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MODELS OF COMMUNICATION Linear or Bull's Eye Model

It describes communication as a one-way flow between two actors (a sender and a receiver). Circular Flow or Ping-pong Model

The circular flow or ping-pong model of communication describes a situation where there are series of interactions between senders and receivers. Harold Lasswell's Model Who says What to Whom through What channel, with What effects?" Who says? the sender What? the message /content / topics To Whom? the receiver Through What channel? medium /means /languages With What effects? modification /transformation of opinions, attitudes, behaviour, whether intended or not (effect on receiver) INFORMATION THEORY

Sources of Noise and Interference 1. Mechanical noise Mechanical noise usually occurs when a physical device is used either to encode or decode the message or both. For instance, in a telephone conversation, the apparatus or the physical lines of communication may be faulty. As a result, the sound waves being transmitted over the telephone line may be unclear so that the message is distorted 2. Semantic noise Semantic noise occurs when different people have different meanings for the same words and phrases. Misunderstandings thus arise because of multiple meanings assigned to the same words and phrases. This kind of situation (called "quiproquo" in French) is often exploited in theatre plays and movies for comic or tragic purposes. 3. Environmental noise Sources of noise may be completely external to the communication process. For example, in a public place like a restaurant, the other people surrounding you and your counterpart may be so noisy that you cannot even hear each other. 4. Internal noise Internal noise occurs inside the mind of the receiver. The latter may not properly receive, decode and store the data sent because of a number of internal barriers such as selective attention, selective distortion and selective recall. Selective attention refers to the fact that the receiver cannot pay attention to all the stimuli or the receiver focuses on something other than the communication at hand. Selective distortion occurs when receivers twist the message to hear what they want to hear. Selective recall happens because people will retain in permanent memory only a small fraction of the messages that reach them. ASPECTS OF COMMUNICATION Genre Topic Purpose Setting Participants Message form Message content Act sequence Rules of interaction Norms of interpretation THE LEVELS OF COMMUNICATION PROCESS Intrapersonal Level Intrapersonal communication occurs within a single person. It is an internal process of self-communication and processing of information within ones brain. Intrapersonal communication also integrates things that make up our self, our feelings and the way we perceive our individual selves.

Interpersonal Level Interpersonal communication refers to communication occurring between and amongst persons. It is often one-to-one but it may include more than two persons.

There are three basic communication styles: Aggressive Style: The communicator constantly interrupts, exaggerates, blames, makes demands or uses sarcasm. Passive Style: The person is constantly hesitating or apologising and usually says nothing or easily gives in. Often, the person avoids eye contact and speaks in a shy or timid voice, or mumbles. Assertive Style: The individual speaks clearly and firmly, using "I" statements, and shows respect for self and for others. He or she uses an upright confident body posture and a pleasant, firm voice for communicating with others.
COMS 1010 19 Aug 2009

The assertive style is the one to strive for. However, very few people are all one or another style. In fact, the aggressive style is vital in some cases, for example, during emergencies (for rapid decision-making). Passiveness can also help, for example, when an issue is minor or when there are highly emotional situations demanding that we stay calm and take the time to regain perspective.

Intragroup and Intergroup Levels Intragroup level refers to communication occurring amongst members of a group of persons. Within a small-group communication uses the same channels as for interpersonal communication are used with almost immediate feedback. Intergroup communication refers to communication amongst different groups, i.e. when a group communicates with another one. Institutional Level Institutional or organisational communication refers to the sets of communication flows occurring within an organisation or institution (including firms, non-profit organisations and governmental bodies). Public Communication Public communication refers to very formal communication, usually on a 'one-to-many' basis. It may be face-to-face (e.g. a public talk in a specific location) or transmitted through a mass medium (e.g. a minister's speech covered by the television news bulletin). This type of communication usually entails a highly structured message in a formal setting. There is limited opportunity for feedback as audiences are bigger and individuals become anonymous listeners / viewers / readers. Delivery also tends to be very formal (e.g. louder voice for oral communication).

Mass Communication "Mass communications comprise the institutions and techniques by which specialised groups employ technological devices (press, radio, films, etc.) to disseminate symbolic content to large, heterogeneous and widely dispersed audiences". (Janowitz, 1968) NONVERBAL CODES Kinesics The term Kinesics refers to nonverbal behaviour involving the body, facial expressions, eye contact, gestures, posture, body movement. Facial Expressions Facial Expressions include movements or expressions of any part of the face such as the eyes, eyelids, eyebrows, nose, mouth and cheek. Eye Contact Eye contact refers to sustained and meaningful contact with the eyes, with the person or persons you are addressing. Gestures The term gesture generally refers to movements of the hands, arms, shoulders, head, feet of the communicator/sender of messages. Posture Posture refers to the way we hold our body, the way we sit, stand, slump, or slouch. Posture can give information about the person involved in communication: the status, the self-image, the attitude, the emotional state, gender (there can be a lot of differentiation in gender behaviour and posture in certain societies), social roles, the communicators perceived relationship with the others. Body Movements Other movements of the body that do not appear under the above categories can be classified as body movements. Proxemics Proxemics can be described as the use we make of space in communication (in personal, social and formal situations).

Paralinguistics or Paralinguistic Features Volume The volume of the voice has to do with its relative loudness. Voice Pitch Voice pitch is defined as the highness or lowness of the voice. Rate (or pace) of speech Rate refers to how fast or how slowly someone speaks. Just as for pitch and volume, variations in the speech rate can help to stress an idea, or to maintain the interest of the audience. Pauses (or sounds and silence) Pauses break words and sentences into meaningful units. Pauses can be used to emphasise ideas, to mark transitions, to ask rhetorical questions, to maintain attention or to create suspense.

Pronunciation and Articulation Pronunciation refers to the way we utter words especially with reference to a standard that is generally accepted or understood.

Clothing and Artefacts (Personal Appearance) This category includes the general appearance of the communicator: clothing, hairstyle, make-up, perfume, use of jewellery, shoes and other objects like a handbag, a watch, glasses.

Haptics (Use of Touch) Haptics, or tactile communication, refers to the use of touch in communication. It varies from one culture to another, and also depends on ones status, role(s), profession, gender. Chronemics (Use of Time) Chronemics is concerned with the use of time in encounters and relationships. Time can influence the way we interpret messages and behaviour.

DIFFICULTIES IN INTERPRETING NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Contradiction The nonverbal messages seem to contradict the verbal messages they accompany. Confusion or Multiplicity of Meaning Even within the same culture, the same nonverbal cues may have different meanings, and the difficulty in deciding which meaning is conveyed can create confusion. Multiplicity of Cues and Expectations An example of a variety of nonverbal cues communicating the same meaning would be the many nonverbal ways adults have to express love or affection. Cultural Difference From one culture to another, the same nonverbal cues may mean different things, just as the same meaning may be conveyed by different nonverbal cues.

WHAT IS SPEECH COMMUNICATION? Speech communication is an intentional, purposeful, usually planned, oral delivery of a content or information to an audience. Intentional The term intentional implies that the speaker has an intent; the speaker has a topic to talk about, intends to convey specific information, ideas, opinions and meaning. Purposeful Generally, the speakers aim is to inform and/or persuade and/or entertain an audience. Planned The speaker researches and/or organises the content of his/her speech, plans the use of presentation aids, decides on the verbal, and sometimes nonverbal forms and messages to be used, in order to achieve his/her purpose.

TECHNIQUES OF INFORMATIVE SPEECHES Definition Definition is used to reveal the meaning of a term, idea, concept or process. Description Description tells the audience what the object, instrument or process is like: what it looks, sounds, feels or smells like. Demonstration and/or Instruction Demonstration is used, whenever possible or desirable, to show, to the audience an object, a process, a way of doing something: for example, demonstrating how to assemble a kit. Explanation An explanation is a means of idea development, an alternative way of stating an idea or concept. Explanation is used to increase the understanding or appreciation of a field of knowledge or of a concept.

SPEECH DESIGNS OR ORGANISATIONAL PATTERNS OF SPEECH Chronological The Chronological design is also called the narrative design, or the time-sequence pattern. Topical The Topical design or topical pattern is a highly versatile pattern that has to do with the subject matter. Spatial The Spatial design or Spatial pattern organises information in terms of physical or geographical location or proximity. Sequential The Sequential pattern or design is a highly versatile pattern; it can be used to outline the steps to be followed in a process, to give instructions that have to be carried out in a systematic way, one after the other. Problem-and-Solution The Problem-and-Solution pattern is also called Problem-solving Design. In the case of an informative speech, the speaker establishes that a problem exists, and then suggests a possible solution or different solutions. Causal, or Cause-and-Effect In the causal pattern or design, ideas are developed in relation to each other: Present situations or effects are shown as being results, or consequences of past actions or events.

MODES OF SPEECH DELIVERY Memorised Mode (or Memorised Speaking) With this mode, a speaker delivers a speech after memorising every word in the speech. Some Advantages of Memorised Speaking: - The speaker is in total control of the wording which has been decided and learnt beforehand. - The speaker can plan for, or fit into, an exact timing. - The speaker can use nonverbal language quite amply with this mode of delivery since he/she will have no paper to hold or handle.

Some Disadvantages of Memorised Speaking: - Time is required for memorisation, and there is the risk of forgetting part of the speech during delivery. - There is the risk that during delivery, the speaker forgets part of the speech which may contain important information or the speaker may go blank in the middle of the speech, and consequently be at a loss for words and ways to finish the speech. - The speech can sound memorised and lack spontaneity, reducing the speakers effectiveness. - Since the speech is totally prepared in advance and memorised, the speaker cannot respond to the audience/feedback. For instance, when more appropriate words or explanation are needed, the speaker will not be able to react and adapt to the situation. Manuscript Mode (or Manuscript Speaking) As the name implies, the manuscript mode is a speech delivered with a script of the exact words to be used. Some Advantages of Manuscript Speaking: - The speech can be free of mistakes and error (facts, wording, style) since it is wholly written beforehand. - The speaker is never at a loss for words because (s)he reads from the manuscript. - Timing can be controlled if planned in advance. - Copies of the speech can be made available to journalists to avoid being misquoted. Some Disadvantages of Manuscript Speaking: - The speaker tends to pay more attention to the script than to the audience, and to have little eye contact with the audience. - The manuscript speech restricts the movements and gestures of the speaker who has to read from the script. - The speech may sound written and not spontaneous. - Reading a written speech, word for word, makes it very difficult to respond to feedback and adapt to the audience. Extemporaneous Mode (or Extemporaneous Speaking) The speaker will have prepared, organised and rehearsed the speech, but the speech must be delivered in a conversational tone, appearing and sounding spontaneous. Advantages of Extemporaneous Speaking: - The extemporaneous speech allows considerable eye-contact and nonverbal expression. - The speaker can respond to feedback from the audience, and use wording as well as nonverbal expression that are felt to be more effective and appropriate for the situation. - Since the speech is largely spontaneous, it is easy to speak in a conversational tone and, to be and sound natural. Disadvantages of Extemporaneous Speaking: - An inexperienced speaker may search for words or use weak, inappropriate, or ineffective language. - Without proper preparation and practice, a speaker may appear to be giving an impromptu speech, or may overuse notes.

- It may be difficult to stick to a specific time frame, since the wording is created progressively as the speech is delivered. The speaker may spend more time on an idea or aspect than intended or necessary. Impromptu Mode (or Impromptu Speaking) An impromptu speech is delivered on the spur of the moment, with no or hardly any time to prepare There is hardly any advantage in an impromptu speech, because of the range of difficulties involved. Disadvantages of Impromptu Speaking - The speaker must rely solely on previous knowledge and skills, and (s)he has no time to carry out research, to prepare or to practise. - Since the language can only be spontaneous, there is no careful choice of words: Words which do not quite convey the speakers messages or intention, may be uttered. Therefore, impromptu speaking can produce very unpredictable outcomes. - There is the risk of unnecessary repetition, and/or rambling and omission of important or relevant ideas. PRESENTATION AIDS Functions of Presentation Aids Presentation aids is the generic term for various equipment that can be used to help us communicate more effectively. How to Optimise the Use of Aids (Refer to Booklet p. 145) Varieties of Presentation Aids Designing Visual Aids To construct effective visual aids, a few rules of good design should be followed: KISS or Keep It Simple Stupid - Do not overload your material with data. Eliminate words rather than reduce type size or line spacing to "fit everything in". Use concise words. Visibility - Use big font size and leave enough white space for the data to 'breathe'. Balance - Make sure that the material presented is visually balanced and pleasing to the eye. For example, in the case of transparency sheets, do not fill in the sheets with text from margin to margin. Sobriety - Colour adds impact to the meaning of speech. But you must be sober in your use of colours if you are using more than one. Sometimes two colours are more than enough! Unity - Use white space, type and colours consistently throughout your material. Use the same layout with same margins on all sheets. Emphasis - Restrict emphasis to that which is truly important. Avoid paragraphs with too many words set in bold-faced text for instance.

PERSUASION Persuasion is a dynamic, ongoing process which purposefully, through verbal and nonverbal messages, aims at shaping, maintaining, reinforcing and/or changing the audiences beliefs, attitudes and behaviour. Two Conceptions of Persuasion Different people, as well as authors, have different conceptions of persuasion. Below we explain two different conceptions of persuasion. One conception views persuasion as manipulation to get people to do things against their will. The other conception views persuasion as rhetoric and the art of effective speaking. Persuasion as Manipulation Persuasion is viewed as exercising some kind of influence or pressure to bring people to believe or do things they would not otherwise believe or do. Persuasion as the Art of Speaking It was also considered as a necessary tool for the proper functioning of a democracy. The use of rhetoric meant arguing both sides of a case, presenting evidence, and using a line of reasoning which leads to a logical conclusion or the truth. Differences between the Persuasive Speech and the Informative Speech The Persuasive Speaker attempts to shape, reinforce or change the audiences or receivers attitudes, beliefs or behaviour. The Persuasive Speaker aims at persuading the audience to support or reject a certain proposition. The Informative Speaker or Speech aims at sharing knowledge and understanding with the audience, without attempting to influence the audience or receiver to choose any option. Informative Speeches only reveal and clarify arguments for or against. The audience is left to make its own reasoned choice(s). TWO MODELS OF PERSUASION AIDA Principle Ranks Model or the Intensification-Downplay Model The AIDA Principle The AIDA principle is an acronym made up of the first letter of the following words: Attention Interest Desire Action. These four words represent, respectively, the different steps of persuasive messages. Attention First, the recipient or potential persuadees attention has to be caught. Interest The attention of the recipient is transformed or changed to interest, e.g., by using testimony of people who have already been convinced about a product or a stance.

Desire Next, a need or desire is aroused within the recipient (e.g. when the audience is told that a given brand of shampoo makes the hair look beautiful and shiny, or, when the desire is aroused

in 18-year olds to register in order to be able to vote and thus have a say in matters concerning their future and their country). Action The recipients become persuadees when they actually adopt the attitude or behaviour indicated by the persuader (e.g. buying the shampoo advertised, voting for the candidate or cause requested). Ranks Model or the Intensification-Downplay Model Ranks model of persuasion, also known as the Intensification-Downplay model brings out two series/lines of strategies: the Intensification Process or Scheme, and the Downplay Process or scheme. 1.The Intensification process or scheme:This process, scheme or line of strategy involves, intensifying the persuaders good points and/or intensifying the opposing positions bad points. Three tactics commonly used are: (i) Repetition (ii) Association (iii) Composition (i) Repetition A message is repeated a number of times by the persuader in order to intensify it and in the hope that the recipient or receiver will remember it afterwards. This tactic is often used in commercials or advertisements where names of products, aspects or qualities of a product through slogans, and/or accompanied by jingles, are often repeated. (ii) Association A product, a cause, a candidate or an ideology is associated with a person or thing that is already liked/disliked, accepted/rejected. For example, a brand of drink is associated in an advertisement with a famous artist or football player. In the case of countries or places where comparison with another brand or a competitor is allowed within advertisements, the competing brand or competitor can be associated with a shameful event or person. (iii) Composition Composition refers to the nonverbal aspects of the message; it also shows visually how the object or person being advertised is associated with a positive figure. For example, in an advertisement in the newspaper, the composition would refer to such elements as how the advertisement is presented visually and graphically, the layout, colour, or size, or the perspective of the product advertised in relation to the background. In the case of a political candidate, the composition would include such elements as the physical setting in which the candidate is speaking, and the candidates nonverbal behaviour or messages. 2. The Downplay Process or Scheme This line of strategy or scheme involves downplaying the persuaders bad points or weakness and/or downplaying the opposing positions good points. The three tactics used in the downplay process or scheme are: (i) Omission

(ii) Diversion (iii) Confusion (i) Omission This tactic omits information about the persuaders bad points, and about the opposing positions good points. For example, an advertisement tells us that this electric shower is cheaper than others, but it does not tell us that an additional apparatus must also be purchased in cases where the water pressure is not strong enough. Or an advertisement tells us about the weaknesses of the competing product but omits to tell us that the competing product is cheaper. (ii) Diversion One tactic used by persuaders is to divert attention of the audience from their weak points by making use of humour or by subtly evading the polemical issues or questions raised. The same tactic is also used to divert attention from the strong points of the competitor. This tactic is quite popular with politicians, especially in debates. For example, a candidate or persuader attacks the others personality instead of responding to, or tackling, the issue raised about the national education system or public health services. (iii) Confusion This tactic confuses the recipients, for instance by making use of jargon or technical terms, faulty logic and explanations. Riddles are also used to downplay the persuaders weak points and/or the competitors strong points. Ranks model of persuasion does not tell us all that happens in the persuasive process, but it does indicate or reveal certain tactics often used in persuasive messages (such as advertisements) that pervade everyday life.

WHAT IS PERCEPTION? Perception is the process by which we come to understand ourselves and others, and understanding is an activity basic to communication.

THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS The Perception Process is said to occur in three phases, all taking place quickly, almost simultaneously, and unconsciously. The three phases are: 1. Selection 2. Organisation 3. Interpretation Importance of Listening Listening is a fundamental component of communication: the ability to listen effectively is an essential communication skill and is as important as speaking well. Hearing is simply the act of receiving sounds; the physiological process of receiving sound waves. Listening is a psychological process by which we seek to comprehend and interpret aural and visual stimuli.