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TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION

Prabal Talukdar
Associate Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering IIT Delhi E-mail: prabal@mech.iitd.ac.in p

1.Lumped System Analysis 2 Transient heat conduction in large plane walls, 2.Transient walls long cylinders, and spheres with spatial effects 3. Transient heat conduction in semi-infinite solids

Lumped System

Cooling of a hot metal forging


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Energy balance
Heat transfer into the body during dt
=

The increase in the energy of the body during dt

h.A s (T T)dt = mC p dT
m = V
dT = d (T T )
T = cons tan t

d (T T ) h.A s = dt VC p T T
ln h.A s T ( t ) T = t Ti T VC p
b= h.A s 1 (s ) VC p

T ( t ) T = e bt Ti T
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Effect of b
b= h.A s 1 (s ) VC p
b has the unit of 1/s. Reciprocal of b is the time constant

T( t ) T b = e bt Ti T
This equation enables us to determine the temperature T(t) of a body at time t, or alternatively, the time t required for the t temperature t to t reach h a specified ifi d value l T(t). T(t)
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Effect of b
The temperature of a body approaches the ambient temperature T exponentially. The temperature of the body changes rapidly at the beginning, but rather slowly later on. A large l value l of f b indicates i di that h the h body b d will ill approach the environment temperature in a short time. The larger the value of the exponent b, the higher the rate of decay in temperature. Note that b is proportional to the surface area, but inversely proportional to the mass and the specific heat of the body. This is not surprising since it takes longer to heat or cool a larger mass, , especially p y when it has a large g specific p heat.
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h.A s 1 b= (s ) VC p

Heat Transfer
Rate of convection heat transfer between the body and its environment at that time

& ( t ) = hA [T( t ) T ] Q s

Watt

The total amount of heat transfer between the body and the surrounding medium over the time interval t = 0 to t is simply the change in the energy content of the body:

Q = mC p [T( t ) Ti ]

kJ kJ

Q max = mC p [T Ti ]

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Criterion for lumped system V


Lc = As
Bi = hL c k

Plane wall (thickness 2 L) Lc =

2L A =L 2A

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When the convection coefficient h is high and k is low, large temperature differences occur between the inner and outer regions of a large solid.

Transient temperature distribution


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Fourier Number
h.A s T ( t ) T = ln t VC p Ti T

h.A s T ( t ) T = exp VC Ti T p
h.A s t = Bi VC p

(Fourier number, a dimensionless time)

t L2 c

h.A s t hL c k t hL c t ht = = = = Bi 2 2 VC p C p L c k C p L c k Lc

T T = = exp( Bi. ) i Ti T
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Fourier Number ()

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The specified surface temperature corresponds t th to the case of f convection ti t to an environment i t at tT with a convection coefficient h that is infinite

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Transient heat conduction in large plane walls, long cylinders, and spheres with spatial i l effects ff

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2 T 1 T = 2 x t

1 T 1 T r = r r r t

Schematic of the simple geometries in which heat transfer is 1-D


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Plane Wall
Governing equation

2 T 1 T = 2 x t

Transient temperature profiles in a plane wall exposed to convection from its surfaces for Ti > T

Governing equation along with boundary conditions shows that T is a function of x, t, k, , h, Ti and T

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Non-dimensional Non dimensional Eq. Eq


= T T Ti T
Governing equation (Non-dimensional form)

2 = 2 X
Initial condition Boundary conditions At X=0 and >0 At X=L and >0

(X,0) = 1

=0 X
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= Bi. X

The non-dimensionalization enables us to present the temperature in terms of three parameters only: X, Bi, and

Solution
2 = 2 X
Solution takes the form of an infinite series

= A n exp(2n ) cos( n X)
n =1

4 sin n An = 2 n + sin 2 n

The solution of 1D transient heat conduction involves infinite series, which are difficult to deal with. However, the terms in the solutions converge rapidly with increasing time time, and for > 0.2, keeping the first term and neglecting all the remaining terms in the series results in an error under 2 percent. We are usually interested in the solution for times with > 0.2, and thus it is very convenient to express the solution using an one term approximation. See next slide for this expressions

n tan n = Bi

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Plane wall

( x , t ) wall

T ( x , t ) T x 2 = = A1e 1 cos 1 Ti T L

> 0. 2 > 0. 2

Cylinder

(r, t ) cyl

1r T(r, t ) T 2 1 = = A1e J 0 Ti T r 0
1r sin r T (r, t ) T 0 2 = = A1e 1 1r Ti T r0 0, wall T0 T 2 = = A1e 1 Ti T

Sphere

(r, t ) sph

> 0. 2

Center of Plane wall (x=0)

Center of cylinder (r=0) Center of sphere (r=0) (r 0)


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T0 T 2 0,cyl = = A1e 1 Ti T T0 T 2 1 0,sph = = A e h 1 Ti T

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Plane wall Q

Q max
C li d Cylinder

= 1 0, wall
wall

sin 1 1
J 1 ( 1 ) 1
sin 1 1 cos 1 3 1

Q Q max
Q Q max

= 1 20,cyl
cyl

Sphere

= 1 30,sph
sph

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There are three charts associated with each geometry: The first chart is to determine the temperature To at the center of the geometry at a given time t. The second chart is to determine the temperature at other locations at the same time in terms of To. The third chart is to determine the total amount of heat transfer up to the time t. These plots are valid for > 0.2.

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Transient mid-plane temperature chart for a plane wall of thickness 2L initially at a uniform t temperature t Ti subjected bj t d t to convection ti f from b both th sides to an environment at temperature T with a P.Talukdar/Mech-IITD convection coefficient of h.

Transient temperature p chart for a plane wall of thickness 2L initially at a uniform temperature Ti subjected to convection from both sides to an environment at temperature T with a convection coefficient of h.

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Q max = m.C p [T Ti ] = VC p [T Ti ] kJ
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Transient heat transfer chart for a plane wall of thickness 2L initially at a uniform temperature Ti subjected to convection from both sides to an environment at temperature T with a convection coefficient of h.

Transient Conduction in Semi-Infinite Solid


Consider a semi-infinite solid (extends to infinity in all but one direction with a single identifiable surface)

T(x ) = Ti
Case 3 T(x,0) = Ti
k T = h[T T(0, t )] x x =0

Case 1 T(x,0) = Ti T(0,t) = Ts Ts x Ts t

Case 2 T(x,0) = Ti
k T x
x =0

& =Q x =0

Qo x T( t) T(x,t) t Ti

T, h x T Ti t

Ti

Case 1 Constant Surface Temperature: T(0,t) = Ts


T(x, t ) Ts x = erf Ti Ts 2 t
and
& (t ) = k (Ts Ti ) Q s t

Case 2 Constant Surface Heat Flux: Qs = Qo


T(x , t ) Ti = t 2q o k

( )

x2 exp 4 t

& x Q x o erfc f k 2 t

T = h[T T(0, t )] C Case 3 Surface S f Convection: C i k x x =0


hx h2t x T(x, t ) Ti h t x = erfc f f + exp + 2 erfc k T Ti 2 t k 2 t k
The Gaussian error function, , erf (w), ( ), is a standard 2 w v2 erf (w ) = e dv mathematical function (see Table B.2 for values) 0 Complementary Error Function, erfc(w) = 1 erf(w)

Ts between 2 solids

Ts =

m A TA,i + mB TB,i m A + mB

m = kCp

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