o f the Le gis la tu re o f the Do mi nion of Ind ia .
(2) An y re fe r en ce in thi s Cons titu tion to Ac t s or la ws o f, or ma de b y,
P ar lia men t, or to Ac t s or la ws of, or mad e b y, th e Le gi sl a tur e o f a St at e,
sh al l be cons tru ed as includ ing a re fe re nc e to an Ord inan ce mad e b y the
P re sid ent or, to an Ord inan ce mad e b y a Go ve rno r, as th e ca s e ma y be.
(3) For th e purpo se s o f thi s Cons titu tion “ fo re i gn Sta te ” me a ns a n y Sta te
oth er th an Ind ia :
P rovid ed tha t, subj ec t to th e provis ion s o f an y l a w ma d e b y P ar li a men t,
th e Pr es iden t m a y b y orde r de cl ar e an y St at e not to be a fo r ei gn St at e fo r
su ch purpos e s as m a y b e s pe ci fi ed in th e orde r.
168 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART XX
AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION
368. Pow er of Par li a me nt to a me nd t he C ons ti t ut ion and proc e dure
t heref or.— (1) No t wi th st andin g a n yth ing in thi s Cons ti tution , P arli a me nt
ma y in e xe r ci se o f i ts c ons titu ent powe r a me nd b y wa y of add ition,
va ri at ion or r ep ea l an y provis ion o f this Cons titu tion in a c co rdan ce wi th
th e proc edu re l aid down in thi s ar ti cl e.
(2) An a men d men t of thi s Con sti tution ma y be init ia ted onl y b y the
int roduc tion of a B ill fo r th e purpo se in ei the r H ous e o f P ar li a men t, a nd
wh en the B ill i s p as se d in ea c h H ous e b y a ma j ori t y of th e tota l
me mbe r ship o f tha t Hous e and b y a ma j or it y of not l es s than t wo- third s of
th e me mb er s o f tha t Hous e pre s ent and votin g, i t sh al l be pre se nt ed to th e
P re sid ent who sh al l gi ve his as s en t to the B ill and th er eupon the
Con st itut ion s ha ll st and a men ded in ac co rda nc e wit h th e te r ms o f the B ill :
P rovid ed tha t if suc h a me nd me nt se e ks to m a ke an y ch an ge in—
(a) a rti cl e 54, ar tic le 55, a rti cl e 73, ar tic le 162 or ar tic le 241, or
(b) Ch apt er IV o f P art V, Ch apt er V of P ar t V I, or Ch ap te r I o f P art
X I, or
(c ) an y o f the Li st s in th e Se venth S chedu le , or
(d) th e r ep re se nt at ion o f St at es in P arl ia me nt , or
(e ) th e pro vi si ons o f thi s a rt ic le ,
th e a me nd men t sh al l al so r equ ir e to be ra ti fie d b y the Le gi sl at ur es of not
l es s th an on e- hal f of th e St at es b y re solu tion s to th at e ffe c t p as se d b y thos e
Le gis la tu re s be for e the Bi ll ma kin g provis ion for su ch a me nd men t i s
pr es en te d to the P re sid ent for a ss e nt.
(3) No thing in a rt ic le 13 s ha ll appl y to an y a me nd men t mad e unde r this
a rt ic le .
1
[ (4) No a me nd men t o f thi s Cons titu tion (in clud ing th e provis ion s o f
P ar t II I) mad e or purpor tin g to h ave bee n ma de unde r thi s a rt ic le wh e the r
b e fo re or a ft e r th e co m men c e me nt of se ct ion 55 o f th e Con st itut ion (Fo rt y-
s ec ond Ame nd me nt ) Ac t , 1976 sha ll be c al le d in que stion in an y cou rt on
a n y ground .
(5 ) Fo r th e re mo va l o f doubts , it i s h er eb y de cl ar ed tha t the re sh al l be
no li mit at ion wh at e ver on the c ons titu ent powe r o f P arli a men t to a me nd b y
wa y o f addi tion, var ia ti on or r epe al th e provis ion s of thi s Cons ti tution
und er this a rt ic le .]

1. Cls. (4) and (5) were ins. “in article 368 by s. 55 of the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976. This section has
been declared invalid by the Supreme Court in Minerva Mills Ltd. and Others Vs. Union of India and Others (1980 ) 2
S.C.C. 591.

168
169 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART XXI
TEMP ORARY, TRANSITIONAL AND SPECIAL
PROV ISIONS
369. Te mpor a r y pow e r to P ar li a me nt to ma ke law s w it h re s pe c t to
c e rt ai n mat t er s i n t he St at e Li st as i f t hey w ere mat t er s i n t he
C onc urre nt Li st .— Not wit hs tand ing a n yth ing in thi s Con st itut ion,
P ar lia men t sh all , durin g a pe riod o f fi ve ye a r s fro m th e co m men c e men t o f
thi s Con st itut ion, ha ve po wer to ma ke l a ws wi th re spe ct to th e fo ll o wi ng
ma t te rs as i f th e y we r e enu me ra t ed in th e Concu rr en t Li st , n a mel y:—
( a) tra de and co m me r ce with in a S ta te in, and the produ ct ion, suppl y
and dis tribu tion of, cot ton and wo oll en te xt il es , ra w co tton (in cludin g
gi nned cot ton and un ginn ed co tton or k apas ), c otton s e ed, pape r
(in clud ing n e ws pr int ), fo od- stu ffs (in cl uding edib le oil se ed s and oil) ,
ca tt le fo dde r ( inc ludin g oil -c a kes and othe r con ce nt ra te s) , co al
(in clud ing c oke and de ri va ti ves of c oa l) , i ron, st ee l and mi ca ;
( b) o ffe nc e s a ga in st la ws with r es pe ct to an y of the ma tt e rs
men ti oned in cl aus e ( a), juri sdi ct ion and power s o f a ll cou rts e xc ept th e
Supr e me Court wit h re sp ec t to a n y o f tho se ma tt er s, and fe e s in re sp ec t
of an y of tho se m at te r s but not in cludin g fe e s ta ken in an y cou rt;
but a n y l a w mad e b y P arli a men t, wh ic h P arl ia me nt wo uld not but for th e
pro vi si ons of this ar ti cl e h ave bee n co mpe te nt to m a ke, sha ll , to the e xt ent
o f the in co mp e te nc y, c ea s e to have e ffe ct on the expi ra tion o f the s ai d
p eriod , e xc e pt a s r es pe ct s things done or o mit ted to be don e be for e th e
e xpir at ion the reo f.
1
370. Te mpor ar y provis i ons w ith re s pe ct to t he St at e of J am mu and
K as h mi r.— (1) No t wi ths ta nding an yth ing in thi s Cons titu tion, —
( a) th e provis ion s o f a rt ic le 238 sha ll not appl y in re la tion to th e
St at e of Ja mmu a nd K as h mir ;
( b) the po we r o f P arli a me nt to m a ke l a ws fo r the s ai d St at e sh al l b e
li mi te d to —
( i) tho se ma tt e rs in th e U nion Li st and the Con cur re nt Li s t
whi c h, in con sul ta tion wit h th e Go ve rn me nt o f the St at e, a re
d ec la re d b y the Pr es iden t to co rr es pond to ma tt e rs sp ec i fi e d in the
In st ru men t o f Ac c e ss ion go ver ning the a cc e ss ion of the St at e to th e
Do mi nion of Ind ia as the mat t er s wi th re spe ct to whi ch the
Do mi nion Le gi sl at ur e ma y ma ke l a ws fo r th at Sta te ; and
( ii) su ch othe r mat t er s in the sa id Lis ts a s, wi th the c oncu rr en ce
o f th e Go ver n men t o f th e Sta te , th e P res ide nt ma y b y ord er sp ec i fy.

________________________________________________________________________________________
1. In exercise of the powers conferred by this article the President, on the recommendation of the Constituent
Assembly of the State of Jammu and Kashmir, declared that, as from the 17 th day of November, 1952, the said art.
370 shall be operative with the modification that for the Explanation in cl. (1) thereof, the following Explanation is
substituted, namely:-
“Explanation
Exp lanation–.— For the
Forpurposes
th e of this article,
purpo sethe
s Government
of thiofsthe State means
a rti cl e, thethe
person
Goforver
thentime being
ment
recognised by the President on the recommendation of the Legislative Assembly of the State as the *Sadar-I
o f Riyasat
the St of at e me
Jammu andan s th eacting
Kashmir, pe rs
onon fo r ofthe
the advice t i me of Ministers
the Council be ing ofre theco gn is
State fored b y being
the time th ein
office.”.
(Ministry of Law Order No. C.O. 44, dated the 15th November, 1952).
*Now “Governor”.
169
170 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

P re sid ent as the


M aha ra ja o f J a mmu
a nd K as h mir a ct ing on the a dvic e o f the Coun ci l o f Min is te rs for the ti me
b eing in o ffi c e unde r th e Mah ar aj a’s P rocl a mat ion da ted th e fi ft h d a y of
M ar ch, 1948;
( c ) the provis ion s of a rt ic le 1 and of th is ar ti cl e sh al l a ppl y in
r el at ion to th at Sta te ;
( d) su ch o f th e oth er provis ions of thi s Con st itut ion sha ll appl y in
r el at ion to th at Sta te s ubje ct to su ch exc ep tion s and mo di fic a tion s as th e
P re sid ent ma y b y orde r spe ci f y:
P rovid ed th at no su ch ord er whi ch r el at e s to th e ma t te rs sp ec i fi e d in th e
In st ru men t of Ac c e ss ion o f the S ta te re fe rr ed to in pa ra gr a ph ( i) of sub-
c la us e (b) sh al l b e i ss ued e xce pt in c onsu lt ation wi th the Go ver n ment o f
th e Sta te :
P rovid ed fur th er tha t no suc h orde r whi c h re la te s to ma tt er s othe r tha n
tho se re fe rr e d to in the la st pre ce din g pro vi so sha ll be i ssu ed e xce pt with
th e conc ur ren ce of th at Go ve rn me nt .
(2) I f th e conc ur ren ce of the Go ve rn me nt o f the St at e re fe rr e d to in
p ar agr aph ( ii) of sub- cl au se ( b) o f c la us e (1 ) or in th e s ec ond pro vi so to
sub -c la us e ( d) o f th at c la us e b e gi ve n be for e th e Cons ti tuen t As se mb l y fo r
th e purpos e of fra mi ng the Con sti tution o f th e S ta te i s c onven ed, it sh al l
b e pl ac ed be for e su ch As s e mbl y fo r su ch dec is ion as it ma y ta ke the reon .
(3) No t wi ths ta nding an yth ing in th e for e goin g provis ion s of thi s ar ti cl e,
th e P re sid ent m a y, b y publi c not i fi ca ti on, de cl ar e tha t thi s ar ti cl e s ha ll
c e as e to be ope ra tive or sh al l be oper at ive onl y wit h such e xce pt ions and
mo di fi c at ions a nd fr o m s uch da te a s he ma y sp ec i fy:
P rovid ed tha t the re co m men da tion of the Con sti tuen t As s e mbl y of th e
St at e re fe rr e d to in cl aus e (2 ) s ha ll be nec e ss a r y be for e the P re sid ent is su es
su ch a noti fic at ion.
371. Spe ci al provi si on w ith res pe c t t o the St at es of M ahar as ht r a and
G uj ar at .— * * * * *
(2) Not with st andin g an yth ing in thi s Con st itut ion, th e P res ide nt ma y b y
ord er ma d e wit h r es pe ct to th e St at e o f Mah ar as ht ra or Guj ar at , provid e fo r
a n y s pe ci al r es pons ibil it y of the Go ve rno r fo r—
( a) the es ta bl ish me nt of se pa ra te d evel op men t bo ard s fo r Vida rbha ,
M ar ath wa da , a nd th e re st o f Mah ar a sht ra or, a s th e c a se ma y be,
S aur as ht ra , Ku tc h a nd th e re st o f Guj ar at wi th the pro vi si on th at a r epor t
on the wor king of ea ch o f the se board s wil l be pla ce d ea ch ye a r b e fo re
th e Sta te Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y;
( b) th e equi ta ble al loc at ion o f fund s for de velop me nt al expe nditu re
o ve r th e s aid ar ea s , subj ec t to the r equ ir e men ts of the Sta te as a wh ol e;
a nd
( c ) an equit ab le ar ra nge me nt pro vi din g ad equ at e fa c il iti es for
t ec hnic al edu ca tion and voc at iona l t ra ining, a nd ad equa te opportun iti es
171 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

for e mplo yme nt in


s er vic e s und er th e
c ontro l of th e St at e Go ver n men t, in r es pe ct of al l th e sa id a re a s, subj ec t
to the r equi re me nt s of the St at e as a who le .
371A. Spe ci al provi si on w ith res pe ct to t he St at e of N ag al and.— (1 )
No t wi th st andin g an yt hin g in th is Cons ti tution ,—
( a) no Act of P ar li a men t in r esp ec t o f—
( i) r eli gi ous or so ci al pr ac ti ce s o f the N a ga s ,
( ii) N aga c us to mar y la w and proc edu re ,
( iii ) ad min is tr at ion of c ivil and c ri min al jus tic e invo lvin g
d ec is ions a cc ord ing to Na ga c us to mar y la w,
( iv ) owne rs hip and tr ans fe r of land and it s re sou rc es ,
sha ll app l y to th e Sta te o f Na ga la nd unl es s th e Le gi sl at ive As s e mbl y o f
Na gal a nd b y a re solu tion so de cid es ;
( b) the Go ve rno r of N a ga l and sha ll ha ve sp ec ia l re spon sibi lit y wi th
r es pe ct to la w and orde r in th e Sta te o f N a ga la nd fo r so long a s in his
opinion int er na l di stu rba nc es o ccu rr ing in th e N a ga Hi ll s- Tu e ns an g Ar ea
i m med ia te l y be for e the for ma ti on of th at St at e cont inue th er ein or in
a n y pa rt th er eo f and in th e di sc harge o f his fun ct ions in re la tion the re to
th e Go ve rno r sh al l, a ft e r con sul ting the Counc il o f Mini st er s, e xer ci s e
hi s individu al judgme nt a s to the ac ti on to be ta ken :
P rovid ed th at if an y que stion a ri se s wh e th er an y ma t te r i s or i s not a
ma t te r a s re sp ec ts wh ic h th e Go ve rno r i s under th is sub -c lau se requ ir ed to
a ct in the e xe r ci se o f hi s indi vi dua l judgme nt , th e de ci sion o f the Go ver nor
in hi s di sc re ti on sh al l be fin al , a nd th e va li dit y o f an yt hing done b y th e
Go ver nor s ha ll not b e ca ll ed in ques tion on th e ground th at h e ough t or
ou ght not to ha ve ac te d in th e exe rc is e o f hi s indi vi dua l judgme nt :
P rovid ed fu rt he r tha t i f th e P res ide nt on re c eip t of a repo rt fro m the
Go ver nor or othe r wi s e is s at is fi ed tha t i t i s no longer nec e ss a r y fo r th e
Go ver nor to have spe ci a l r es pons ibil it y wi th r es pe ct to la w a nd orde r in the
St at e o f Na gal and , he m a y b y orde r di re ct tha t the Go ve rno r sh al l ce a se to
h ave such re spon sibi lit y wit h e ffe ct fro m such dat e a s m a y be s pe ci fi ed in
th e orde r;
( c ) in ma ki ng his re co m mend at ion wi th r es pe ct to an y d e mand fo r a
gr ant , th e Go ve rno r o f N a ga la nd sha ll en sur e tha t an y mon e y provid ed
b y the Go ve rn me nt o f Indi a out o f th e Con sol ida te d Fund of Indi a fo r
a n y sp ec i fi c se r vi c e or purpos e i s inc lude d in the de ma nd fo r a gra nt
r el at ing to th at se r vi c e or purpos e and not in an y oth er de ma nd;
( d) as fr o m su ch da te a s the Go ve rno r of N a gal and ma y b y publ ic
noti fi ca tion in this b eha l f sp ec i fy, the re s ha ll be es ta bli sh ed a re gi ona l
c ounc il fo r the Tue ns an g di str ic t cons is tin g o f thi rt y- fi ve me mb e rs a nd
th e Go ve rno r sh al l in hi s di sc re ti on ma ke rul es pro vi din g fo r—
( i) th e c o mpo si tion of the re gion al coun ci l a nd th e man ne r in
whi c h th e me mb er s o f the r e gion al coun ci l sha ll be cho se n:
172 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Provided that the


Deputy Commissioner of
the Tuensang district shall be the Chairman ex officio of the regional council and the
Vice-Chairman of the regional council shall be elected by the members thereof from
amongst themselves;
(ii) the qualifications for being chosen as, and for being, members of the
regional council;
(iii) the term of office of, and the salaries and allowances, if any, to be paid to
members of, the regional council;
(iv) the procedure and conduct of business of the regional council;
(v) the appointment of officers and staff of the regional council and their
conditions of services; and
(vi) any other matter in respect of which it is necessary to make rules for the
constitution and proper functioning of the regional council.
(2) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, for a period of ten years from the date
of the formation of the State of Nagaland or for such further period as the Governor may, on
the recommendation of the regional council, by public notification specify in this behalf,—
(a) the administration of the Tuensang district shall be carried on by the Governor;
(b) where any money is provided by the Government of India to the Government of
Nagaland to meet the requirements of the State of Nagaland as a whole, the Governor
shall in his discretion arrange for an equitable allocation of that money between the
Tuensang district and the rest of the State;
(c) no Act of the Legislature of Nagaland shall apply to Tuensang district unless the
Governor, on the recommendation of the regional council, by public notification so directs
and the Governor in giving such direction with respect to any such Act may direct that the
Act shall in its application to the Tuensang district or any part thereof have effect subject
to such exceptions or modifications as the Governor may specify on the recommendation
of the regional council:
Provided that any direction given under this sub-clause may be given so as to have
retrospective effect;
(d) the Governor may make regulations for the peace, progress and good government
of the Tuensang district and any regulations so made may repeal or amend with
retrospective effect, if necessary, any Act of Parliament or any other law which is for the
time being applicable to that district;
(e) (i) one of the members representing the Tuensang district in the Legislative
Assembly of Nagaland shall be appointed Minister for Tuensang affairs by the Governor
on the advice of the Chief Minister and the Chief Minister in tendering his advice shall act
on the recommendation of the majority of the members as aforesaid;
( ii) the Min is te r for Tu e ns ang a ffa ir s sha ll d ea l wi th, a nd ha ve dir ec t
a c ce s s to th e Go ve rno r on, al l ma tt er s r el at ing to the Tue ns an g dis tr ic t
but he sh all ke ep the Ch ie f Minis te r in fo r med abou t th e sa me;
( f) not wi ths tand ing an yt hin g in th e for e g oing pro vi sion s o f this
c la us e, the fi na l de ci sion on a ll mat t er s r el at ing to th e Tu e ns an g di st ri ct
sh al l be mad e b y the Go ve rno r in hi s di sc re ti on;
173 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

( g) in a rt ic le s
54 and 55 and
c la us e (4) o f ar ti cl e 80, r e fer e nc es to th e e le ct e d me mbe r s of the
Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y o f a St at e or to e ac h such me mbe r sh al l in clud e
r e fer e nc es to th e me mb er s or me mb er of th e Le gi sl at i ve As s e mbl y of
N a ga l and el ec te d b y th e r e gi ona l c ounc il es ta bli sh ed under thi s ar ti cl e;
( h) in a rt ic le 170—
( i ) c lau se (1 ) sha ll , in re la tion to the Le gi sl at ive As s e mb l y of
N a ga l and, have e ffe ct as i f fo r th e wor d “ si xt y”, th e wor d “ fo rt y- si x”
h ad b een sub st itut ed;
( ii ) in th e s ai d c la us e, th e re fe re nc e to dire ct el ec tion fr o m
t er ri tori al con st itu enc ie s in the St at e sha ll in clude e le c tion b y th e
me mbe r s of the re gion al coun ci l e st ab lis hed unde r this a rt ic le ;
( iii ) in c lau se s (2 ) and (3), r e fer en ce s to te rr ito ria l
c ons titu enc ie s sha ll me an re fe re nc e s to t er ri tori al con sti tuen ci es in
th e Kohi ma a nd Mo ko kc hung dist ri ct s.
(3) I f a n y diffi c ult y ar is es in givin g effe c t to an y o f the for e going
pro vi si ons o f this a rt ic le , the P res ide nt ma y b y ord er do a n yth ing
( inc ludin g an y ad apt at ion or mo di fi c at ion of a n y othe r a rt ic le ) whi ch
a ppe ar s to hi m to be nec es s ar y fo r th e purpo se of r e mo vin g tha t diffi cu lt y:
P rovid ed tha t no suc h ord er s ha ll be mad e a ft er th e e xpi ra tion o f thr ee
ye ar s fr o m th e dat e of the fo r ma ti on o f th e Sta te o f Na ga la nd.
E xplana tion.. — In thi s a rt ic le , the Kohi ma , Mo kokc hung and Tu en san g
di st ric ts sh al l ha ve th e sa me me an ings as in the Sta te of N a ga la nd Ac t,
1962.
371B . Spe ci a l provi si on w ith re s pec t to t he St at e of As s a m. —
No t wi th st andin g an yt hin g in th is Cons ti tution , th e Pr es iden t m a y, b y ord er
ma d e wi th r es pe ct to th e Sta te o f As s a m, provid e for the cons ti tution a nd
fun ct ions o f a co m mit te e o f the Le gis la ti ve As s e mb l y o f the St at e
c ons is ting o f me mb er s o f tha t As se mb l y el ec te d fro m the t rib al a re a s
sp ec i fie d in P ar t I o f the t abl e appe nded to par a gr aph 20 o f th e S ixth
S che dule and s uch numbe r o f othe r me mb e rs o f th at As s e mbl y a s ma y be
sp ec i fie d in th e orde r and fo r the mod i fi c at ions to be mad e in the ru le s of
pro ce dur e o f that As se mb l y for th e con st itut ion and prop er fu nc tion ing of
su ch co m mit te e.
371C. Spe ci al provi si on w ith res pe ct to t he St at e of M ani pur.— (1 )
No t wi th st andin g an yt hin g in th is Cons ti tution , th e Pr es iden t m a y, b y ord er
ma d e wi th r es pe ct to th e Sta te o f M anipu r, pro vid e for th e con st itut ion and
fun ct ions of a c o mmi tt ee of th e Le gi sl a ti ve As s e mbl y of th e St at e
c ons is ting o f me mb er s o f tha t As se mb l y el ec te d fro m the H il l Ar ea s of tha t
St at e, fo r th e mo di fi c at ions to be m ad e in the ru le s o f busin es s of the
Go ver n men t a nd in the ru le s of proc edu re o f the Le gis la ti ve As s e mb l y o f
th e Sta te a nd for an y spe ci al re spons ibi lit y o f the Go ver nor in orde r to
s ec ur e the prop er fun ct ionin g of such co m mit te e .
174 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2) The Governor shall


annually, or whenever so
required by the President, make a report to the President regarding the administration of the
Hill Areas in the State of Manipur and the executive power of the Union shall extend to the
giving of directions to the State as to the administration of the said areas.
Explanation.—In this article, the expression “Hill Areas” means such areas as the
President may, by order, declare to be Hill areas.
371D. Special provisions with respect to the State of Andhra Pradesh.—(1) The
President may by order made with respect to the State of Andhra Pradesh provide, having
regard to the requirements of the State as a whole, for equitable opportunities and facilities for
the people belonging to different parts of the State, in the matter of public employment and in
the matter of education, and different provisions may be made for various parts of the State.
(2) An order made under clause (1) may, in particular,—
(a) require the State Government to organise any class or classes of posts in a civil
service of, or any class or classes of civil posts under, the State into different local cadres
for different parts of the State and allot in accordance with such principles and procedure
as may be specified in the order the persons holding such posts to the local cadres so
organised;
(b) specify any part or parts of the State which shall be regarded as the local area—
(i) for direct recruitment to posts in any local cadre (whether organised in
pursuance of an order under this article or constituted otherwise) under the State
Government;
(ii) for direct recruitment to posts in any cadre under any local authority within the
State; and
(iii) for the purposes of admission to any University within the State or to any other
educational institution which is subject to the control of the State Government;
(c) specify the extent to which, the manner in which and the conditions subject to
which, preference or reservation shall be given or made—
(i) in the matter of direct recruitment to posts in any such cadre referred to in
sub-clause (b) as may be specified in this behalf in the order;
(ii) in the matter of admission to any such University or other educational
institution referred to in sub-clause (b) as may be specified in this behalf in the
order,
to or in fa vour o f ca ndid at es wh o h ave r es ide d or s tudi ed fo r an y pe riod
sp ec i fie d in th e ord er in the lo ca l a re a in re sp ec t o f suc h ca dr e, Uni ve r si t y
or oth er edu ca tio n al in sti tution , a s the c as e m a y b e.
(3) Th e P re sid ent ma y, b y orde r, provid e fo r th e c ons titu tion of a n
Ad mi nis tr at ive Tri buna l fo r the S ta te of An dhr a P rad es h to e xer ci s e s uch
ju ris dic tion , powe rs and autho rit y [ includ ing an y ju ri sdi ction , po we r and
a uthor it y whi ch i mme di at el y be fo re th e co mme n ce men t of th e Cons titu tion
( Thir t y- se c ond A men d men t) Ac t, 1973, wa s e xer ci s abl e b y a n y c our t (o the r
th an th e Supr e me Cour t) or b y an y t ribuna l or oth er autho ri t y] a s ma y be
sp ec i fie d in th e orde r with r es pe ct to the fol lo wi ng m at te r s, na me l y: —
175 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

( a) appo int men t,


a llo t ment or
pro mot ion to su ch cl as s or cl as s e s of post s in an y c ivil s er vic e o f the
St at e, or to such c la ss or c la s se s o f ci vil post s unde r th e Sta te , or to
su ch c la s s or cl as s es of pos ts under the c ont rol o f a n y lo ca l au thori t y
wi thin th e Sta te , a s ma y be sp ec i fi e d in th e ord er ;
( b) sen ior it y of per son s a ppoint ed, a llot ted or pro mo te d to su ch cl as s
or cl as se s of pos ts in an y c ivil se r vi c e o f the St at e, or to su ch c la ss or
c la ss e s o f ci vi l post s unde r th e Sta te , or to su ch cl as s or cl as s es of pos ts
und er the con tro l o f an y lo ca l autho rit y wi thin th e Sta te , a s ma y be
sp ec i fie d in th e orde r;
( c ) su ch oth er condit ions of se r vi c e o f per so n s appo inte d, a llot te d or
pro mot ed to such cl as s or cl as s es o f po sts in an y ci vi l s er vic e of the
St at e or to suc h cl as s or c la ss e s o f ci vi l pos ts under the S ta te or to su ch
c la ss or c la s se s of pos ts und er th e c ontro l of an y loc al autho ri t y wit hin
th e Sta te , as ma y be sp ec i fie d in th e ord er.
(4 ) An ord er ma d e unde r c la us e (3) ma y—
( a) au thori se th e Ad mini st ra ti ve Tr ibun al to r ec e i ve
r ep re se nt ation s fo r th e r ed re ss of gri e van ce s r el at ing to an y ma tt e r
wi thin its juri sdi ct ion a s th e P re sid ent ma y sp ec i fy in the orde r and
to ma ke s uch orde rs the re on as th e Ad mini st ra ti ve Tri buna l d ee ms
fi t;
( b) con ta in s uch pro vi sion s wit h r es pe ct to th e po wer s and
a uthor iti es and proc edu re o f the Ad min is tr at ive Tri buna l (inc ludin g
pro vi si ons wi th re sp ec t to th e power s o f th e Ad mi nis tr at ive Tr ibun al
to punish for c onte mp t of i ts el f) a s the P re sid ent ma y de e m
n ec es s ar y;
( c ) provide fo r the t ra ns fer to th e Ad min is tr at ive Tr ibun al of
suc h c la s se s o f pro ce ed ings, b eing proc ee din gs re la tin g to m at te r s
wit hin its ju ris dic tion and pend ing b e fo re an y c ourt (oth er th an the
Supr e me Court ) or t ribun al or othe r au thori t y i m med ia te l y b e fo re
the co m men c e me nt of suc h ord er, as ma y b e sp ec i fie d in th e orde r;
( d) con ta in su ch supp le me nt al , inc ide nta l and cons equ ent ia l
provis ion s (inc ludin g pro vi sion s as to fe e s and as to li mi ta tion ,
e vid en ce or for th e appl ic at ion of a n y l a w for the ti me bein g in
fo r ce subje ct to an y e xc ept ions or mod i fi ca ti ons ) a s th e P re sid en t
ma y de e m n ec es s ar y.
1
(5 ) The Ord er o f the Ad min is tr at ive Tri buna l fin all y di spos ing of a n y
c as e sh al l be co me e ffe ct ive upon i ts con fi r ma tion b y the St at e Go ver n men t
or on th e expi r y of th re e mon ths fr o m th e d at e on wh i ch the ord er i s ma d e,
whi c he ver i s ea rl ie r:
P rovid ed tha t the Sta te Go ver n men t ma y, b y s pe ci al ord er ma d e in
wr it ing and fo r r ea s ons to be sp ec i fi e d the re in, mo di f y or a nnul a n y orde r
o f th e Ad mi nis tr at ive Tri buna l be for e it b eco me s e ffe c ti ve and in suc h a
c as e , the ord er o f the Ad min is tr at ive Tri buna l sha ll ha ve e ffe ct onl y in s uch
mo di fi e d for m or be o f no e ffe c t, as the ca s e ma y be .

_______________________________________________
1. In P. Sambamurthy and others vs. State of Andhara Pradesh and other (1987) 1SCC, p. 362, the Supreme Court
declared clause (5) of art. 371D along with the proviso to be unconstitutional and void.
176 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(6) E ve r y sp ec ia l
ord er mad e b y the
St at e Go ve rn me nt unde r the provis o to c la us e (5) sh al l b e l aid, a s soon as
ma y b e a ft er i t i s mad e, b e fo re both Hous es of th e Sta te Le gi sl atu re .
(7) The H igh Cour t fo r the S ta te sha ll not have an y po wer s of
sup er int end enc e o ve r the Ad mini st ra ti ve Tri buna l a nd no cour t (o the r than
th e Supre me Cour t) or tribun al sh al l exe rc is e a n y juri sdi ct ion, power or
a uthor it y in re spe ct o f a n y ma tt er sub je ct to the juri sdi ct ion, po wer or
a uthor it y of, or in r el at ion to, th e Ad mi ni st ra ti ve Tr ibun al .
(8) I f th e Pr es iden t i s sa ti s fi e d th at the c ontinu ed exis t en ce o f th e
Ad mi nis tr at ive Tr ibun al is not nec e ss a r y, th e Pr es iden t ma y b y orde r
a boli sh the Ad mini st ra ti ve Tri buna l a nd ma ke su ch provis ions in su ch orde r
a s he ma y de e m fi t fo r th e tra ns fe r and dispo sa l of ca se s p ending be fo re th e
Tr ibun al i m med ia te l y be for e such abo lit ion.
(9) Not with st andin g an y jud gmen t, dec re e or ord er of an y c our t, tr ibuna l
or oth er autho ri t y,—
( a) no appoin t men t, postin g, pro mot ion or t ra ns fer of a n y per son —
( i) mad e be fo re the 1st d a y o f N ove mbe r, 1956, to an y post
und er the Go ver n ment o f, or an y lo ca l autho rit y wi thin , th e Sta te o f
H yd er a bad a s it exis t ed be for e that da te ; or
( ii) ma de be fo re th e co mme n ce men t of th e Cons titu tion ( Thi rt y-
s ec ond Ame nd me nt ) Ac t , 1973, to an y post unde r the Go ve rn me nt
o f, or an y loc al or othe r au thor it y wi th in, th e Sta te o f Andh ra
P rad es h; and
( b) no ac tion ta ken or thing done b y or be fo re an y per son r e fer re d to
in sub -c lau se (a) ,
sh al l be dee me d to be ill ega l or void or eve r to have b eco me ill ega l or void
me r e l y on th e ground th at the appo int me nt, pos ting, pro mo tion or tr ans fe r
o f su ch per son wa s not mad e in ac c ord anc e wi th an y la w, th en in for c e,
pro vi ding fo r an y r equi re me nt a s to r es id enc e wi thin th e St at e o f
H yd er a bad or, a s th e c as e ma y b e, wi thin a n y pa rt o f the Sta te of An dhr a
P rad es h, in r es pe ct o f su ch appoin t men t, postin g, pro mot ion or t ran s fer.
(10) Th e provis ion s o f thi s a rt ic le and o f an y ord er mad e b y the
P re sid ent the reund er sh al l ha ve e ffe ct not with st andin g an yth ing in an y
oth er pro vi sion o f thi s Cons titu tion or in an y oth er la w fo r th e ti me be ing
in fo r ce .
371E. E st abli s h me nt of C e nt r al U ni ve r si ty i n A ndhr a P rade s h.—
P ar lia men t ma y b y la w provid e fo r the e st ab lis h ment o f a Uni ver si t y in the
St at e of An dhr a Pr ade sh.
371F. S pe c i al provis i ons w ith re s pec t to t he St at e of Si kki m. —
No t wi th st andin g an yt hin g in th is Cons ti tution ,—
( a) th e Le gi sl a ti ve As s e mbl y of th e St at e o f Si kki m sh all cons is t o f
not le ss than thi rt y me mb er s ;
177 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

( b) as fr o m th e
d ate of
c o mme nc e me nt of the Cons titu tion ( Thir t y- si xt h Am en d men t) Ac t, 1975
(h er e a ft e r in th is a rti cl e r e fer re d to a s the appo int ed da y)—
( i) the As s e mbl y for Sikki m for med as a r es ult of the el ec tion s
h eld in Si kki m in Ap ri l, 1974 wi th thi rt y- t wo me mbe r s e le ct ed in
th e s aid el ec tion s (h er ei na fte r re fe rr ed to as the si ttin g me mb er s)
sh al l be dee me d to be th e Le gi sl a ti ve As s e mbl y of th e St at e o f
Si kki m dul y con st itut ed unde r thi s Cons ti tu tion ;
( ii) th e s it ting me mb er s sh al l be dee me d to b e th e me mb er s o f
th e Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y o f th e St at e o f Sikki m dul y e le ct e d unde r
thi s Cons ti tution ; a nd
( iii ) th e sa id Le gis l at ive As se mb l y o f the S ta te of Sikki m s ha ll
e xer c is e the po wer s and pe r fo r m th e fu nc tion s o f th e Le gis la ti ve
As s e mbl y of a St at e unde r this Con sti tution ;
(c ) in the ca s e o f the As s e mbl y d ee me d to b e th e Le gi sl at ive
As s e mbl y of th e Sta te o f Si kki m unde r cl aus e ( b), the r e fer en ce s to the
p eriod of fi ve ye ar s , in c lau se (1 ) of a rt ic le 172 s ha ll be cons tru ed a s
r e fer e nc es to a per iod of fou r ye a r s a nd the sa id p eriod of fo ur ye a rs
sh al l be dee me d to co mme nc e fr o m the appoin te d d a y;
(d) unti l oth er pro vi sion s ar e ma de b y P arl ia me nt b y la w, th er e sha ll
b e a llo tte d to the St at e of Sikki m one se at in th e H ous e of th e P eople
a nd the Sta te of Si kki m sha ll for m one p ar lia me nt ar y con st itu enc y to be
c al le d th e pa rli a men ta r y con st itue nc y for Sikki m;
( e ) th e re pr es en ta ti ve o f th e St at e o f Sikki m in th e Hou se of th e
P eopl e in e xi st e nc e on th e appoin te d da y s ha ll b e el ec te d b y th e
me mbe r s of the Le gi s la ti ve As se mb l y of the St at e of S ikki m;
( f) P arli a men t ma y, for the purpos e o f prote ct in g th e ri gh ts and
int er e st s of the diffe r en t se ct ions o f th e popul at ion o f Si kki m ma ke
pro vi si on for the nu mb er o f s ea ts in th e Le gis l at ive As s e mbl y o f th e
St at e o f Sikki m whi ch ma y be fil led b y ca ndida te s belon gi ng to su ch
s ec ti ons and for the del i mi ta tion of the as s e mb l y cons ti tuen ci es fr o m
whi c h ca ndid at es belon gi ng to su ch s ec ti ons alon e ma y st and for
e le ct ion to th e Le gi sl at i ve As s e mbl y of th e Sta te o f Si kki m;
(g) the Governor of Sikkim shall have special responsibility for peace and for an
equitable arrangement for ensuring the social and economic advancement of different
sections of the population of Sikkim and in the discharge of his special responsibility
under this clause, the Governor of Sikkim shall, subject to such directions as the President
may, from time to time, deem fit to issue, act in his discretion;
(h) all property and assets (whether within or outside the territories comprised in the
State of Sikkim) which immediately before the appointed day were vested in the
Government of Sikkim or in any other authority or in any person for the purposes of the
Government of Sikkim shall, as from the appointed day, vest in the Government of the
State of Sikkim;
178 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(i) the High Court


functioning as such
immediately before the appointed day in the territories comprised in the State of Sikkim
shall, on and from the appointed day, be deemed to be the High Court for the State of
Sikkim;
(j) all courts of civil, criminal and revenue jurisdiction, all authorities and all officers,
judicial, executive and ministerial, throughout the territory of the State of Sikkim shall
continue on and from the appointed day to exercise their respective functions subject to
the provisions of this Constitution;
(k) all laws in force immediately before the appointed day in the territories comprised
in the State of Sikkim or any part thereof shall continue to be in force therein until
amended or repealed by a competent Legislature or other competent authority;
(l) for the purpose of facilitating the application of any such law as is referred to in
clause (k) in relation to the administration of the State of Sikkim and for the purpose of
bringing the provisions of any such law into accord with the provisions of this
Constitution, the President may, within two years from the appointed day, by order, make
such adaptations and modifications of the law, whether by way of repeal or amendment, as
may be necessary or expedient, and thereupon, every such law shall have effect subject to
the adaptations and modifications so made, and any such adaptation or modification shall
not be questioned in any court of law;
(m) neither the Supreme Court nor any other court shall have jurisdiction in respect
of any dispute or other matter arising out of any treaty, agreement, engagement or other
similar instrument relating to Sikkim which was entered into or executed before the
appointed day and to which the Government of India or any of its predecessor
Governments was a party, but nothing in this clause shall be construed to derogate from
the provisions of article 143;
(n) the President may, by public notification, extend with such restrictions or
modifications as he thinks fit to the State of Sikkim any enactment which is in force in a
State in India at the date of the notification;
(o) if any difficulty arises in giving effect to any of the foregoing provisions of this
article, the President may, by order, do anything (including any adaptation or modification
of any other article) which appears to him to be necessary for the purpose of removing
that difficulty:
P ro vide d th at no su ch orde r sh al l b e ma d e a ft e r the e xpir y o f t wo
ye ar s fr o m th e appoin ted da y;
(p) all things done and all actions taken in or in relation to the State of Sikkim or the
territories comprised therein during the period commencing on the appointed day and
ending immediately before the date on which the Constitution (Thirty-sixth Amendment)
Act, 1975, receives the assent of the President shall, in so far as they are in conformity
with the provisions of this Constitution as amended by the Constitution (Thirty-sixth
Amendment) Act, 1975, be deemed for all purposes to have been validly done or taken
under this Constitution as so amended.
371G. Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram.—Notwithstanding
anything in this Constitution,—
(a) no Act of Parliament in respect of—
(i) religious or social practices of the Mizos,
179 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(ii) Mizo
customary law and
procedure,
(iii) administration of civil and criminal justice involving decisions according
to Mizo customary law,
(iv) ownership and transfer of land,
shall apply to the State of Mizoram unless the Legislative Assembly of the State of
Mizoram by a resolution so decides :
Provided that nothing in this clause shall apply to any Central Act in force in the
Union territory of Mizoram immediately before the commencement of the Constitution
(Fifty-third Amendment) Act, 1986;
( b) the Le gi sl a ti ve As se mb l y of the St at e of Mi zo ra m sh al l c ons is t
o f not le ss th an fo rt y me mb er s.
371H. Special provision with respect to the State of Arunachal Pradesh.—
Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution,—
(a) the Governor of Arunachal Pradesh shall have special responsibility with respect
to law and order in the State of Arunachal Pradesh and in the discharge of his functions in
relation thereto, the Governor shall, after consulting the Council of Ministers, exercise his
individual judgment as to the action to be taken:
Provided that if any question arises whether any matter is or is not a matter as
respects which the Governor is under this clause required to act in the exercise of his
individual judgment, the decision of the Governor in his discretion shall be final, and the
validity of anything done by the Governor shall not be called in question on the ground
that he ought or ought not to have acted in the exercise of his individual judgment:
Provided further that if the President on receipt of a report from the Governor or
otherwise is satisfied that it is no longer necessary for the Governor to have special
responsibility with respect to law and order in the State of Arunachal Pradesh, he may by
order direct that the Governor shall cease to have such responsibility with effect from such
date as may be specified in the order;
( b) th e Le gi sl a ti ve As s e mbl y of th e St at e o f Ar una ch al Pr ade sh s ha ll
c ons is t o f not le ss th an thir t y me mb er s.
371-I . S pec i al provis ion w it h re s pec t t o t he Stat e of G oa. —
No t wi th st andin g a n yth ing in thi s Cons ti tution , the Le gi sl at ive As s e mb l y of
th e Sta te o f Goa sha ll con si st o f not l es s th an th irt y me mbe r s.
372. Cont i nuanc e in force of ex is ti ng law s and t hei r adapt ati on.— (1 )
No t wi th st andin g the r ep ea l b y thi s Cons titu tion of th e en ac t men ts r e fer re d
to in a rt ic le 395 but subj ec t to th e oth er provis ions of thi s Con sti tution , al l
th e l a w in fo rc e in th e te rr ito r y o f Ind ia i mme di at el y be for e th e
c o mme nc e me nt o f thi s Con st itut ion sha ll cont inue in fo r ce the re in until
a lt er ed or rep ea l ed or a mend ed b y a co mpe te nt Le gis la tu re or oth er
c o mp et en t a uthor it y.
(2) For th e purpos e of brinin g the provis ions of an y la w in for c e in the
t er ri tor y of Indi a into a c co rd wi th th e pro vi si ons o f thi s Con st itut ion, the
P re sid ent ma y b y orde r ma ke su ch ad apt at ions and mod i fi ca ti ons o f suc h
l a w, wh eth er b y wa y o f r ep ea l or a mend me nt , as ma y b e ne ce s sa r y or
180 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

e xped ien t, and provid e


th at th e l a w sha ll , as
fr o m s uch da te a s ma y be spe ci fi ed in the ord er, h ave e ffe ct subje ct to th e
a dap ta tion s a nd mo di fic at ion s so m ad e, a nd a n y s uch ad apt at ion or
mo di fi c at ion sha ll not be ques tion ed in a n y c our t o f l a w.
(3) No thing in c la us e (2) sh al l b e d ee me d—
( a) to e mpo we r the P re sid ent to ma ke an y a dap ta tion or mo di fic a tion
o f an y l a w a ft er th e expi ra tion of thre e ye ar s fr o m th e co mme n ce men t of
thi s Cons ti tution ; or
( b) to pr eve nt an y co mpe te nt Le gis l atu re or oth er c o mp et en t
a uthor it y fr o m r epe al ing or a mend ing an y la w ad apt ed or mo di fie d b y
th e Pr es iden t und er the s ai d c la us e.
Exp lanation I. —The e xp re ss ion “ la w in fo rc e ” in this ar ti cl e s ha ll
in clud e a la w pas s ed or mad e b y a Le gi sl at ur e or oth er co mpe t ent au thor it y
in the t er rito r y of India b e fo re th e co mme nc e men t o f thi s Cons titu tion and
not pr e viou sl y re pe al ed, not wi ths ta nding th at i t or pa rt s o f it ma y not b e
th en in ope ra tion e ith er a t a ll or in p art ic ula r ar e as .
Exp lanation I I. — An y l a w pa ss ed or ma de b y a Le gi s la tur e or othe r
c o mp et en t autho ri t y in th e te rr ito r y o f Ind ia wh ic h i m med ia te l y b e fo re the
c o mme nc e me nt of thi s Cons ti tution had e xt ra - te rr ito ria l e ffe c t a s we l l a s
e ffe c t in th e t er rito r y o f India sh al l, subj ec t to an y su ch a dap ta tion s and
mo di fi c at ions a s a for es ai d, cont iue to ha ve such e xt r a- t er rito ri al e ffe ct .
Exp lanation II I. —No thing in thi s a rt ic le sha ll be con st rue d as con tinuin g
a n y t e mp or ar y la w in for c e be yond th e d ate fi xe d for its e xp ir at ion or th e
d ate on wh ic h it wo uld h ave expi red if thi s Con st itut ion had not co me into
for c e.
Exp lanation I V. — An O rdin anc e pro mul gat ed b y th e Go ve rno r o f a
P ro vinc e unde r se ct ion 88 of the Go ve rn me nt o f Indi a Act , 1935, a nd in
for c e i mme di at el y be fo re the co m men ce men t o f th is Con st itut ion sh al l,
unl es s wit hdr a wn b y the Go ver nor of the co rr es ponding Sta te e ar li er, ce a se
to ope ra te a t the e xpi ra tion o f si x we e ks fr o m th e fi r st me e ti ng a ft er such
c o mme nc e me nt o f the Le gis la ti ve As s e mb l y o f tha t Sta te fun ct ionin g unde r
c la us e (1) o f ar ti cl e 382, a nd nothing in thi s ar ti cl e sha ll be con st rued a s
c ontinu ing a n y s uch O rdin anc e in fo rc e b e yo nd the sa id pe riod.
372A. P ow e r of t he Pres i de nt to adapt law s. —(1 ) For the purpos es of
br inging th e pro vi sion s o f an y l a w in fo r ce in Indi a or in an y p ar t the re o f,
i m med ia te l y be for e the co m men c e me nt of the Cons ti tution (S e ve nth
A me nd me nt) Ac t, 1956, into ac co rd wit h th e provis ions o f thi s Cons titu tion
a s a mend ed b y th at Ac t, the P res ide nt ma y b y orde r ma de be for e th e fi rs t
d a y o f No ve mb e r, 1957, ma ke su ch ad apt at ions and mod i fi c at ions o f the
l a w, wh eth er b y wa y o f r ep ea l or a mend me nt , as ma y b e ne ce s sa r y or
e xped ien t, and provid e th at th e l a w sha ll, as fro m s uch dat e a s ma y be
sp ec i fie d in th e ord er, ha ve e ffe ct subj ec t to the a dap ta tion s and
mo di fi c at ions s o ma d e, and an y su ch ad apt at ion or mo di fi c at ion sha ll not
b e qu es tione d in an y cou rt of la w.
181 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2) No thing in
c la us e (1 ) sh al l be
d ee me d to pre ven t a co mp et en t Le gis la tu re or othe r co mpe t ent autho rit y
fr o m re pe al ing or a me ndin g an y l a w ad apt ed or mo di fie d b y the Pr es iden t
und er the s aid c lau se .
373. P ow er of P re si de nt to ma ke or der i n res pe ct of pe r s ons unde r
pre ve nt i ve de te nt ion i n ce rt ai n c as e s. — Unt il pro vi si on is mad e b y
P ar lia men t und er cl au se (7 ) of a rt ic le 22, or until the e xp ir at ion o f one
ye ar fr o m the co mme n ce men t of thi s Con st itut ion, whi ch e ve r i s e ar li er, th e
s ai d ar tic le sh al l ha ve e ffe c t a s i f fo r an y r e fer e nc e to P ar li a men t in
c la us es (4 ) and (7) the re o f th er e we re subs titu ted a r e fer en ce to th e
P re sid ent and for a n y re fe re nc e to an y la w mad e b y P arli a me nt in tho se
c la us es the re we r e s ubs titu ted a r e fer en ce to an orde r ma d e b y th e
P re sid ent .
374. P rovis ions as t o J udg es of t he Fe de r al C ourt and proc ee di ng s
pe ndi ng in t he F e de r al Cour t or bef ore Hi s M aje st y in C ounc il . — (1)
The Judge s of the F ede ra l Court holdin g o ffi c e i mme di at el y be fo re th e
c o mme nc e me nt o f thi s Con st itut ion sha ll, unl es s the y h ave e le ct ed
oth er wi se , b eco me on su ch co m men c e me nt th e Jud ges o f th e Supr e me Cour t
a nd sh al l the reupon be en tit le d to su ch sa la ri es and allo wa nc e s and to s uch
r ights in re sp ec t o f le a ve o f a bs enc e and pen sion as ar e provide d fo r under
a rt ic le 125 in r es pe ct o f the Jud ges of th e Supre me Cour t.
(2) Al l s uit s, a ppe al s a nd proc e ed ings, ci vi l or c ri mi na l, p ending in th e
F ede ra l Cour t a t the co m men c e me nt of this Con st itut ion s ha ll st and
r e mo ve d to the Supr e me Court , and th e Sup re me Cou rt sh al l ha ve
ju ris dic tion to hea r and det er mi ne th e sa me , and th e judgme nt s and orde rs
o f th e F ede ra l Cour t deli ver ed or ma de be fo re th e co m men c e men t of th is
Con st itut ion s ha ll have th e sa me for c e and e ffe ct a s i f th e y had bee n
d eli ve r ed or mad e b y the Supr e me Cou rt.
(3) Nothin g in this Cons titu tion s ha ll ope ra te to in va lid at e th e e xer c is e
o f juri sdi ct ion b y Hi s M aje st y in Coun cil to dispo se of app ea ls and
p eti tions fro m, or in re sp ec t o f, an y judgme nt , de cr ee or ord er of an y cour t
wi thin the te rri tor y of Indi a in s o fa r a s th e e xer c is e of suc h jur isd ic tion i s
a uthor is ed b y l a w, and an y orde r of Hi s Maj es t y in Coun ci l mad e on a n y
su ch app ea l or peti tion a ft e r the c o mme nc e me nt o f thi s Con st itut ion sha ll
for a ll purpo se s have e ffe ct as i f it we r e a n orde r or dec re e mad e b y the
Sup re me Cou rt in th e e xer ci s e o f the jur isd ic tion c on fe rr e d on suc h Cour t
b y this Con st itut ion.
(4) On and fr o m th e co m men c e men t o f th is Con s titu tion th e jur isd ic tion
o f th e a uthor it y fun ction ing as th e Pri vy Coun cil in a Sta te s pe ci fi ed in
P ar t B o f the Fi rs t Sch edul e to en te rt ain and di spos e of appe al s and
p eti tions fro m or in re sp ec t o f a n y jud gmen t, d ec re e or orde r o f an y cou rt
wi thin tha t Sta te sh al l ce a s e, and a ll app ea ls and othe r pro ce ed ings pendin g
b e fo re the s ai d autho ri t y a t su ch co m men c e me nt s ha ll be tr ans fe rr ed to, and
di spos ed of b y, the Supr e me Cou rt.
182 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(5) Furth er
pro vi si on ma y b e ma d e
b y P arli a men t b y l a w to gi ve e ffe c t to th e provis ions o f thi s ar ti cl e.
375. Cour t s, aut hor it ie s and of fi c e rs to c onti nue t o f unc ti on s ubje c t
t o t he provis i ons of the C ons ti t ut ion.— All c ourt s of ci vi l, cr i min al and
r e ve nue ju ris dic tion , a ll au thori ti es and a ll offi ce r s, judi ci al , e xe cut ive and
mi ni st er ia l, th roughout th e t er rito r y o f India , sh al l con tinue to e xer ci s e
th ei r r es pe ct i ve fu nc tions s ubje ct to the pro vi si ons o f this Con st itut ion.
376. P rovis ions as t o J udg es of H ig h Cour t s. — (1) No t wi ths ta nding
a n ythin g in cl au se (2) o f ar ti cl e 217, th e Jud ge s of a Hi gh Cou rt in an y
P ro vinc e holding o ffi c e i m med ia te l y b e fo re the co mme nc e men t of thi s
Con st itut ion sh all , unle ss th e y ha ve e le ct e d othe r wi s e, be co me on s uch
c o mme nc e me nt the J udge s o f the H igh Cou rt in th e co rr es pondin g St at e,
a nd sh al l the reupon be en tit le d to su ch sa la ri es and allo wa nc e s and to s uch
r ights in re sp ec t o f l ea ve of ab se nc e a nd pen sion a s ar e pro vi ded fo r und er
a rt ic le 221 in re sp ec t o f th e Jud ges o f su ch H igh Cou rt. An y su ch Jud ge
sh al l, not wi th st andin g tha t he is not a c it iz en of India , be el igibl e fo r
a ppoint me nt a s Chie f J us tic e of su ch H igh Cour t, or a s Chie f J us tic e or
oth er Jud ge of an y othe r Hi gh Cour t.
(2) Th e Jud ge s o f a H igh Cou rt in an y Indi an Sta te co rr es pondin g to an y
St at e s pe ci fi ed in P ar t B o f th e Fi rs t S chedu le holding o ffi c e i m med ia te l y
b e fo re the c o mme nc e me nt of thi s Con sti tution sha ll, unle ss the y ha ve
e le ct ed oth er wis e , bec o me on su ch co m men c e men t the Jud ges o f th e Hi gh
Cou rt in th e Sta te s o s pe ci fie d and sha ll , not with st and ing a n ythin g in
c la us es (1) and (2) o f ar ti cl e 217 but subj ec t to th e provis o to c lau se (1) of
th at ar ti cl e, con tinu e to hold offi ce until the e xp ir at ion o f su ch pe riod as
th e Pr es iden t m a y b y orde r det er mi ne .
(3) In thi s ar ti cl e, the e xp re s sion “ Jud ge ” do es not inc lude an a ct ing
Jud ge or an addi tiona l Judge .
377. Provi si ons as to C o mpt roll er and A udi t or- G e ne r al of I ndi a.— The
Aud itor-Ge ne r al o f Indi a holding offic e i m med ia te l y be for e the
c o mme nc e me nt of thi s Cons ti tution sha ll, unle ss he ha s e le ct ed othe r wi s e,
b eco me on su ch co mme nc e men t th e Co mp tro ll er and Audi tor- Gen er a l of
Ind ia and sh al l th er eupon be en tit led to suc h s al ar ie s a nd to su ch right s in
r es pe ct o f l ea ve of abs en ce and pens ion as a re pro vi de d for under c lau se
(3 ) o f a rt ic le 148 in re sp ec t o f th e Co mpt rol le r and Au ditor-Ge ne r al of
Ind ia and be ent itl ed to c ontinu e to hold o ffi c e until th e e xp ir at ion of hi s
t er m of offic e a s de te r min ed under th e pro vi si ons whi ch we r e app li ca ble to
hi m i mme di at el y b e fo re su ch co m men ce men t.
378. P rovis ions as t o P ubl ic Se rvi ce Co m mi s si ons .— (1) Th e me mb e rs
o f the P ublic Se rvic e Co mmi s si on fo r the D o mi nion o f India holdin g o ffi c e
i m med ia te l y b e fo re the co mme nc e men t of thi s Con st itut ion sha ll , unle ss
th e y h ave el ec te d othe r wis e, be co me on such co mme n ce men t th e me mb e rs
o f th e P ublic S er vi c e Co mmi s si on for the Union and sh al l, not wi ths ta nding
a n ythin g in cl au se s (1 ) and (2) o f ar ti cl e 316 but subj ec t to the pro vi so to
c la us e (2 ) o f th at a rt ic le , con tinu e to hold o ffi c e until th e e xp ir at ion of
183 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

th ei r t er m o f offi ce as
d ete r min ed unde r th e
ru le s whi c h we re app li ca ble i mme di at el y be for e s uch co mme nc e men t to
su ch me mb e rs .
(2) Th e Me mb er s of a Publi c Se rvic e Co m mis s ion of a P ro vinc e or of a
P ublic S er vi c e Co mmi s sion s er ving the ne ed s o f a group of Pro vin ce s
holdin g offic e i mme di at el y be for e th e co m men c e me nt of this Cons ti tution
sh al l, unle ss the y ha ve el ec te d othe r wi s e, be co me on suc h c o mme nc e me nt
th e me mbe rs o f th e P ublic Se rvic e Co mmi s sion fo r th e c or re spondin g Sta te
or th e me mb er s of the Jo int Sta te P ublic S er vi c e Co mmi s sion s er vin g the
n eed s of th e co rr espond ing Sta te s, a s the c as e ma y b e, and sha ll,
not with st and ing a n ythin g in cl au se s (1) and (2 ) o f a rt ic le 316 but subj ec t to
th e pro vi so to c la us e (2 ) o f th at ar ti cl e, c ontinu e to hold o ffi c e until th e
e xpir at ion o f th ei r te r m o f o ffi c e as det er mi ne d unde r the rule s wh ic h we r e
a ppli ca bl e i mme di at el y be for e su ch co mme n ce men t to su ch me mb er s .
378A. S pec i al provi si on as t o dur at i on of A ndhr a Pr ades h L egi sl at i ve
A ss e mbly. —No t wi th st andin g an yt hin g cont ain ed in ar tic le 172, th e
Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y o f th e St at e o f An dhr a P rade sh as cons ti tute d und er
th e provis ions o f s ec tion s 28 and 29 o f th e S ta te s Re organ is at ion Ac t ,
1956, sha ll , unl es s soon er di sso lved , c ontinu e fo r a pe riod of fi ve ye a rs
fr o m the dat e r e fer r ed to in th e s ai d se ct ion 29 and no lon ge r and th e
e xpir at ion of th e sa id per iod s ha ll ope ra te a s a dis solu tion of th at
Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y.
379.—391. R ep. by the Con st itut ion (Se v en th A mend me nt ) A ct, 1956, s.
29 and Sch .
392. P ow er of t he Pres i de nt to re move di ff ic ult ie s . —(1 ) The Pr es iden t
ma y, fo r the purpo se o f r e mo vin g an y di ffi c ult ie s, pa rti cu la rl y in re la tion
to th e t ran si tion fr o m the provis ions of th e Go ve rn me nt of Indi a Ac t, 1935,
to th e pro vi si ons o f this Cons titu tion, b y orde r dir ec t th at this Cons titu tion
sh al l, dur ing su ch pe riod a s ma y be spe ci fi ed in the ord er, ha ve e ffe c t
sub je ct to su ch ad apt at ions , whe th er b y wa y of mo di fi c at ion, a ddit ion or
o mis si on, as h e ma y d ee m to b e n ec es s ar y or e xped ie nt:
P rovid ed th at no su ch ord er sh al l be ma d e a ft er the fir st me e tin g of
P ar lia men t dul y con st itut ed unde r Ch apt er I I of P ar t V.
(2) E ve r y ord er ma de under c lau se (1) sh all be l aid be for e P arli a men t.
(3) Th e po we r s con fer r ed on th e P re sid en t b y this a rt ic le , b y ar ti cl e 324,
b y c la us e (3 ) of a rt ic le 367 a nd b y ar ti cl e 391 sh al l, be for e th e
c o mme nc e me nt o f thi s Con st itut ion, be e xe r ci sa bl e b y th e Go ver nor-
Ge ne r al o f th e D o mi nion of India .
184 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART XXII
SHORT TITLE, COMMENCEMENT, AUTHORITATIVE
TEXT IN HINDI AND REPEALS
393. S hort t itl e. — This Con st itut ion m a y b e c al le d the Cons ti tution o f
Ind ia .
394. Co m me nc e me nt .— This a rt ic le a nd a rt ic le s 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 60, 324,
366, 367, 379, 380, 388, 391, 392 and 393 sh al l co me into fo rc e at once ,
a nd th e re ma in ing pro vi si ons o f thi s Con st itut ion sha ll co me in to for c e on
th e t wen t y- si xt h da y of Ja nua r y, 1950, whi ch d a y i s re fe rr e d to in thi s
Con st itut ion a s th e c o mme nc e me nt o f thi s Cons titu tion.
394A. A ut hor it ati ve tex t in the H i ndi language . —(1 ) The Pr es iden t
sh al l ca us e to b e publ ish ed under hi s a utho rit y, —
( a) the tr ans la tion o f thi s Con st itut ion in th e H indi l angua ge, s igned
b y the me mb e rs of th e Cons titu ent As s e mbl y, wit h s uch mod i fi c at ions a s
ma y be n ec es s ar y to brin g it in con for mi t y wi th th e l angua ge, st yl e and
t er mi nolog y adopt ed in th e autho ri ta tive t e xt s of Cen tr al Ac ts in th e
H indi lan gu a ge , and inc orpo ra ting the re in al l th e a mend me nt s of this
Con st itut ion ma d e be for e suc h publ ic at ion; and
( b) th e tr ans la tion in the Hindi lan gu age of e ver y a me nd men t o f th is
Con st itut ion ma d e in the Engli sh lan gu a ge .
(2) Th e tr an sl at ion o f thi s Cons titu tion and of e ver y a men d men t th er eo f
publi sh ed unde r c lau se (1 ) sh all be con st rue d to ha ve th e s a me me an in g a s
th e origin al th er eo f and i f a n y di ffi cul t y ar is es in so con st ruin g an y pa rt of
su ch tr an sl ation , th e P res ide nt sha ll ca us e th e s a me to b e r e vi se d suit abl y.
(3) Th e tr an sl at ion o f thi s Cons titu tion and of e ver y a men d men t th er eo f
publi sh ed under thi s ar ti cl e sha ll b e d ee me d to be , for al l purpo se s, th e
a uthor it ati ve te xt the reo f in th e Hindi l angua ge.
395. R e pe al s. — Th e India n Ind ep ende nc e Ac t, 1947, and the Go ve rn me nt
o f Indi a Act , 1935, to geth er wi th al l ena ct men ts a me ndin g or
supp le me nt ing the la tt er Ac t, but not in clud ing th e Ab oli tion of Pri vy
Coun ci l J uri sdi ct ion Ac t , 1949, a re h er eb y re pe al ed.

184