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For most applications, precast slab elements of any of the four types are manufactured with a rough top

surface. After the elements have been erected, a concrete topping is poured over them and finished to a smooth surface. The topping, usually 2 inches (50 mm) in thickness, bonds during curing to the rough top of the precast elements and becomes a working part of their structural action. The topping also helps the precast elements to act together as a structural unit rather than as individual planks in resisting concentrated loads and diaphragm loads, and conceals the slight differences in camber that often occur in prestressed components. Structural continuity across a number of spans can be achieved by casting reinforcing bars into the topping over the supporting beams or walls. Control of the quality of materials and workmanship is generally better than on the construction job site is one of the advantages of using precast elements Creep and shrinkage are time-dependent deformations that, along with cracking, provide the greatest concern for the designer because of the inaccuracies and unknowns that surround them. Concrete is elastic only under loads of short duration; and because of additional deformation with time, the effective behaviour is that of an inelastic material Creep is the property of concrete by which it continues to deform with time under sustained loads at unit stresses within the accepted elastic range Factors affecting the magnitude of creep: composition and fineness of the cement; the admixtures, and the size, grading, and mineral content of the aggregates; proportions such as water content and water-cement ratio; curing temperature and humidity; duration of loading; surface-volume ration of the members; slump Shrinkage, broadly defined, is the volume change during hardening and curing of the concrete. The main cause of shrinkage is the loss of water as the concrete dries and hardens It is more economical to use high strength bar in larger deformed bars. It would mean smaller number of reinforcements since it has a higher strength. Which also produces lower cost. 16mm and smaller bars are usually available in market at grade 40 and 33 Strength designs using Grade 60 reinforcement can lead to service load strains in tension which are 50 % higher than those in existing structures designed by the working stress method Higher strains means wider cracks To control cracking, it is better to use several smaller bars at moderate spacing than larger bars of equivalent area Good bar arrangement in the cross section will usually lead to adequate crack control even when grade 60 bars are used High-strength concrete resists loads that cannot be resisted by normal-strength concrete. Not only does high strength concrete allow for more applications, it also increases the strength per unit cost, per unit weight, and per unit volume as well. These concrete mixes typically have an increased modulus of elasticity, which increases stability and reduces deflections. While shear reinforcement provides shear strength, its contribution to the strength occurs only after inclined cracks form. Prior to the formation of inclined cracks, the concrete performs the task of carrying the shear. However, shear reinforcement is necessary in order to allow a redistribution of internal forces across any inclined crack that may form, and thus prevent a sudden failure upon formation of crack.

If the amount of shear reinforcement is too little, it will yield immediately at the formation of an inclined crack, and the beam then fails. If the amount of shear reinforcement is too much, there will be a shear-compression failure without the yielding of the shear reinforcement. The optimum amount should be such that both the shear reinforcement and the compression zone of the beam each continue to carry increasing shear after the formation of the inclined crack, until the shear reinforcement yields, resulting in a ductile failure Bearing pads are used to distribute concentrated loads and reactions over the bearing area and to allow limited horizontal and rotational movements to provide stress relief. Their use has proven beneficial and often may be necessary for satisfactory performance of precast concrete structures