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HEAT CONDUCTION THROUGH FINS

Prabal Talukdar
Associate Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering IIT Delhi E-mail: prabal@mech.iitd.ac.in p

Mech/IITD

Introduction
& Q conv = hA s (Ts T )

There are two ways to increase the rate of heat transfer to o increase c e se the e convection co vec o heat e transfer s e coefficient coe c e h to increase the surface area As
Increasing h may require the installation of a pump or fan, Or replacing p g the existing g one with a larger g one The alternative is to increase the surface area by attaching to the surface extended surfaces called fins made of highly conductive materials such as aluminum

Heat sinks

Pin fins

The thin plate fins of a car radiator greatly increase the rate of heat transfer to the air

Fins from nature

Longitudinal fins Rectangular Trapezoidal

Triangular

Concave parabolic

Convex parabolic

Radial fins:

Rectangular g p profile Pins:

Triangular profile

Hyperbolic profile

Radial fin coffee cup (a)Cylindrical (b)conical (c) concave parabolic (d) convex parabolic

Fin Equation
& = kA dT Q x c dx
& dQ x dx & & Q x + dx = Q x + dx

& dQ conv = hdA s (T T )

Energy Balance:

& =Q & & Q x x + dx + d Q conv


d A dx
c

& dQ x dx + hdA ( T T ) & = Qx + s dx dT h dA s (T T ) = 0 dx k dx

d 2T dx
2

1 dA c dT 1 h dA s (T T ) = 0 + A c dx dx A c k dx

Fins with uniform cross sectional area


1 dA c dT d 2T + 2 dx A c dx dx dA c =0 dx dA s A s = Px = P d dx 1 h dA s A k dx (T T ) = 0 c

d 2 T hP (T T ) = 0 2 dx kA c
Excess temperature

( x ) T ( x ) T
d 2 2 m =0 2 dx
(a) Rectangular Fin (b) Pin fin

General solution and Boundary Conditions


d 2 2 m =0 2 dx hP m2 = kA c

( x ) T ( x ) T
The g general solution is of the form

( x ) = C 1 e mx + C 2 e mx

Convection from tip


q denotes

& Q

BCs
T (0 ) = T (0 ) = Tb T b

hA c [T ( L ) T ] = kA c

h ( L ) = k

d |x =L dx

dT |x = L dx

cosh m ( L x ) + ( h / mk ) sinh m ( L x ) = b cosh mL + ( h / mk ) sinh mL

Heat transfer from the fin surface:


d & =Q & = kA dT | Q = kA |x =0 f b c x =0 c dx dx

& = Q f

hPkA c b

sinh mL + ( h / mk ) cosh mL cosh mL + ( h / mk ) sinh mL

Another way of finding Q

Q fin = A fin h [ T ( x ) T ]dA fin = A fin h ( x ) dA fin

Insulated tip
General Sol: BC C 1:

( x ) = C 1 e mx + C 2 e mx
BC 2:

( 0 ) = Tb T b

d |x= L = 0 d dx

cosh h m( L x) = b cosh mL
dT d q f = q b = kA c | x = 0 = kA c |x=0 dx dx

qf =

hPkA c b tanh mL

Prescribed temperature
This is a condition when the temperature p at the tip p is known (for example, measured by a sensor)

( )sinh mx + sinh m ( L x ) = L b b sinh mL


qf = hPkA c b cosh mL ( L b ) sinh i h mL L

Infinitely y Long g Fin ( (Tfin tip


Boundary condition at the fin tip: The general solution is of the form
( x ) = C 1 e mx + C 2 e mx

= T)

( L ) = T ( L ) T = 0

as

Possible when C1 0

( x ) = C 2 e mx
Apply boundary condition at base and find T
T ( x ) = T + ( T b T ) e
x hP kA c

Q longfin = kA c

dT |x =0 = dx

hPkA

( T b T )

Corrected fin length g


Corrected fin length: g

Lc = L +

Ac P

Multiplying the relation above by the perimeter gives Acorrected = Afin (lateral) + Atip
t Lc,rectangularfin = L + 2

L c,cylindrica lfin = L +

D 4

Corrected fin length g Lc is defined such that heat transfer from a fin of length Lc with insulated tip is equal to heat transfer from the actual fin of length L with convection at the fin tip.

Fin Efficiency y

fin =

Q fin

= Ideal heat transfer rate from the fin


if the entire fin were at base temperature

Actual heat transfer rate from the fin

Q fin , max

In the limiting case of zero thermal resistance or infinite thermal cond conductivity cti it (k ), ) the temperat temperature re of the fin will be uniform at the base value of Tb.

Q fin = fin Q fin , max = fin hA fin (Tb T )

longfin =

Q fin

Q fin , max

hPkA c (Tb T ) 1 = hA fin (Tb T ) L =

kA c 1 = hp mL

insulatedt ip =

Q fin f

Q fin , max

hPkA c (Tb T ) tanh mL tanh mL = hA fin (Tb T ) mL

Fin Effectiveness

fin =

Q fin

Q fin hA b (Tb T )

Q nofin

Heat transfer rate from the fin of base area Ab Heat transfer rate from the surface of area Ab

longfin =

Q fin

Q nofin

hPkA h kA c (Tb T ) = hA b (Tb T )

kP hA c

1. k should be as high as possible, (copper, aluminum, iron). Aluminum is p preferred: low cost and weight, g , resistance to corrosion. 2. p/Ac should be as high as possible. (Thin plate fins and slender pin fins) 3. Most effective in applications where h is low. (Use of fins justified if when the medium is gas and heat transfer is by natural convection).

Fin Effectiveness

fin =

Q fin

Q fin hA b (Tb T )

Q nofin

Heat transfer rate from th fi the fin of f base b area Ab Heat transfer rate from the surface of area Ab

fin = 1 fin < 1 fin > 1

Does not affect the heat transfer at all. Fin act as insulation (if low k material is used) Enhancing heat transfer (use of fins justified if fin>2)

Overall Fin Efficiency y


When determining the rate of heat transfer from a finned surface, , we must consider the unfinned portion of the surface as well as the fins. Therefore, the rate of heat transfer for a surface containing n fins can be expressed as

Q total , fin = Q unfin + Q fin = hA unfin (Tb T ) + fin hA fin (Tb T ) = h ( Aunfin + fin A fin )( Tb T )
We can also define an overall effectiveness for a finned surface as the ratio of the total heat transfer from the finned surface to the heat transfer from the same surface if there were no fins

fin , overall =

Q total , fin

h ( Aunfin + fin A fin )( Tb T ) hA nofin (Tb T )

Q total , nofin

Efficiency of circular, rectangular, and triangular fins on a plain surface of width w (from Gardner, Ref 6).

Efficiency of circular fins of length L and constant thickness t (from Gardner, Ref. 6).

Proper length of a fin


a means m

Fins Fi with i h triangular i l and d parabolic b li profiles fil contain i less l materialand are more efficient requiring minimum weight An important consideration is the selection of the proper fin length L. Increasing the length of the fin beyond a certain value cannot be justified unless the added benefits outweigh the added cost. The Th efficiency ffi i of f most t fins fi used d in i practice ti is i above b 90 percent t