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Sulphuric Acid Ammonia And Its Properties Alloys Syntetic Polymer Glass And Ceramics Composite Material


Alhamdulillah, praise to Allah the Almighty God for giving us this opportunity to finish this homework.I would like to thanks to all people who help me to finish this work. Sincerely thanks to my teacher Tn.Hj Che Malek Bin Mamat for his guidance throughout this without any bored and whom give lots of support, your kindness would never been forgotten. Without the guidance I may not be able to complete this work at the right time. Besides that, thank to my parents because they had helped me in many ways especially in the expenses.Other than that, I would like to thank to all of my friends who give lots of ideas and support in order to make sure that I am able to accomplish the task given a few weeks ago. For those kids who gave a full commitment and cooperation, special thanks to and I hope all of them will survive in their study and life. Other than that, throughout this work I ve got too many experiences that can be used in future. Last but not least, I hope that I would have some improvement in chemistry by doing this assignment aftermath working so hard. Each determination will be worth. Thank you.


A molecule of Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4, consists of two atoms of hydrogen, one atom of sulphur and four atoms of oxygen Sulphuric acid is a colourless viscous corrosive oily liquid, which has

Melting Point : 10.3 degC Boiling Point : 338 degC Formula weight 98.08 Specific gravity or density 1.94 Flash point none

Sulphuric acid is the strong acid produced by dissolving sulphur trioxide in water.

SO3 +

H2O ==> H2SO4

The Strength of Acids is determined by the degree to which they are ionised in aqueous solution. For example, Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4, which is a strong acid is fully dissociated, and all the displaceable hydrogen in the acid is present in solution as Hydrogen Ion, H(+). H2SO4 ==> H(+) + SO4 100% as H(+)

In contrast, the weak acids ethanoic acid, CH3COOH, is partially ionised in solution, and only approximately 5% of the displaceable Hydrogen in the acid is present in solution as hydrogen ion, H(+).


==> H(+) + CH3COO(-) 5% as H(+)



Sulphuric acid is a powerful protonating agent. It is also a moderately strong oxidizing agent. Sulphuric acid is also a powerful dehydrating agent and is used to remove a molecule of water from many organic compounds.

In dilute solution, sulphuric acid is a strong dibasic acid forming two series of salts.

A Dibasic Acid has two acidic hydrogen atoms in its molecules which can be ionised. Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4, is a dibasic acid, because it contains two hydrogens atoms which ionise in aqueous solution to become Hydrogen Ions, H(+).



2 H(+)

SO4(2 -)

Sulphuric acid is an important industrial chemical and it has many uses as a strong oxidising agent and a powerful dehydrating agent. Commercially available sulphuric acid is as a 96-98% solution of the acid in water. It is a powerful protonating agent. It is also a powerful dehydrating agent and is used to remove a molecule of Water, HO2, from many organic compounds. The Dehydration Reactions of Alcohols results in their converted into an alkene, and involves the elimination of a molecule of water. Dehydration requires the presence of an acid and the application of heat.


Combustion of Sulphur When a small amount of Sulphur, S, is kindled on a deflagrating spoon, it burns with a bright blue flame when introduced into a gas jar containing Oxygen, O2. A gas, Sulphur Dioxide, SO2, is the main product of the combustion. However, a little Sulphur Trioxide, SO3, is also formed, which makes the gas slightly cloudy.

S + O2 ==> SO2 Sulphur Dioxide

2S + 3O2 ==>


Sulphur Trioxide

When shaken with water, the products of combustion dissolve, forming an acidic solution which turns litmus red.

SO2 + H2O ==> Sulphur Dioxide

H2SO3 Sulphurous Acid

SO2 + H2O ==> H2SO4 Sulphur Trioxide Sulphuric Acid

Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid Sulphuric acid was manufactured by the lead-chamber process until the mid-1930s, but this process has now been replaced by the contact process, involving the catalytic oxidation of sulphur dioxide. Properties of Sulphuric Acid The Contact Process is used for manufacturing sulphuric acid and fuming sulphuric acid from sulphur dioxide, which is made by burning sulphur or by roasting sulphide ores and oxygen (in the form of air) which combine to form sulphur trioxide in the presence of a catalyst. The reaction is exothermic and the conditions are controlled to keep the temperature at 450 degC. The catalyst used is valadium oxide (V2O5). The sulphur trioxide is dissolved in sulphuric acid to form fuming sulphuric acid, this is called oleum.





Sulphur Dioxide





Sulphur Trioxide

SO3(g) +

H2SO4(l)==> Oleum


This Oleum, H2S2O7, is then diluted with Water, H2O, to produce concentrated Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4. H2S2O7(l)+ Oleum H2O (l) ==> 2 H2SO4(l) Sulphuric Acid

Reactions of Sulphuric acid Electrolysis of a Solution of dilute Sulphuric Acid The Electrolysis of an Aqueous Solution of dilute Sulphuric Acid is often carried out in a Hofmann Voltammeter, an apparatus in which the gases evolved at the anode and cathode can be collected in separate graduated tubes. When the solution is electrolyzed hydrogen is produced at the cathode and oxygen at the anode. These gases can be shown to be present in a 2 to 1 ratio and result from the electrolysis of water under acidic conditions. Sulphuric acid is a strong electrolyte is fully dissociated in aqueous solution.

H2SO4 ==> 2 H(+) + SO4(2 -)

Water is a weak electrolyte and is only slightly dissociated

H2O ==> H(+) + OH(-)

During electrolysis, the Hydrogen Ions, H(+), migrates towards the cathode, and are discharged there (i.e. they gain an electron and are converted to hydrogen gas). 2 H(+) + 2 e(-) ==> H2-

At the anode the concentration of Hydroxyl Ions, HO(-),is too low to maintain a reaction and the Sulphate Ions, SO4(2 -) are not oxidized but remain on in solution at the end. Water molecules must be the species reacting at the anode.

2 H2O ==> O2 + 4 H(+) + 4 e(-)

The overall reaction is Cathode Reaction :

2 H(+) + 2e(-) ==> H2 4 H(+) + 4e(-) ==> 2H2

Anode Reaction :

2 H2O ==> O2 + 4 H(+) + 4 e(-)

Overall Cell Reaction:

4 H(+) + 2 H2O ==> 2 H2 + O2 + 4 H(+)

For every Hydrogen Ions, H(+), discharged at the anode, another hydrogen ion is formed at the cathode. The net result is that the concentration of the Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4, remains constant and this electrolysis consists of the decomposition of water with the overall reaction

2H2O ==> 2H2- + O2-

Ferrous Sulphate, Fe(II)SO4, is the salt formed when Iron, Fe, is dissolved in Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4. Hydrogen Chloride, HCl, may be prepared in the laboratory by heating Concentrated Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4, with Sodium Chloride, NaCl.

NaCl +

H2SO4 ==> NaHSO4 + HCl

Many Metallic Chlorides liberate Chlorine, Cl2, when treated with Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4, and Manganese Dioxide, MnO2). Many Metallic Chlorides liberate Hydrogen Chloride gas, HCl, when warmed with concentrated Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4. Sulphur Trioxide, SO3, is prepared by heating concentrated Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4, with a large excess of Phosphorus Pentoxide, P2O5.

H2SO4 + P2O5 ==> SO3 + 2 HPO3

Sulphur Dioxide, SO2, is usually made in the laboratory by heating concentrated Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4, with Copper turnings, Cu.

Cu + 2 H2SO4 ==> CuSO4 + SO2 + 2 H2O

Hydrogen Fluoride, HF, can be prepared in the laboratory by heating Concentrated Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4, with Calcium Fluoride, CaF2.

H2SO4 + CaF2 ==> 2 HF + CaSO4

Hydrogen Iodide, HI, can be prepared by direct combination of the elements using a platinum catalyst. In the laboratory it is prepared by heating Concentrated Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4, with Sodium Iodide, NaI.

H2SO4 + 2 NaI ==> 2 HI + Na2SO4

Methanol, CH3OH, does not undergo dehydration reactions. Instead, in reaction with Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4, the ester, Dimethyl Sulphate, (CH3)2SO4, is formed.

Concentrate H2SO4

2CH3OH Methanol


(CH3)2SO4 +


Dimethyl Water Sulphate

Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4, absorbs Ethylene, C2H4, at room temperature to form Ethyl Hydrogen Sulphate, C2H5.HSO4, with much evolution of heat. C2H4 + H2SO4 ==> C2H5.HSO4

If this is treated with Water, H2O and warmed, Ethanol, C2H5OH, is formed. heat C2H5.HSO4 + H2O ==> C2H5OH + H2SO4

Uses of Sulphuric Acid The Daniell Cell, which is a primary voltaic cell having a positive electrode of Copper, Cu, and a negative electrode of Zinc Amalgam, Zn (in alloy with Hg), was invented by the British chemist John Daniel in 1836AD. The Zinc Amalgam electrode is placed in an electrolyte of dilute Sulphuric Acid solution, H2SO4, or Zinc Sulphate solution, ZnSO4, in a porous earthenware pot. This porous pot stands in a solution of Copper Sulphate, CuSO4, in which the Copper electrode is immersed.


The Zinc electrode, Zn, acts as a source of electrons, which flow through an external wire which connects the two electrodes, while the Zinc Ions, Zn(2 +), from the electrode go into solution.

Cathode reaction : Zn

==> Zn(++)

+ 2 e(-)

On reaching the Copper Electrode, these electrons combine with Copper Ions, Cu(2 +), in solution and the discharged copper ions are deposited on the copper electrode as Copper metal, Cu.

Anode reaction : Cu(++)

+ 2 e(-)



An equation for the overall chemical process is obtained by adding together the two half-cell reactions in such a way that the electrons "cancel out".

Zn + Cu(++) ==> Zn(++) + Cu

While the reaction takes place ions move through the porous pot, but when it is not in use the cell should be dismantled to prevent the diffusion of one electrolyte into the other.



Ammonia, NH3, is a very important raw material with many industrial usages. It is gaseous at room temperature and colorless with a pungent smell. The density of ammonia gas is lower than air. It is very soluble in water and has low boiling and melting points, -34C and -78C respectively. Ammonia has base properties when it dissolves in water and reacts with acid effectively. The neutralisation reaction of ammonia and acid produces ammonium salt. In the presence of water, the ammonia reacts with the metal ion to form the hydroxide metal. PROPERTIES AND USES OF AMMONIA Physical Properties


Chemical Properties 1) Ammonia is a weak base and when dissolved in water ionizes to form Ammonium ions NH4 + and hydroxyl ions OHNH3+H2O NH4OH 2) Ammonia forms ammonium salts and water with acids NH3 + H2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 NH3 + HCl NH4Cl 3) Ammonia solution precipitates most metal hydroxides from solutions of their salts. In some cases like copper the hydroxide is soluble in excess owing to formation of complex ion. CuSO4 + 2NH4OH Cu(OH)2 +(NH4)2SO4 Cu(OH)2 Cu2+ +2OH Cu2+ +4NH3 [Cu(NH3)4} 2+ 4)Ammonia does not burn readily in air, nor is it a supporter of combustion, but warm ammonia burns in Oxygen to form nitrogen and water. 4NH3 + 3O2 2N2 +6H2O In the presence of platinum guaze and other cataltsts, oxides of nitrogen and ammonium nitrate are formed. 5) Ammonia is a relatively stable compound. When strongly heated or sparked it decomposes into its constituent elements. 2NH3 N2 +3H2


6) Ammonia behaves as mild reducing agent. It reduces many heated metallic oxides like CuO PbO etc 3CuO + 2NH3 3Cu + N2 +3H2O 7)Ammonia reacts with halogens to give ammonium halides. 8NH3 + 3Cl2 N2 + 6NH4Cl with excess halogens it forms dangerously explosive nitrogen trihalides. 8) Ammonia reacts with certain metals when heated. Sodium forms Sodamide and hydrogen. 2Na + 2NH3 2NaNH2 + H2

USES OF AMMONIA Ammonia is the single most widely used compound in the fertilizer industry. It is the starting material for the production of a various number of nitrogenous fertilizers like ammonium phosphates, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate etc. It is used directly or indirectly as the source for the production of

hexamethylenedeamine for the manufacture of nylon 6,6. In the manufacture of rayon, ammonia is used in the preparation of ammoiacal copper hydroxide solution for dissolving the copper linters. Oxidation of propylene with ammonia gives acrylonitrile, used for the manufacture of acrylic fibres, resins, and elastomers. Hexamethylenetetramine, produced from ammonia and formaldehyde, is used in the manufacture of phenolic thermosetting resins. Toluene 2,4 disocyanate(TDI), employed in the production of polyurethane foam, indirectly consumes ammonia because nitric acid is a raw material in the TDI manufacturing process. Urea produced from ammonia is used in the manufacture of urea-formaldehyde synthetic


resins. Melamine is produced by polymerization of dicyandiamine and high pressure high temperature pyrolysis of urea, in the presence of ammonia. Lesser known uses of Ammonia are 1. As a refrigerant in both compression and absorption systems 2. In the pulp and paper industry for the pulping of wood 3. As a corrosion inhibitor in petroleum refineries. 4. In rubber production for the stabilization of natural and synthetic latex to prevent coagulaion. 5. In the food and beverage industry as a source of nitrogen required for the growth of yeast and micro-organism 6. As a curing agent in tanning industries. In the manufacture of pharmaceuticals such as sulfanilamide, suflathiazole etc.

Ammonia is manufactured in industries through Haber Process. In Haber process, nitrogen gas, N2 from the air is mixed with hydrogen gas, H2derived mainly from natural gas.

The mixture is compressed to a high pressure of 200 atmosphere at a temperature of about 450C.

Iron is used as catalyst to speed up the rate of reaction. Chemical equation below shows the reaction. N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) 2NH3 (g)

About 98% of mixture are converted into ammonia, NH3.


The unreacted nitrogen gas, N2 and hydrogen gas, H2 are recycled and

passed back into the reactor together with the new source of nitrogen gas, N, and hydrogen gas, H2.



ARRANGEMENT OF ATOMS IN MATELS 1. The atom of pure metals are packed together closely. This causes the metal to have a hight density 2. The forces of attraction between atoms (metallic bonds) are strong. More heat energy is needed to overcome the metallic bond so that the atoms are further apart during the melting. This is why metals usually have hight melting point. 3. Heat energy can be transferred easily from one atom to the next by vibration. This make metal good conduct of heat. 4. The freely moving outermost electrons within the metals structure are able to conduct electricity. Metal are, therefore, good electrical conductors. 5. Since atoms of pure metal are of the same size, they are arranged orderly in a regular layered pattern. When a force is applied to metal, layer of atom slide easily over one another. This make pure metals soft, malleable and ductile.

Layer of atom slide


Metals are ductile


The shape of the metal change

Matel are malleable 17

WHAT ARE ALLOYS 1. Pure metal are usually too soft for most uses. They also have a low resistance to corrosion. They rush and tarnish easily. 2. To improve the physical properties of metal, a small amount of another element (usually metal) is added to form another an alloy. 3. An alloy is a mixture of two or more metals (something non-metal) in a specific proportion. For example: a. Bronze (90% of copper and 10% of tin) b. Steel (99% of iron and 1% of carbon) 4. The purposes of making alloys include the following: a) Increase the strength i. Pure iron is soft and vary malleable. When a small amount of carbon is added to iron, an alloy, steal is formed. The more carbon is added, the stronger the steel becomes. ii. Pure aluminium is light but not strong. With a small amount of copper and magnesium are added to aluminium, a strong, light and durable alloy call duralumin is produced. b) Improving the resistance to corrosion i. Iron rust easily but stainless steel which contains 80.6% of iron, 0.4% of carbon, 18% of chromium and 1% of nickel does not rush. These properties make stainless steel suitable for making surgical instrument and cutlery. ii. Pure copper tarnish easily. When zinc (30%) is added, the yellow alloy which is known as brass develops a high resistance to corrosion. c) Enhancing the appearance i. Pewter, an alloy of tin (97%), antimony and copper is not only hard but also has a more beautiful white silvery appearance. ii. When copper is mixed with nickel to form cupronickel, an alloy that has an attractive silvery, bright appearance is formed which is suitable for making coins.


Alloy High carbon steel

Composition 99% iron 1% carbon

Properties Strong,hard high resistance

Uses and Making wear cutting hammers chisels of tools, and

Stainless steel

80.6% iron 0.4% carbon 18%chromium 1% nickel

Do not rust and Making tarnish, strong and durable surgical instrument, knives Hard, do not rust, Making bright appearance ornaments,



and spoons Brass 70% copper 30% zinc of

electrical wiring and plug. Bronze 90% copper 10% tin Hard, do not For bells, swords statues Pewter 90% tin 2.5% copper 0.5% antimony Ductile malleable, and Making white ornaments, souvenirs mugs Duralumin 95% aluminium 4% copper 1%magnesium Cupronickel 75%copper 25%nickel Light, strong and Making part of durable aircrafts racing cars Attractive, silvery Making of silver appearance, hard and tough Composition, properties and uses of alloys coins and and of casting medals, and

corrode easily and durable

silvery appearance


The formation of alloy



1. Molecule that consist of a large number of small identical or similar units joined together repeatedly are called polymer. 2. The smaller molecules that make up the repeating unit in polymer are caller monomer. 3. The process of joining together a large number of monomers to form a long chain polymer is called polymerisation. 4. Polymer can be naturally occurring or man-made (synthetic). Natural polymer are found in plant and in animals for example of natural polymers are starch cellulose, protein and rubber. 5. Two type of polymerisation in producing synthetic polymer are additional polymerisation. 6. Double bonds between two carbon atoms usually undergo addition


Some Common Addition Polymers Name(s) Polyethylene low (LDPE) Polyethylene high (HDPE) Polypropylene (PP) grades (CH2CHCl)n (CH2[CH2propylene CH2=CHCH3 atactic: elastic isotactic: strong solid Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) Poly(vinylidene vinylidene

Formula (CH2density CH2)n (CH2-

Monomer ethylene CH2=CH2

Properties soft, waxy solid

Uses film wrap,

plastic bags

ethylene CH2=CH2

rigid, translucent electrical solid insulation bottles, toys soft, similar solid LDPE hard, carpet, upholstery pipes, flooring siding, to

density CH2)n

different CH(CH3)]n

vinyl chloride strong rigid solid CH2=CHCl


high- seat


chloride) (Saran A) Polystyrene (PS)

CCl2)n [CH2CH(C6H5)]n

chloride CH2=CCl2 styrene CH2=CHC6H5

melting solid


hard, rigid, clear toys, cabinets solid packaging

soluble in organic (foamed) solvents

Polyacrylonitrile (CH2(PAN, Acrilan) Polytetrafluoroe thylene (PTFE, Teflon) [CH2C(CH3)CO2 (CF2CF2)n Orlon, CHCN)n

acrylonitrile CH2=CHCN

high-melting solid rugs, blankets soluble in organic clothing solvents

tetrafluoroeth ylene CF2=CF2

resistant, smooth non-stick solid surfaces electrical insulation

Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA, Plexiglas) Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) cisPolyisoprene natural rubber

methyl methacrylate CH2=C(CH3) CO2CH3

hard, transparent lighting covers, solid signs skylights

Lucite, CH3]n (CH2CHOCOCH


vinyl acetate soft, sticky solid CH2=CHOCO CH3 isoprene CH2=CHC(CH3)=CH2 soft, sticky solid




[CH2CH=C(CH3) -CH2]n [CH2CH2]n

requires vulcanization for use practical


chloroprene CH2=CHCCl=CH2

tough, solid

rubbery synthetic rubber oil resistant

e (cis + trans) CH=CCl(Neoprene)

Uses of synthetic polymers



1. Synthetic polymers have many advantages over other type of materials: a. They are cheap, light-weight and translucent. b. They are easily coloured, easily moulded and shaped. c. They are non-corrosive, waterproof and good insulator. d. They are durable and long lasting because they are resistant to decay, rusting and chemical attacks. 2. There are disadvantage using synthetic polymer: a. Most of the synthetic polymer are flammable. When a synthetic polymer material catches fire, poisonous fumes are produce causing air pollution. b. Synthetic polymers are non-biodegradable. When there are discharge, they cause litter problem and pollute the environment. c. Plastic container that are left aside in an open area collect rainwater which becomes the breeding ground for mosquitoes. d. There are limitation in recycle have to be separated out as the addition of non-recyclable polymers in the mixture affect the properties of the recycled polymers.



WHAT ARE GLASS 1. Glass is one of the most useful but inexpensive materials in the world. Many products are made from glass because of its specials properties. 2. Glass is: a. Transparent, hard but brittle. b. A heat and electric insulator. c. Resistant to corrosion. d. Chemical not reaction and therefore resistant to chemical attack. e. Easy to maintain.

Type of glass Fused glass

Composition SiO2: 100%

Properties Transparent High point Good insulator Low point, molded desired and size Low resistant to chemical attacks Brittle Resistant chemical High point

Uses Lens melting Telescope mirrors heat Laboratory apparatus melting Drinking easily bottles glass,

Soda-lime glass

SiO2: 75% Na2O:15% CaO: 9% Other:1%

into Electric bulbs shape Window glass

Borosilicate glass

SiO2: 78% B2O3: 12% Na2O: 5% CaO: 3% Al2O3:2%

Cooking utensils attack Laboratory glassware such as conical flaks and boiling tube

and durable melting

Good insulator to heat Lead crystal SiO2: 70% Pbo/PbO2:20% Na2O: 10% High index High density Attractive glittering appearance refractive Lenses prisms Decorative glassware art object Imation jewellery and and

glass (flint glass)

CERAMICS 1. Traditional silicate ceramics are made by heating aluminosilicate clay such as kaolin to a vary high temperature. 2. Ceramics have many special properties that make them one of the most useful materials in our everyday life. That: a. b. c. d. e. f. Are hard, strong but brittle Have high melting point and remain stable at high temperature Are heat and electric instrument Are resistant to corrosion and wear Are chemically not reactive Do not readily deform under stress

3. Ceramic play important role in our daily life. They are uses as a. Construction materials i.Ceramic are strong and hard, uses to make roof tiles, bricks cement, sinks, and toilet bowls. ii.They are also used to make refractory bricks because high resistant to heat. b. Decorative items i.To make pottery, china plates, and porcelain vases since they do not tarnish easily and are durable. ii.They are used to make bathroom fixture such as floor and wall tiles. c. Electrical insulator i.Ceramic are used to make electrical insulator in electrical items such as toasters, fridges and electrical plug.



Melting point/ Density/G cm- Elastic

Hardness/ mohs

modulus/ GPa

Oxide ceramic Alumina,AL2O3 2054 Beryllia, BeO Zirconia, ZiO Non-oxide ceramics Boron carbide,B4C3 Silicon nitride, Si3, n4 Metals Aluminium Steel 660 1515 2.70 7.86 70 205 3 5 1900 3.17 310 9 2350 2830 2.50 3.16 280 400 9 9 2574 2710 3.97 3.01 5.68 380 370 210 9 8 8



WHAT ARE COMPOSITE MATERIALS 1. A composite materials (or composite) is a structure of materials that is formed by two or more different substances such as metal, glass, ceramic and polymer. 2. Some common composite materials are: a. b. c. d. e. Reinforces concrete Superconductor Fibre optic Fibre glass Photochromic glass

REINFORCES CONCRETE 1. Concrete is hard, fireproof, waterproof, comparatively cheap and easy to maintain. It is more important construction materials. 2. The reinforces is a combination of concrete and steel.

SUPERCONDUCTOR 1. Metal such as copper and aluminium are good conductor of electricity, but 20% of the electric energy is lost in the form of heat during transmission. 2. Super conductor are materials that have no resistance to the flow of electricity at a particular temperature. Hence, 100% electricity transmission is possible. 3. One of the most dramatic properties of a superconductor is its ability to levitate a magnet. Superconductor are used to build magnetically levitate high-speed train (at about 552 km/h). 4. Superconductor are used to make chips for smaller and faster supercomputer. Superconductor also play an important role in high speed data processing in internet communication.

FIBRE OPTIC 1. Fibre optic is a composite material that in used to transmit signals for light wave. 2. Fibre optic is used in



Telecommunicate where the telephone substation are liked by fibre optic cables.

b. c.

Domestic cable television network Closed circuit television security system.

3. Fibre optic also used in medical fields. It is used in a number of instrument which enable the investigation for internal body part without having to perform surgery.

FIBRE GLASS 1. Fibre glass is glass in the form of fine threads. Molten gas is dropped onto a refractory rating disc when the glass flies off the disc glass to form fibre. 2. Fibre glass is strong than steel, do not burnt, stretch or rot, resistant to fire and water but is brittle. 3. When fibre glass added to a plastic, a new composite material fibre glass reinforces plastic is formed. 4. Fibre glass reinforces plastic has more superior properties than glass and plastic. It is a. Extremely strong b. Light weigh c. Resistant to fire and water d. Can be molded, shaped and twisted

PHOTOCHROMIC GLASS 1. When 0.01 to 0.1% of silver chloride (a type of photochromic substances) and a small amount of copper (II) chloride are added to molten silicon dioxide, photochromic glass is formed. 2. The photochromic glass has a special properties. It darken when exposed to strong sunlight or ultraviolet. 3. Photochromic glass is suitable for making sunglasses.