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THE SHELL LUBRICANTS

REFERENCE GUIDE
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THE SHELL LUBRICANTS REFERENCE


GUIDE
CONTENTS:

PAGE No

1. BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT LUBRICANTS


2. GENERAL QUESTIONS ABOUT LURICANTS & LUBRICATION
3. VISCOSITY
(i)

SAE Engine Oils


(ii) SAE Automotive Gear Oils
6
(iii) ISO Industrial Oils
6
(iv) Multigrades

4. SPECIFICATIONS & CLASSIFICATIONS

3
4
6
6

(I) API for Engines


(ii) API for Automotive Gearboxes & Backaxles

8
9

(i) Manufacture & Function


(ii) NLGI Grease Consistency & Classification

9
13

5. GREASE

6. THE FUNDAMENTALS ABOUT ENGINES,MACHINES & GEARS

9
14

(I) Gasoline Engines


(ii) Diesel Engines
(iii) Gears (auto/ind)
(iv) Hydraulics
22
(v) Air & Refrigerator Compressors

14
15
17

(I)
Petrol Engine Oils
(ii) Diesel Engine Oils
(iii) Automotive Gear Oils
(iv) Automotive Transmission Fluids
35
(v) Brake Fluids & Specialities
(vi) Automotive Greases
(vii) Compressor Oils
36
(viii) Corrosion Preventative Fluids
(iv) Cutting & Metal Processing Fluids
(x)
Industrial Gear Lubricants
(xi) Heat Transfer Oils
(xii) Hydraulic Oils
(xiii) Industrial Machinery & Bearing Oils
(xiv) Quenching Oils
(xv) Refrigerator Compressor oils
(xvi) Rock Drill & Pneumatic Machinery Lubricants
36
(xvii) Steam Cylinder Oils
(xviii)Textile Machinery Oils
(xix) Turbine Oils
(xx) Electrical Transformer Oils
(xxi) Industrial Greases

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7. SUMMARY OF SHELL LUBRICANTS & THEIR APPLICATION 35

8. SHELL LUBRICANTS PRODUCT DATA SHEETS


38
9. CAR MANUFACTURERS LUBRICANTS RECOMMENDATIONS
10. HEALTH, SAFETY, STORAGE & HANDLING OF LUBRICANTS

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11. WHERE TO GO FOR HELP & ASSISTANCE


12. GLOSSARY OF TERMS
13. SHELL LUBRICANTS PRICE LIST

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1.BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT LUBRICANTS


Machinery of all types & sizes would be unable to function if it were not for the
presence of the appropriate lubricant. A lubricant reduces friction & wear, cools
and protects the machinery
& generally ensures smooth & trouble free
operation. The condition under which a lubricant functions can vary
tremendously depending upon the type of machinery & the environment in which
that machinery operates. Shells comprehesive range of lubricants have been
designed to meet all lubrication needs . Your particular Shell Company might not
stock some of these grades but they can be obtained from another Shell
Company if necessary for the business. If you are not sure about the proper oil to
recommend to your customer then ask the Lubrcants Department in your
company. If they can not help then contact David Adams OBML in Shell Centre
London on telephone number + 44 171 934 4020. However, you must first have
the correct information in order for him to give you the correct advise i.e.
Machine manufacturers name, model number/type, year of manufacture, &
application.
Lubricants are mainly manufactured from carefully selected base oils & are
blended with Chemical additives to allow the lubricant to do its specific job.Most
lubricants contain atleast one chemical additive:
Motor oils
5% - 20% by weight
Industrial oils 1% - 4% by weight
Different additives & base oils are used for different lubricants.
There are various additives designed to do different jobs. The main ones are as
follows:

To
To
To
To
To
To
To
To

clean
disperse deposits
fight acids
reduce wear
prevent foaming
reduce friction
improve pourability in cold conditions
give oils multigrade characteristics

3 STAGES OF LUBRICANT
DEVELOPMENT

2. ENGINE
LABORATORY

3. FIELD TRIALS

small scale
screening tests

bench engine tests

severe conditions

evaluation of up to 20
candidate formulations

detailed evaluation of
5 candidates

2 - 3 years duration

1. LABORATORY

In conclusion therefore, lubricants differ in terms of their thickness, base oil &
additive combinations. For instance, thicker oils are required in hot working
temperatures & the base oil & additive requirements differ between an engine oil
& gearbox oil. Lubricants are specialised products and the reputation of our
products depends upon Shell recommending the correct lubricant for the
required application.
NEVER RECOMMEND A SHELL LUBRICANT TO A CUSTOMER UNLESS YOU
ARE 100% SURE OF YOU FACTS. ASK IF YOU ARE NOT SURE. SHELLS
REPUTATION DEPENDS UPON YOU!!!!!!

2.GENERAL QUESTIONS ABOUT LUBRICANTS & LUBRICATION


Q. What is a Base Oil?
A. Base Oil is manufactured in the refinery & is produced from the distillation
process. From the wide range of base oils available the chemist selects the one
most suitable for the individual lubricant being blended. Shell are very strict
about the rules governing base oils & due to there extensive refinery network,
can exercise strict controls. Base oils have three major properties Viscosity(thickness), viscosity index & pour point.
Q. Why is the oil in a machine/engine changed periodically?
A. As an oil does its job of cooling,cleaning & reducing wear it becomes
contaminated with impurities. After time the oil becomes saturated with these
impurities & is therefore prevented from doing its job efficiently. This is the
period at which an oil must be changed. The decision as to when to change an oil
can only be advised by the manufacturer of the machine.
Q. Is the blackness of an oil an indication that it requires changing?
A. No, not always. The blackness indicates that an oil is doing its job by keeping
the deposits in suspension.
Q. What happens when an oil becomes saturated with impurities?
A. It becomes thicker & if not changed will eventually go to the thickness of a
grease & consequently will not be able to get between the working parts of the
machine/engine which will result in mechanical failure.
Q. Can the quality of an oil be judged by its smell, colour or feel?
A. NO. The above are affected by the type of base oils used. Some base oils,
particularly those from the Middle East are dark in colour & have a stronger smell
than base oils from other parts of the World. Even different blend batches from
the same blending plant for the same grade can alter in colour & smell
depending upon where the Base oil was sourced from. Feel can not determine
the quality or condition of an oil. The only way this can be achieved is for the oil
to be tested in the laboratory.
Q. How can a customer get the best use out of the oil in his
machine/engine?
A. By making sure that his machine/engine is running correctly & that filters are
changed as per the manufacturers recommendations & that all leaks are
eliminated.
For instance an engine which is not properly tuned could result in unburnt fuel
getting into the oil which will reduce the oils thickness. Badly worn air filters will
allow dust & sand to enter the engine which will increase wear. If oil filters are
not changed they become clogged & thereby place further stress on the oil.
Q. Why do customers have to top up their machines/engines with oil?
A. During running conditions, particularly in engines, some oil is consumed
through evaporation & burning, therefore a top up of oil is necessary between
services in order to maintain a correct operating oil level. Older engines need
more frequent topping up than newer engines because of engine wear which
increases with age. The main reason for top ups of industrial machines is often
related to leaks & worn seals.
Q. Why does Shell not advise customers to extend there drain oil
periods past those recommended by the manufacturer?
A. All manufacturers have carried out extensive tests(often in conjunction with
oil companies) prior to introducing there products onto the market. As a result of
these tests the manufacture can determine the most efficient period an oil

should remain in the machine before its changed. However, these tests are
carried out in ideal laboratory conditions which is often not the case in reality,
conseqently the recommended change period sometimes has to be reduced if
the machine is operating in harsher conditions i.e. dusty/hot climates, high
sulphur fuels or because the machine is old & is therefore not operating
efficiently. The only time Shell would be prepared to allow extended drain oil
periods is when this is linked to oil condition monitoring( i.e.testing the oil in a
laboratory at agreed intervals whilst the oil is in service).
Q. Can Shell Lubricants be mixed with other companies oils?
A. Yes, but only in small quantities( i.e. top ups). However, mixing is not
recommended where Industrial oils are concerned.

3.VISCOSITY
In the common engineering sense, viscosity is the resistance to flow or
thickness of a liquid. Viscosity of oils decreases with increase in temperature,
hence the temperature at which a viscosity is measured must always be
specified.
There are three diferrent international classifications for measuring the viscosity
of oils & those are as follows:
The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) for Engine Oils.
The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) for Automotive Gear Oils.
International Organisation of Standardisation(ISO) for Industrial oils.
3(i)SAE Engine Oils:
The classification range for these are:
Thick OIL end
SAE 50
SAE 40
SAE 30
SAE 20W
SAE 15W
SAE 5W
SAE 0W
Thin OIL end
The HIGHER the number the THICKER the oil.
W stands for WINTER
3(ii)SAE Automotve Gear Oils:
The classification range for these are:
Thick OIL end
SAE 140
SAE 90
SAE 85W
SAE 80W
SAE 75W
Thin OIL end
The most common used SAE for gear oils in Africa are 80w,90 & 140.
SAE classification is not a measure of performance of an oil but simply a
classification of the oils thickness. Performance of oils will be covered under
section 4. Specifications & Classifications
3(iii)ISO Industrial Oils:
The most commonly used classification range for these are:

Thick OIL end


1000
680
460
320
220
150
100
68
46
32
22
Thin OIL end
The most used ISO grades, particularly with regard to hydraulics(Shell Tellus) are
32,46,68. The working ambient temperature can influence the viscosity choice
of the oil. For instance, a machine that is manufactured in the U.K. might
recommend a Shell Tellus ISO 32. However, if that machine is operating in
high(than the U.K.) ambient temperature i.e. 40 0c then an ISO 46 might be better
suited for the machine.
There is no relationship between the SAE & ISO classification numbers .The
higher ISO numbers does not mean that the oil is thicker than theSAE oils. See
comparison chart below.

VISCOSITY COMPARISONS
C O MP AR IS O N O F IS O AND S AE V IS C O S IT Y C L AS S IF IC AT IO N S YS T E MS
C St at 40oC

cSt at 100 oC

850

42

775

40

700
625

38

680

36

550

34

140

500
450
400

32
30

460

28

365

26

315
280

24

320

22

240
205
175

90

40
150
100

85
60

68
46

40

32
22

20
10

ISO
VISCOSITY
GRADE
(INDUSTRIAL

85W
80W
75W

SAE
GEAR OIL
VISCOSITY
NO.
(AUTOMOTIVE)

20
18

220

140
115

50

30
20
10W
0W & 5W

16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2

SAE
ENGINE
OIL
VISCOSITY
NO.
(AUTOMOTIVE)

As you will see from above, at 40 0 c an ISO 150 is the same thickness as an SAE
Gear Oil 90 & an SAE Engine Oil 40.
3(iv)Multigrades:

Multigrades meet the requirement of more than one viscosity classification & are
therefore suitable for use over a wider temperature range than a single grade
oil.
Multigrades are mostly associated with engine oils(i.e. SAE 20w/50) & some
automotive gearbox oils(i.e. SAE 85W/140). Multigrades are very seldom used in
an industrial oil application.
The modern trend is towards using multigrades for the following reasons:

Reduces the number of oils to stock as multigrades can often do the job of
at least two single grade oils.

Reduces the risk of using the wrong oil at a certain operating


temperature(i.e. using a thin oil in hot conditions).

Multigrades have additives which make them stronger & less likely to be
cut up by the engine. In other words they stay in grade longer.

They give increased engine protection from start up when the engine is
cold even at 30 0c & hot protection at 350 0c(piston top) when the engine is
running at full working temperature.
IT IS NOT TRUE THAT MULTIGRADES ARE NOT SUITABLE FOR AFRICA.
The most commonly used Multigrades in Africa are:
For Engine oils: 15w/40 & 20w/50.
For Gearbox oils: 80w/90 & 85w/140.

4.SPECIFICATIONS & CLASSIFICATIONS


There are numerous specs & classifications for lubricants related to there
specific application. These are either established by the machine/engine
manufacturers or by industry institutions. The most commomn ones in use are:
For Engine Oils:

American Petroleum Insitute(API)


Committee of Common Market automobile Constructors(CCMC)
US Military(MIL-L-)
For Automotive Gearbox Oils:

American Petroleum Institute(API)

For Industrial Oils:

Hydraulics - CETOP
- DIN

Electrical - IEC

Air Compressors - DIN 51506


We will not go into the manufacturers specification as they are various & will
confuse what is already a complex subject.
The one Specification you need to understand is the American Petroleum
Institute(API) which is most widely used in Africa.
4(i)API for Engines:
There are two API specs for automotive engines. One for PETROL engines & the
other for DIESEL engines as follows:
Diesel = prefix C which stands for Compression Ignition
Petrol = prefix S which stands for Spark Ignition
The performance of the oil is defined as letters of the alphabet as follows:
PETROL
Highest(strongest)

SH

DIESEL
highest(strongest)

CF -------------

SG

CE for turbo

charged engines

SF
SE

CD ------------CC

SD
SC
SB
SA
Lowest(weakest)

CB
CA
Lowest(weakest)

The LOWER the letter in the alphabet the LOWER the performance
The HIGHER the letter in the alphabet the HIGHER the performance
Respectable oil companies such as Shell do not market oils in the lower category
but concentrate on the better quality specs as highlighted above.

4(ii)API GL(Gear Lubricants) for Gearboxes:


The API system applicable to Automotive Gearbox Lubricants is related to a
numbering rather than the alphabetical system used for engine oils.
The LOWER the number the WEAKER the oils performance.
The range is as follows:
Strongest

API GL 5
API GL 4
API GL 3
API GL 2
API GL 1
Weakest
The most common API GLs used in Africa are API GL 4 & API GL5.
GL 4 is usually recommeded for gearboxes & the back axle of passenger cars.
GL 5 is usually recommeded for gearboxes of some trucks & most truck back
axles.

5.GREASE
5(I) Manufacture & Function

BASE OIL + THICKENER + ADDITIVES


= GREASE

Base Oil (85-90%)

Thickener (10-25%)

Additives (5-10%)

Grease

What is a grease ?
...... a
a solid to semi-fluid product of dispersion
of a thickening agent in a liquid lubricant.
Other ingredients, giving special properties,
may be included.
covers mineral oils, synthetic lubricants and
all kinds of thickener
excludes products which do not contain
thickening agents e.g. waxes

10

The Advantages of Greases


Convenience
easier to apply
cheaper to apply
need to be applied less often

Persistence
do not drain away from stationary lubricated surfaces
provide immediate lubrication on start-up

Protection
better sealants than oils
protection against corrosion during shut-down

Cleanliness
less likely to leak and splash than oils
can be used in production of food, drugs, textiles etc.

______________________________________________________________________________

The Disadvantages of Greases


Cooling Properties
low cooling rate

Contamination
care needed to avoid contamination during storage
wear debris is retained in lubricant
contaminants can increase wear and/or damage grease

Design Limitations
cannot be used in very high speed bearings

_____________________________________________________________________________

11

How does a grease work ?


Behaviour is similar to that of
at rest, oil is held in place by thickener (soap) matrix and
sponges
the grease behaves like a solid
when pressure is applied, oil and soap begin to flow,
providing a lubricating film
at rest the soap matrix re-forms and the grease
regains its original consistency

Greases can be damaged


if subjected to excessive stress (load / speed), the grease
structure can be broken down permanently

______________________________________________________________________________

Grease Additives (1)


Anti-oxidants
amines, phenols
restrict oxidation

Corrosion inhibitors
surfactants
reduce corrosion

Anti-wear
zinc, sulphur/phosphorous
reduce wear

12

Grease Additives (2)


Extreme pressure
sulphur compounds , chlorine compounds
enhanced performance under heavy and shock loads

Stabilisers
water, fatty acids, alcohols, glycerine
improve stability

Dry lubricants
MOS2, graphite, powdered metals
improve lubrication at high temperatures/heavy loads

Tackiness additives
polymers
improve adhesion

5(ii)NLGI Grease Consistency Classification :


The commonly used grease classification is that established in the USA many
years ago by the National Lubricating Grease Institute(NLGI). This classifies
greases solely in terms of their hardness or softness; no other property or
performance
level
is
taken
into
consideration.
The
range
of
consistency(thickness) commences at 000 for a grease which is semi fluid to
6 which is block hard like a bar of soap.
The total range is below:

13

Block hard Grease


6
5
4

3
2
1
0
00
000
Semi Fluid Grease
The most commonly used NLGI in Africa are 2 & 3 i.e. Alvania EP 2 & Alvania
R 3. Retinax A is also NLGI 2. NLGI 3 is designed for higher temperature
applications i.e. electric motor bearings.

REMEMBER, ALVANIA IS FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS & RETINAX


FOR AUTOMOTIVE.

6) THE FUNDAMENTALS ABOUT ENGINES MACHINES & GEARS


6.(i) Gasoline Engines

DEVELOPMENTS IN GASOLINE ENGINE


TECHNOLOGY (1)

14

High Performance

Increased power output


Turbochargers
Multi-valve engines
Fuel injection systems
Higher running speeds and temperatures

Valve Train Design


Improved efficiency
Increased stress
Metallurgy and configurations

__________________________________________________________________________________

DEVELOPMENTS IN GASOLINE ENGINE


TECHNOLOGY (2)
Effect on the lubricant
higher operating temperatures
higher pressures
increased physical stress
changed chemical balance of combustion
products
reduced oils consumption / less top-up
smaller sump capacities
greatly increased loading

GASOLINE ENGINE FIELD PROBLEMS

15

Hot Sludge or Black Sludge

closed crankcase ventilation / foul air breathing systems


lean burn fuel mixtures / changed chemical balance
stop - go driving (taxis, buses etc.)
variable fuel quality
variable lubricant quality

Turbocharger Failures

early designs air cooled


rapid high temperature build-up
thermal and oxidative degradation of the lubricant
blocked oil pathways
failure

Valve Train Wear


increased occurrence of valve train failures

6.(ii) Diesel Engines

DIESEL ENGINES
Differences to gasoline engines:
compression ignition, not spark ignition
operate at higher temperatures and pressures
heavier fuel, containing sulphur, but no lead
usually heavier, more rugged, and longer
lasting

16

DIESEL ENGINE
DEVELOPMENTS
Historical developments have been
evolutionary rather than revolutionary
turbochargers
intercoolers
combustion chamber design
injection systems
fuel economy
progressively increasing demands on the
lubricant

INCREASING DEMANDS ON
DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICANTS

Higher temperatures
Chemical stress
Physical stress
Reduced oil consumption
Extended oil drain
Thermal stability
Depletion / degradation
Film strength

17

6.(iii) Gears ( industrial & Automotive)

What are gears ?


Gears are toothed wheels used in
combination to transmit motion and power.
Gears can be used to transfer rotation:
from one axis to another
with a change of direction
with a change of speed
with a change of torque.

__________________________________________________________________________

Advantages of gears

compact
can transmit high forces
can operate at high speeds
are very efficient
run smoothly
do not slip
are often available off the shelf

18

Disadvantages of gears

need accurate alignment


must be lubricated effectively
must be kept cool
can be expensive
may give rise to design difficulties

______________________________________________________________________________

Gear Types
Gears transmitting
motion between
parallel shafts

Spur gears
Helical gears
Double helical gears

Gears transmitting
motion between
intersecting shafts

Plain bevel gears


Spiral bevel gears

Gears transmitting
motion between
non-intersecting shafts

Crossed helical gears


Hypoid gears
Worm gears

19

External and Internal Gears


Spur, helical and double helical gears are
external gears
these can also be arranged as internal gears,
where the pinion turns inside a wheel which
has its teeth cut on the inside
another common variation of the basic spur
gear is the rack and pinion where the pinion
moves along a straight toothed rack

_________________________________________________________________________

Hypoid gears

Hypoid gears are similar


to spiral bevel gears
However, their two shafts
are offset from one
another
Give special lubrication
problems
not commonly used in
industry
Widely used in the rear
axles of motor vehicles

20

The functions of a gear


lubricant
LUBRICATION
separation of moving surfaces
reduction of friction
reduction of wear

Cooling
particularly important in enclosed gears

Protection
against corrosion

Maintaining cleanliness
removal of wear debris or external contamination

Important properties of a gear


lubricant
Viscosity
Viscosity Index
Anti-wear and EP properties
Oxidation resistance
Anti-corrosion properties
Anti-foaming properties
Demulsibility
Some properties are inherent to straight
lubricants; others may be enhanced by the
use of suitable additives

21

Viscosity

The most important property of a gear


lubricant is its viscosity
Must be high enough to maintain an adequate
lubricating film under all conditions
However, high viscosity oils are not always
desirable because:
they increase drag and give rise to increased power
losses
they are less effective coolants
they are more likely to overheat and become oxidised
they are more likely to foam, have poor water separation
(demulsibility), are difficult to filter, and shed
contaminants less rapidly

The choice of Viscosity


The conflicting viscosity requirements for a
gear lubricant are usually best met by an oil
which:
is as thin as is consistent with efficient
lubrication
allows an adequate safety margin

22

6.(iv) Hydraulics

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULICS

The use of liquids for the


transmission of energy
e.g. the transmission of pressure to a
cylinder by a pump, through a liquid

Conversion of small forces into


much larger ones

A Simple Hydraulic Jack

Load

Hydraulic Medium

23

Control of a Basic Hydraulic System


Flow Control Valve
(throttle)

Differential
Control Valve

The Advantages of Hydraulics (1)


Muscle Power
Hydraulics can:
be used to manipulate heavy loads, with fine control
control speed and force smoothly and simply
move full loads from a standstill

Flexibility
Hydraulics can:

control large and small forces with great precision


control repetitive operations with accuracy
regulate slow, fast and variable speed movement
convert rotary motion into linear motion, and vice
versa

24

The Advantages of Hydraulics (2)


Reliability
Hydraulic equipment is:
robust and relatively simple to design
easily protected from overloading by simple pressure
relief valves

Economy
Hydraulic equipment is:
compact
simple
often cheaper to manufacture than electrical,
electronic or mechanical systems that achieve the
same result

IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF A HYDRAULIC FLUID

Power Transmission
must be able to flow easily and resist compression

Lubrication
has to lubricate all moving parts to minimise friction and
wear

Cooling
has to dissipate any heat generated in the hydraulic
system

Sealing
has to be sufficiently viscous to provide a good seal
between the moving parts in pumps, valves and motors
has to minimise leakage
has to be compatible with seal materials

Filterability
the fluid must be easily filterable

HYDRAULIC FLUIDS AND POWER TRANSMISSION

Efficient transmission of power in a hydraulic


system requires a fluid with:
low compressibility
so that pressure, and therefore power, is transmitted
instantaneously and efficiently

good air-release properties


so that its compressibility is not increased by trapped air
bubbles

good anti-foaming characteristics


so that foam does not enter the hydraulic circuit

suitable viscosity
so that it can flow easily around the system and yet be
sufficiently viscous to provide adequate lubrication

25

HYDRAULIC FLUIDS
critical performance considerations
Viscosity (Viscosity
Index)
Air Release
Foaming
Corrosion
Protection
Water Separation
Seal compatibility

Filterability
Water Tolerance
Oxidation Stability
Thermal Stability
Anti- wear
Stick Slip
Fire Resistance

Modern hydraulic oils are sophisticated speciality products

HYDRAULIC OILS
viscosity selection
Oil viscosity must be matched to the needs of
the equipment
particularly system pumps and valves

Equipment manufacturers recommend the oil


by the ISO Viscosity Grading System
Operating Temperature Range must be
considered (cold stores etc.)
low temperature performance may be important

The most popular viscosity use is between


5 - 100 cSt at operating temperature
ISO 32 and 46 are oils most commonly used

HYDRAULIC OILS
Oxidation & Thermal Stability
Dictates oils service life
Poor Thermal Stability
Breakdown of additives
Degradation
Oil thickening

Poor Oxidation Stability


Acid formation
Corrosion, lacquers
Deposits, Sludge

Solutions
Oxidation Inhibitors
Thermally stable additives
Quality base oils

26

6.(v) Air & Refrigerator Compressors


Air Compressors

Why are air compressors so


useful ? (1)
Versatile - can be used:
to drive many kinds of machines and tools
in a variety of environments (factories, building sites,
mines, quarries, ships, trains, oil platforms, hospitals
etc.)
to operate equipment reliably in a wide range of ambient
temperatures
in delicate instrumentation and control devices
to provide concentrated power (e.g. pneumatic drills and
hammers)

Safe - compressed air:


is non-flammable
less hazardous than, e.g. electricity or high pressure
steam

Why are air compressors so


useful ? (2)
Reliable - modern compressed air systems:

are built to the highest engineering standards


can operate continuously over extended periods
are easy to maintain
designed on a fail-safe basis to minimise danger to
personnel and equipment

Cost-effective - compressed air systems are


often more economical than alternative
mechanical systems on the grounds of:

lower capital outlay


greater reliability
minimal downtime during maintenance
ability to withstand physical maltreatment during service
ability to operate in difficult environments

27

Air compressor performance


and usage (1)
Reciprocating air
oldest type; still commonly used
compressors

able to deliver over a wide range of pressures and flow


rates
usually used to deliver air at up to 10 bar and 100 m/min
the only practicable way of producing air at very high
pressures

Rotary air compressors

becoming increasingly popular; more of this type are


currently sold
widely used in industrial applications for pressures up to
10 bar
more compact, quieter and cheaper to run than
reciprocating machines

The lubrication of reciprocating


compressors (5)
The main properties affecting the choice of
lubricant for reciprocating compressors are:
Viscosity at working temperature
Thermal and oxidation stability
Anti-corrosion properties
Solvency
Demulsibility

28

The lubrication of reciprocating


compressors (4)
In rotary vane compressors, the oil is
required:
to lubricate the moving parts, e.g. pistons
and cylinders, crank mechanism bearings
to seal the clearances between piston and
cylinder
to cool the crank mechanism bearings
to protect against corrosion

The lubrication of rotary air


compressors (1)
The main properties affecting the choice of
lubricant for rotary compressors are:
Viscosity at working temperature
Thermal and oxidation stability
Anti-corrosion properties
Solvency
Demulsibility
Anti-foaming properties
Anti-wear properties

The lubrication of rotary vane


compressors (2)
In the oil-flooded rotary vane compressor, oil
is injected into the incoming air to create an
oil mist
Alternatively, oil is fed to the base of each
vane slot via channels in the rotor
Rotor bearings are lubricated separately
Oil is removed from the compressed gas in oil
separators

29

Refrigeration Compressors

Compressors and Refrigeration


(1)
Refrigeration is a characteristic of modern life
In most refrigeration systems, compressors
are used to compress a refrigerant gas which
effects the cooling
More compressors are used for refrigeration
and air conditioning than any other purpose

Basic Principles of
Compression (1)
Heat is produced during compression
Energy is required to compress a gas. Normally, some
of this energy is dissipated as heat.
When gas is compressed by a moving piston, and
molecules colliding with the piston will have their
kinetic energy increased. The gas therefore gets hotter.
If the compression takes place very slowly, or in a
cooled container, so that the temperature remains
constant, it is said to be an isothermal operation.
If the compression takes place rapidly, or in an
insulated container, so that no heat is lost, it is said to
be an adiabatic operation.

30

Basic Principles of
Compression (2)
Cooling during compression increases
efficiency
Less energy is required to carry out an isothermal
compression than an adiabatic compression, since in
adiabatic compression some of the energy is used to
heat the gas, the container and the piston.
Industrial compressors operate at conditions closer to
adiabatic than isothermal.
In order to keep temperatures within acceptable
values, compression of a gas is often carried out in
several stages, with cooling of the gas between stages.
This intercooling also minimises the work done during
compression and improves the efficiency of the
operation.

Basic Principles of
Compression (3)
Evaporation
Evaporation is the escape of molecules from the
surface of a liquid into the gaseous state.
A liquid takes up heat as it evaporates. This heat is
required to increase the thermal energy of the
molecules in the liquid and enable them to overcome
the cohesive forces holding the liquid together.
Rate of evaporation increases with increasing
temperature but decreases with increasing pressure.

31

Basic Principles of
Compression (4)
Condensation
Condensation is the change of a substance from a
gaseous to a liquid state.
A gas gives out heat as it condenses
A decrease in temperature will encourage
condensation. Gases can also be condensed by
increasing the pressure on them (providing their
temperature is below a certain critical point).

The Refrigeration Cycle


Compressor
Vapour at
high pressure

Vapour at
low pressure

Condenser

Evaporator

condenses the
refrigerant giving
off heat to the
outside
Liquid under
high pressure

evaporates
the refrigerant
extracting heat
from the
refrigerator
Liquid under
low pressure

Expansion Valve

32

Functions of a refrigerator oil


(1)
Lubrication
of the compressor to minimise friction and wear

Sealing
of the compressed gas between the high and low
pressure sides

Cooling
of the compressor bearings and casing

Noise reduction
of noise generated by the moving parts of the
compressor

Electrical insulation
of the motor in hermetically-sealed compressors

Functions of a refrigerator oil


(2)
All of these functions must be carried
out in the presence of the refrigerant.
Oil is often carried into the
refrigeration circuit and this imposes
further constraints on its properties.

33

What properties should


refrigerator oils have ?

Viscosity
Miscibility
Low temperature properties
Thermal stability
Chemical stability
Compatibility

Properties of refrigerator oils


(1)
Viscosity
must be sufficiently viscous to lubricate the compressor
effectively and provide adequate sealing where required
common refrigerant gases are extremely soluble in oil
and may produce a significant decrease in oil viscosity

Miscibility
in sealed systems, the oil must be completely miscible
with the refrigerant
if the oil/refrigerant separates into immiscible layers the
efficiency of refrigeration and lubrication will be impaired
there is a risk that the system will become blocked, and
the compressor may become starved of oil
if the oil and refrigerant are immiscible (e.g. in ammonia
systems), an oil separator must be included

34

Properties of refrigerator oils


(2)
Low temperature properties
the oil must not form waxy deposits in the cold parts of
the circuit, e.g. the evaporator
this would lead to a reduction of heat transfer and could
lead to oil starvation of the compressor

Thermal stability
although the temperatures in refrigerator systems are not
normally as high as in air compression systems, the oil
must not break down to form coke-like deposits, e.g. on
compressor chambers and valves

Properties of refrigerator oils


(3)
Chemical stability
the oil must not react with the refrigerant, or act as a
medium for reaction between the refrigerant and other
system components
in the presence of small amounts of air, moisture and
other impurities, unsuitable oils may react with
refrigerants to form lacquers and sludges

Compatibility
the oil must be compatible with the materials used in the
refrigeration system, e.g. electrical insulation, varnishes,
elastomers, polymers etc.

Selection of lubricants for low


temperature
Evaporator
temperature

Above
-50C
to
-60C

Below
-70C
use specially tailored
(& expensive)
synthetic lubricants
e.g. silicone oil
and lithium based fluids

Refrigerant and lubricant immiscible


ammonia & mineral oil
check pour point
use napthenic mineral oil
or alkylbenzene type lubricant
Refrigerant and lubricant miscible
R12 & mineral oil
check floc point of lubricant &
refrigerant
Refrigerant and lubricant partly miscible
R22 and alkylbenzene type lubricant
check low temperature properties
of lubricant alone

35

7.SHELL LUBRICANTS & THEIR APPLICATION

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Shell produces lubricants for types of applications & these are categorised into
what are known as PRODUCT GROUPS as follows:
Engine oils(split petrol/diesel)
Automotive Gear Oils
Automotive Transmission Fluids
Brake Fluids & Specialty Products
Automotive Greases

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

Compressor Lubricants
Corrosion Preventatives
Cutting & Metal Processing Fluids
Industrial Gear Lubricants
Heat Transfer Fluids
Hydraulic Oils
Machine & bearing Oil
Quenching Oils
Refrigerator Compressor Lubricants
Rock Drilling & Pneumatic Machinery Lubricants
Steam Cylinder Oils
Textile Machinery Oils
Turbine Oils
Transformer Oils
Industrial Greases

36

8. LUBRICANTS DATA SHEETS

LUBRICANTS
DATA
SHEETS
37

9. VEHICLE MANUFACTURERS RECOMMENDATIONS


CAR
MANUFA
ALFA
ROMEO

MODEL

ENGINE
PETROL
API/SG
API/SG
API/SG

DIESEL
API/CD
API/CD
API/CD

BMW

316i,318i
1983-91
520i
728i,732i,
735
ALL

API/SG
API/SG
API/SG

G5
G5
G5

DAIHATS
U

APPLAUS
E
CHARAD
E
FOURTR
AK

API/SF,S API/CD
G
API/SF,S API/CD
G
API/SF,S API/CD
G

10,000KL 500OKLM
M
10,000KL 500OKLM
M
10,000KL 500OKLM
M

FIAT

UNO

API/SG

API/CD

PUNTO

API/SG

API/CD

TIPO

API/SG

API/CD

CROMA

API/SG

API/CD

10,000KL
M
10,000KL
M
10,000KL
M
10,000KL
M

CITROEN

FORD

155 & 164


75
33

PETROL

DIESEL

CCMC
G4,G5

ESCORT
FIESTA
SIERRA

HONDA
HYUNDAI
JAGUAR
LADA
LANDRO

38

500OKLM
500OKLM
500OKLM
500OKLM

MAHINDR
A
MAZDA
MERCED
ES-BENZ
MITSUBI
SHI
NISSAN
OPEL
PEUGEO
T
RANGE
ROVER
RENAULT
SAAB
SKODA
SUBARU
SUZUKI
TOYOTA
VOLKSW
AGEN
VOLVO

10) HEALTH, SAFETY, STORAGE & HANDLING OF LUBRICANTS


i)

GOOD STOREKEEPING

New packages should be wiped clean around the bungs, the labeling
checked and any marked variation from the products normal colour, smell or
consistence reported.
If there is any reason to doubt the good condition of a lubricant, the tank
or packages concerned should be quarantined to isolate the problem and your
Shell Lubricants Sales engineer consulted for immediate specialised advice.
Lubricants must only be dispensed from clean, dedicated containers.
Never be tempted to use ad-hoc oil measures otherwise, for example, tin cans in
a food factory could end up on the production line full of oil.
Spilt oil can cause accidents and should be cleaned up without delay.
Sawdust is effective, but represents a fire hazard and should be removed as soon
as it becomes oily.
Grease guns should be filled cleanly and carefully for grease acts as an
abrasive when mixed with grit or dirt.
When empty, lubricants containers should have their bungs or lids
securely replaced to prevent contamination.
ii)

STORAGE

39

If adequately protected from extreme low temperature and from the


ingress of water, lubricating oils are generally unaffected by climatic conditions.
The optimum means of storage of drums should be tilted on their orders with the
bungs at 3 oclock and 9 oclock positions , to help ensure the gasket are kept in
contact with the oil in the drum. Alternatively, drums can be stored tilted upside
down with their bungs-down.
Exposure of drums to strong sunlight can result in skin temperatures
exceeding 90 oC, and in such conditions drums should be stored in a shaded area.
As side walls are not required, a suitable building would be one of Dutch-barn
construction. Where low temperature (i.e. less than 0 oC) are encountered,
measures should be taken to protect lubricants sensitive to the effects of frost
(e.g. products consisting of emulsions of water and petroleum products).
Although ideally all lubricants should be stored under cover, the following
materials should never be stored in the open.

Insulating oils

Refrigeration oils

White and medicinal oils

Greases
In all cases where storage of lubricants is considered, attention should be
given to the effects of storage on the condition of the containers. In particular,
prolonged storage may give rise to peeling of paint and obliteration of markings.
iii)

STACKING DRUMS

If space is insufficient to allow barrels to be stored on horizontal stillages,


they may be vertically stacked on pallets or stored in horizontal or sloping racks.
Whichever method is adopted, it should allow individual packages to be
readily accessible with the minimum of disturbance to those not immediately
required. A system on stock rotation must also be devised to avoid the
accumulation of old stock. First-in, first-out is a good principle to establish.
When other packages are free stacked on top of one another, the safe
height varies according to the stability of the stack and the Weight which the
lower packages can support. The use of pallets or slatted frames stabilises the
stack and helps prevent
damage to the layers.
Street racks offer grater convenience for loading, retrieval, inventory
control and stock rotation.
The sloping rack with one side for loading and the other (lower) side for
retrieval, is an effective means or ensuring first-in, first-out barrel stock
movement.
iv)

INDOOR STORAGE

Indoor storage is always preferable. However, if space is limited, it should


be reserved for small packages.

40

Racking should be provided in order to prevent excessive stacking of


boxes which can result in damaged packs.
v)

HANDLING DRUMS

The standard 205 litre barrel weighs about 180 kg when filled with oil. It is
strong being designed to be re-used several times, but is readily damaged by
bad handling.
The barrels must never be dropped when being unloaded or moved. The
impact can burst the seams, causing subsequent leaking or contamination of the
contents.
There are many suitable methods of handling barrels, but the most widely
accepted are:

Two-wheel and truck

Triangular drum dolly

Manual elevator

Manual side-delivery stacker

Chain hoist and trolley on 1-beam bridge

Rolling (by two workers)


-3vi)

FIRE-HAZARDS

Most lubricants and related products under certain circumstances have


the potential for combustion. The hazard is related to the flash point of the
produce concerned and the following guidelines are appropriate:
Products with a Flash Points of less than 55 oC.
These products should be stored in closed containers away from heat in a
well ventilated place. Where the product is used in an open tank, the tank
should be well hooded, well ventilated and earthed to prevent static sparks.
When not in use the tank should be covered with a tight fittings cover.
Product with a Flash Point of 55oC or greater.
These products require no special fire precautions but it is good practice
to store away from heat, and when heating is required this should be kept to a
minimum.
In the even of fire use carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder or foam
extinguishers. Do NOT use a water jet, as this may spread the fire. In the absence
of suitable extinguishers, sand or earth may be used to smother small fires. The
lubricants store should be designated a stuck No Smoking area.
vii)

HEALTH HAZARDS

Shell lubricants and related products such as protectives, metal working


fluids, heat treatment oils etc., present negligible hazard to users provided they
are properly used
and handled. This can be achieved by taking reasonable
care to keep them off the skin, away from the eyes and to avoid breathing

41

vapours or mist. To ensure that their use will be safe and without risk to health,
the following guidelines should be followed.
Since lubricants and related products can become contaminated during
service, particular care should be taken to minimise contact with used oils.
It is emphasised that all these risks are virtually non-existent if regular
and prolonged contact with the skin and exposure to mist, fumes and vapours is
avoided. This is
readily achieved by the observance of good working
practices and personal hygiene.
To ensure that workers are not at risk, it is necessary for them to practice
good standards of personal and industrial hygiene.
They should:
a)Use oil impermeable gloves or, if they cannot be used, suitable oil
repellent type barrier creams.
b)Avoid unnecessary contact with oil by using protective clothing and
ensuring that machine splash guards are properly adjusted.
c)Not put oily rags or tools into pockets, especially trouser pockets.
d)Not use dirty rags for wiping oil off the skin. Abrasions may be caused
by metal particles and swaft embedded in the rags and lead to subsequent
infection.
e)Obtain First Aid treatment at once for any injury, however slight.
f)Wash regularly, especially before meals, before smoking, before using
the toilet and after work, to remove oil from the skin. They should use soap or
any special cleaners provided. Solvents such as kerosene (paraffin), gasoline
(petrol), etc. must not be used to remove oil from the skin. Use a conditioning
cream after washing, where provided.
advice

g)Report any Skin abnormality of any part of the body and seek medical
without delay.

viii)

FIRST AID ADVICE


Skin:
- Wash affected parts with soap and water: Kerosene, gasoline or organic
solvents must
not be used.
- Obtain medical attention if irritation persists.
Eyes
- Hold eyelids open and flush eye with water, if irritation persists medical
attention should be sought.
Inhalation:

persist

- Remove to fresh air in the event of dizziness or nausea. If symptoms


obtain medical attention.
Indigestion:

42

refer

- Oil products must not be siphoned by mouth. Ingestion of oil products is


unlikely event, however, if it does occur do not induce vomiting. No
emergency measures are needed but if adverse health effects follow
for medical attention.

ix)

DISPOSAL

an

Spillage
- Spilt product should be absorbed with sand, earth or mineral absorbent
disposed of in accordance with local regulations. In the event of a large
spillage, steps should be taken to prevent pollution of drainage
systems,
rivers and waterways.
and

Disposal of packages
- Used packages should be disposed of safely, preferably to recognised
dealers/renovators. It is dangerous, because of the risk of explosion, to
attempt modification of containers by oxy-acetylene torch or
hammer and chisel etc. If the containers are to be re-used all markings should
be removed or obliterated.
drum

risk

- Packages must not be pressurised to expel the contents because of the


of bursting.

Waste Oil
- Used products should be disposed of, preferably to a licensed collector
or
contractor so
that they do not contaminate drainage systems,
rivers or
waterways in accordance with local legislation.

11) WHERE TO GO FOR HELP & ASSISTANCE


If you have not had the *SLICK system installed on your PC or on your network,
then
the Lubricants Focal Point or Lubricants Department, in your company is always
the first place to go for help & assistance regarding Lubricants. However, if they
are unavailable or are unable to assist then you may need to contact either of
the following persons outside of your company:
* SLICK IS A COMPREHENSIVE LUBRICANTS DATA BASE OF PRODUCTS,
SPECIFICATIONS & APPLICATIONS. THE DATA BASE HAS BEEN COMPILED
FROM MANY SOURCES, INCLUDING PUBLIC DOMAINE INFORMATION
FROM OVER 300 LUBRICANTS COMPANIES & 4,000 EQUIPMENT
MANUFACTURERS. IT IS A MUST FOR ANY SHELL COMPANY SELLING
SHELL LUBRICANTS. IF YOU WOULD LIKE FURTHER INFORMATION
ABOUT THIS SYSTEM THEN CONTACT DAVID ADAMS, OBML/24, SHELL
CENTRE, TELE: + 441719344020.

12) GLOSSARY OF TERMS


GLOSSARY OF TERMS FOR THE USER OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

43

THE FOLLOWING TERMS ARE NOT ALL IN THIS GUIDE BUT ARE USED EXTENSIVELY IN THE OIL INDUSTRY
Additive: A chemical substance which, when blended with a petroleum product, has the effect of improving one or more of its
properties or performance characteristics.
API Service Classification: A system of letter designations agreed on by API, SAE, and ASTM to define broad classes of engine
service. Also a system of service classifications for automotive gear lubricants.
Demulsibility: Ability of an oil to separate from or shed water as determined by a standard test method. Demulsibility is an
important consideration in lubricant maintenance in many circulating lubrication systems.
Detergency: Property of a lubricating oil to reduce or prevent deposits formed under high temperature conditions or as a result of the
action on the oil of acidic contaminants.
Dispersant: An engine oil additive that helps prevent sludge, varnish and other engine deposits by keeping particles suspended in a
colloidal state (suspension of finely divided particles).
Dropping Point: The lowest temperature at which a grease is sufficiently fluid to drip as determined by a standard test method;
hence and indication of whether a grease will flow from a bearing at operating temperatures.
Emulsifier: An additive that promotes the formation of a stable mixture, or emulsion of oil and water.
Extreme Pressure Additive: Chemical compound imparting extreme pressure characteristics to a lubricant with the objective of
reducing wear under conditions where rubbing or sliding accompanies high contact pressures, as in heavily loaded gears, particularly
of the hypoid type.
Flash Point: The lowest temperature under closely specified conditions at which a combustible material will give off sufficient
vapour to form a flammable mixture with air in a standardized vessel. Flash point test are used to assess the volatilities of petroleum
products.
Foaming: Occurrence of a frothy mixture of air and a petroleum product (lubricant, fuel oil) that can reduce the effectiveness of the
product and cause sluggish hydraulic operations, air binding of oil pumps and overflow of tanks or sumps.
Graphite: A soft form of elemental carbon, grey to black in colour. It occurs naturally or is synthesized from coal or other carbon
sources; widely used as a lubricant alone or added to conventional lubricants.
Grease: Lubricating oil thickened with a metallic soap or a special clay to yield a lubricant in solid form. The action of the
thickening agent may be likened to that of a sponge which holds the lubricating agent in its interstices.
ISO- VG: The ISO viscosity classification system, an international system approved by the ISO, for classifying industrial lubricants
according to viscosity. Each ISO viscosity grade number designation corresponds to the mid-point of a viscosity range expressed in
centistokes at 40 oC. This system is detailed in the ISO Specifications ISO 3448.
Molybdenum Disulphide: Chemical compound of molybdenum and sulphur which has excellent properties as a solid lubricant due
to the type of molecular structure of the particles.
Multigrade Oil: Engine oil that meets the requirements of more than one SAE viscosity grade classification and may therefore be suitable for
use over a wider temperature range than a single grade oil. Multigrade oils have 2 viscosity grade numbers indicating their lowest and highest
classification.
Multipurpose Grease: A lubricating grease suitable for a variety of appellations, such as chassis, wheel, bearings, universal joints, and water
pumps on automotive equipment; usually lithium-based.
Penetration: A measure of the hardness and consistency of bitumen and lubricating greases in terms of the distance in tenths of a millimeter
by which a weighted special needle or cone will penetrate the sample in 5 seconds, the temperature, unless otherwise stated being 25 oC
(77oF).
Pour Point Depressant: An additive which lowers the pour point of petroleum products containing wax by reducing the tendency of the wax to
collect into a solid mass.
Pour Point: Lowest temperature at which a liquid petroleum product will flow when it is cooled under the conditions of the standard test
method.
SAE Number: Number indicating the viscosity range of crankcase, transmission, or rear axle lubricant, according to systems designed by SAE.
Shear Stability: Ability of a lubricant such as a grease or VI improved oil to withstand mechanical shearing without being degraded in
consistency or viscosity.
Soap: General term for the salt of a metal and a fatty acid. Ordinary washing soaps are those of sodium and potassium. The soaps of lithium,
sodium, calcium, barium, and aluminium are the principle thickeners used in grease making.
Sludge: Soft deposits, usually dark coloured formed in lubrication systems, mainly consisting of oxidized lubricating oil components, water
and, in internal combustion engines, carbonaceous residues from fuel combustion.
Viscosity: In the common engineering sense, viscosity is the resistance of flow or thickness of a liquid. Viscosity of oils decreases with
increase in temperature, hence the temperature at which a viscosity is measured must always be specified.
Viscosity Improver: Lubricant additive, usually a high molecular weight polymer, that reduces the tendency of an oils viscosity to change with
temperature.

44

13)

Lubricants Price List

PRICE LIST HERE

45