Anda di halaman 1dari 3

Equivalency Chart Aim: By the end of this course, students will be able to use different structures to express the

same idea. Equivalencies are ways to write the same idea. In En lish one of the most important rules to writin well is to not repeat vocabulary within the same para raph if possible. !his idea extends to the structures we use as well. If you are writin an email explainin the reasons for a shipment that was late, it"s a ood idea to not use "because" in every sentence. #or example: !he shipment was late because we had difficulties with our suppliers. Because they were late, we had to postpone the shipment. $e will discount your next purchase because this delivery was two wee%s behind schedule. &i ht be more ele antly written: !he shipment was late because we had difficulties with our suppliers. As a result of their late delivery, we had to postpone the shipment. 'ince this delivery was two wee%s behind schedule, you will receive a discount on your next purchase.

coordinatin subordinatin con(unctions con(unctions

con(unctive adverbs prepositions

function

, but ) , yet

thou h even thou h althou h while

*owever, +n the other hand, In contrast,

despite in spite of

showin opposition or contrast

, so

so that

Consequently, As a result, !herefore,

showin cause

, for

because since as

due to because of as a result of li%e (ust li%e similar to

providin the reason

, and

(ust as

Also, In addition,

Comparin and providin additional inform

&oreover,

, or

unless if ,not-

+therwise,

'tatin conditions

#or example,

such as li%e

.ivin examples

, and

after before when as soon as while until since

#irst, 'econd, !hird, #ourth, #inally, /ext, After that,

durin after upon

'tatin when somethin happened

*ere"s a quic% review of the form for each type of structure: Coordinatin Con(unctions Coordinatin con(unctions connect two simple sentences. 0lace a comma before the coordinatin con(unction in the middle of the sentence. It was rainin , so I too% an umbrella. $e loo%ed for !om, yet he was nowhere to be found. 'ubordinatin Con(unctions 'ubordinatin con(unctions can be used in the middle of the sentence with no comma, or placed at the be innin of the sentence. In this case, place a comma after the clause. 1nless we finish this report soon, we will not be able to ma%e the presentation. +2 $e will not be able to ma%e the presentation unless we finish this report soon. Con(unctive Adverbs

Con(unctive Adverbs connect one sentence to another. In other words, the equivalent form of a complex sentence with a subordinatin con(unction uses two sentences connected by the con(unctive adverb. Be in the connectin sentence with a con(unctive adverb followed by a comma. 'mith and Co. wanted to invest in new equipment. Consequently, they hired a consultant to analy3e their needs. 0repositions A number of prepositions can be used as equivalencies. In this case, do not use a full clause with sub(ect and verb. 2ather, use the equivalent preposition followed by a noun or noun phrase. 4i%e subordinatin con(unctions, place the preposition in the middle of the sentence without a comma or be in the sentence with the prepositional phrase followed by a comma. #ran% needs to spend more time with his children despite his heavy wor%load. +2 5espite his heavy wor%load, #ran% needs to spend more time with his children. Example Equivalencies It was rainin , but we went for a wal%. Even thou h it was rainin , we went for a wal%. It was rainin . *owever, we went for a wal%. $e went for a wal% in spite of the rain. !he company should invest in research and development, or the competition will beat them. !he competition will beat them unless the company invests in research and development. !he company should invest in research and development. +therwise, the competition will beat them.