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Blow-Down Procedure for Marine Boilers


by raunekk 17 October 2010 5 Comments Boiler is one of the most important machinery on the ship. An economic and efficient working of a marine boiler on a ship requires timely maintenance and special care in starting and stopping the boiler. Routine cleanup is extremely helpful in increasing the working life of a marine boiler. In this article we have brought to you one such important procedure boiler blow down, which has to be performed at regular interval of times in order to increase the performance of the boiler. Boiler blow down Boiler blow down is done to remove carbon deposits and other impurities from the boiler. Blow down of the boiler is done to remove two types of impurities scum and bottom deposits. This means that blow down is done either for scum or for bottom blow down. Moreover, the reasons for boiler blow down are: 1. To remove the precipitates formed as a result of chemical addition to the boiler water.

2. To remove solid particles, dirt, foam or oil molecules from the boiler water. This is mainly done by scum valve and the procedure is known as scumming. 3. 4. To reduce the density of water by reducing the water level. To remove excess water in case of emergency.

Procedure for Scumming and Bottom Blow Down Below is the procedure for boiler blow down using the blow down valve located at the bottom of the boiler. In order to do scumming, instead of bottom blow down, the scum valve is to be opened.

Steps for blow down procedure are as follows: Kindly refer the diagram to understand the blow down procedure properly. 1. 2. Open the overboard or ship side valve(1) first. Open the blow down valve (2), this valve is a non-return valve.

3. The blow down valve adjacent to the boiler (2) should be opened fully so as to prevent cutting of the valve seat. 4. 5. 6. The rate of blow down is controlled by the valve (3). After blow down close the valve in reverse order. A hot drain pipe even when all valves are closed indicates a leaking blow down valve.

Procedure for Boiler Gauge Glass Maintenance on a Ship


by Mohit 6 November 2010 No Comment A gauge gauge is used at many places on a ship. Gauge glass is a kind of a level indicator which shows the amount of fluid in a tank or any other storage place on a ship. In this article we will learn as to how the maintenance of a gauge glass is done on a ship. Gauge glass are mainly used in boiler of the ship. Before learning about boiler gauge glass maintenance lets take a quick look at the working of a gauge glass.

Working of Boiler Gauge Glass A gauge glass has two different compartments top side and bottom side, connected to two different sections of a boiler. The top side of the gauge glass is connected to the steam side of the boiler and the bottom side is connected to the water side of the boiler. The pressure on both sides will equalize and the level of water can be seen in the gauge glass. Maintenance During service check up.

Refer the diagram for better understanding of boiler gauge glass.


Check the nut (1) and tighten if necessary. Bolts on the boiler flanges are to be checked, if loose tighten them.

Check if union nuts are loose. Bolt from screw 7 with cocks in open position. If the leak can not be stopped from water side on the gauge glass by tightening the screw 7 then the sealing surface of the cock plug 8 my be damaged or corroded.

Gauge glass blow down procedure Gauge glass should be blown before lighting up of boiler, after stopping the boiler and regularly if the level in gauge glass is suspected to be wrong. Cleaning the water side of gauge glass

Close the valve S and W as shown in the figure. Now open the cock W and see if the water is coming out of the drain valve D indicating the drain line is clear. Now close the drain valve D and keep the cock W open and see if the water level rises in the gauge glass; this indicates the line to gauge glass is also clear. Repeat the steps two to three times to remove nuds and deposits inside.

Cleaning the steam side of gauge glass


Close both the cocks S and W. Now open the cock S and open the drain valve D and see the steam is coming out. The drain is opened only for 1-2 seconds only as steam may damage the sealing and service life decreases.

Putting the gauge glass in normal operating position


Close all the valves S, W and the drain valve D. Now open the cock W and let the water fill inside the gauge glass. Now open the cock S and then the level can be seen as the pressure equalizes.

Boiler Mountings: A Comprehensive List


by Anish 4 November 2010 No Comment Just installing a boiler on a ship doesnt guarantee efficient working of a boiler. There are several mountings and attachments required to be fitted on the boiler to ensure its safety and quality performance. The article describes a comprehensive list of boiler mountings without which a boiler cannot operate on a ship.

Boiler operation can be carried out safely and efficiently by only using the mountings described below: 1) Main steam Stop Valve: The steam generated in the boiler is supplied to the main system through this v/v. It is normally non-return type of valve. 2) Auxiliary steam Stop Valve: If there is separate steam line provided for small auxiliary system, it is supplied through this valve. The valve is smaller in size and usually of a non-return type. 3) Safety valve: In the event of unsafe excessive pressure inside the boiler, the safety valve comes in action to release the overpressure. The lifting pressure of the valve is set prior to its installation and locked in the presence of a surveyor so that it not changed later on. Safety valves are generally installed in pairs. 4) Water level gauge glass: Gauge glasses are also fitted in pairs for manually checking the water level inside the boiler drum. It is on the basis of the boiler pressure that the construction of the gauge glass is decided. 5) Air release valve or boiler vent: This valve is fitted in the headers, boiler drum etc, to avoid imploding of boiler when it is depressurized or when initially raising the steam pressure. 6) Feed check and control v/v: This valve controls the supply of steam supply as per the demand and is fitted in both main and aux steam line after the stop valve. They are non-return valves with a visible indication of open and close position. 7) Pressure gauge connection: This pressure gauge can be fitted in super heater, boiler drum and wherever it is necessary to read the pressure reading. 8) Blow down valve: It is used to empty the boiler completely for maintenance purpose or for water treatment of boiler when the chloride level becomes very high. 9) Scum blow down valve: Its a shallow dish type arrangement fitted at the normal water level which allows the blow down of floating impurities, oil foaming etc from the water surface. 10) Sampling connection: Generally, a sampling water cock arrangement is also fitted with cooler in series so that water sample can be collected at any time for feed water analysis. 11) Whistle valve: If there is a provision for steam whistle in the ship, then steam is supplied directly from the boiler through a small bore type non-return valve known as whistle valve. 12) Low Level alarm: A device used to initiate audible warning at low water level condition. 13) Soot blowers: Required to blow the soot and the combustion products from the tube surfaces. It is operated by steam or compressed air. 14) Automatic feed water regulator: Device which is essential to ensure appropriate water level in all load conditions and is fitted in the feed line. Multiple element feed water control system is used in boilers with high evaporation rate.

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Converting Seawater to Freshwater on a Ship: Fresh Water Generator Explained


by KaranC 21 October 2010 No Comment Fresh water generator, one of the important machinery on board a ship, is something that cannot be done without. Fresh water produced from fresh water generator is used for drinking, cooking, washing and even running other important machinery which use fresh water as a cooling medium.

Fresh water is generally produced on board using the evaporation method. There are two things that are available in plenty on ship to produce fresh water Seawater and heat. Thus fresh water is produced by evaporating sea water using heat from any of the heat source. The evaporated sea water is then again cooled by the sea water and the cycle repeats.

Generally the heat source available is taken from the main engine jacket water, which is used for cooling the main engine components such as cylinder head, liner etc. The temperature available from this jacket water is about 70 deg. centigrade. But at this temperature the evaporation of water is not possible as we all know that the evaporation of water takes place at 100 deg centigrade under atmospheric pressure. Thus in order to produce fresh water at 70 degrees we need to reduce the atmospheric pressure, which is done by creating a vacuum inside the chamber where the evaporation is taking place. Also, as a result of the vacuum the cooling of the evaporated sea water will also take place at lower temperature. This cooled water is collected and transferred to the tank. Nowadays, reverse osmosis is one of the methods which are used on board for generating fresh water. Generally this is used on passenger vessels wherein there is a large requirement of fresh water production. However, in merchant ships the evaporation method is used as reverse osmosis is costly and includes large maintenance cost for membrane. Fresh Water Generator Arrangement The main body of a fresh water generator on the ship consists of a large cylindrical body with two compartments. One of the compartments is the condenser and the other is the evaporator. The fresh water generator also consists of an educator which helps in generating the required vacuum. The fresh water pump and ejector pump helps in transfer of water to and from the fresh water generator. Starting the Fresh Water Generator 1. Before starting the fresh water generator we have to check that the ship is not in congested water, canals and is 20 nautical miles away from the shore. This is done because near the shore the effluents from factories and sewage are discharged into the sea can get into the fresh water generator. 2. Check whether engine is running above 50 rpm, the reason for this is that at low rpm the temperature of jacket water which is around 60 degrees and not sufficient for evaporation of water. 3. Check the drain valve present at the bottom of the generator is in close position.

4. Now open suction and discharge valves of the sea water pump which will provide water for evaporation, cooling and to the eductor for creating vacuum. 5. Open the sea water discharge valve from where the water is sent back to the sea after circulating inside the fresh water generator. 6. Close the vacuum valve situated on top of the generator.

7. Now start the sea water pump and check the pressure of the pump. The pressure is generally 3-4 bars.

8. Wait for the vacuum to build up. Vacuum should be at least 90% which can be seen on the gauge present on the generator. Generally the time taken for the generation of vacuum is about 10 minutes. 9. When vacuum is achieved open the valve for feed water treatment, this is to prevent scale formation inside the plates. 10. Now open hot water (jacket water) inlet and outlet valves slowly to about half. Always open the outlet valve first and then inlet valve. Slowly start to increase the opening of the valves to full open. 11. Now we can see that the boiling temperature starts increasing and the vacuum starts dropping. 12. 13. 14. 15. The vacuum drop to about 85% which is an indication that evaporation is started. Open the valve from fresh water pump to drain. Switch on the salinometer if it has to be started manually. Generally it is on auto start. Now start fresh water pump and taste the water coming out of the drain.

16. When fresh water starts producing it is seen that the boiling temperature drops again slightly and vacuum comes back to the normal value. 17. Check the water coming out of the salinometer is not salty and also check the reading of the salinometer. This is done to see if the salinometer is working properly or not and to prevent the whole fresh water from getting contaminated with salt water. The value of salinometer is kept below 10ppm. 18. After checking the taste of the water coming out of the salinometer, open valve for tank from the pump and close drain valve. Stopping the Fresh water Generator

1. Close the jacket water inlet valves. Generally inlet is closed first and then the outlet valve.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Close the valve for feed water treatment. Stop fresh water pump. Switch off the salinometer. Stop sea water pump (also known as ejector pump). Open vacuum valve.

7. Close sea water suction valve and overboard valve. This is generally not required as they are non- return valves. However, in case of valve leaking or damage, these valves are to be closed without fail.

oiler Operation Made Easy : Procedure for Starting and Stopping a Boiler
by raunekk 20 October 2010 No Comment A boiler is one of those machineries that gets the ship going. A boiler is something, which though not required continuously in operating a ship, cannot be done away with. Moreover, its a dangerous equipment which generates steam at extremely high pressure, and it is for this reason that proper care should be taken while operating it. In this article we have brought to you a step-by-step procedure for starting and stopping a boiler on a ship. With this procedure you can never go wrong, as far as boilers are concerned. Starting and stopping a boiler was never so easy.

Starting a Boiler It is to note that the following steps may not apply to all types of boilers and each boiler requires some additional steps to be followed as per its system design. However, the basic steps remain the same: 1. Ensure that the vent valve on the boiler is open and check there is no pressure in the boiler.

2. Check that the steam stop valve is closed. 3. Check that all the valves for fuel are open, and let the fuel circulate through the system until it comes to the temperature required by the manufacturer recommendation. 4. Check and open the feed water valves to the boiler and fill the water inside the boiler drum to just above the low water level. This is done because it is not possible to start the boiler below the low water level due to safety feature which prevent boiler from starting. Also, the level is not filled much because if filled too much, the water inside the boiler might expand and over pressurize the boiler. 5. Start the boiler in automatic mode. The burner fan will start the purging cycle which will remove any gases present in the furnace by forcing it out through the funnel. 6. After the pre-set purge time the pilot burner will ignite. The pilot burner consists of two electrodes, through which a large current is passed, via the transformer, producing the spark between the electrodes. The pilot burner is supplied with diesel oil and when the oil passes over, the former ignites. 7. The main burner which is supplied by heavy oil catches fire with the help of pilot burner. 8. Check the combustion chamber from the sight glass to ensure the burner has lit and the flame is satisfactory. 9. Keep a close eye on the water level as the pressure increases and open the feed water when the level of water inside the gauge glass is stable. 10. Close the vent valve after the steam starts coming outside. 11. Open the steam stop valve. 12. Once the working steam pressure is reached, blow down the gauge glass and float chambers to check for the alarms. Stopping a boiler 1. If the boiler is needed to be stopped for longer duration for maintenance or opened up for survey, change the fuel to distillate fuel. 2. If separate heating arrangement for heavy oil is present then theres is no need to change over to distillate fuel and the oil is kept on circulation mode. 3. Stop the boiler automatic cycle. 4. Close the steam stop valves. 5. Close the boiler feed water valves. 6. When the boiler pressure is just reduced to over atmospheric pressure the vent valve is kept open to prevent vacuum formation inside the boiler.

Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About Crankcase Inspection on a Ship


by Mohit 1 November 2010 3 Comments There are several important factors that need to be taken care of for efficient running of the main engine on the ship, and one of them is the crankcase of the ships engine. The crankcase is one such part of the main engine which contains the most sensitive components of the main engine. Before doing crankcase inspection, are you confused as to what safety rules that are need to be followed or ever wondered what you should check and what not? If yes, then you

have come to the right place. In this article we will learn the most important points that need to be considered for efficient working of the crankcase of the main engine. Learn the important checks on crankcase and what all things need to be included in crankcase inspection on a ship.

Checks Required and Done On board on Crankcase Lubricating Oil The crankcase lubricating oil needs to be maintained in good condition for efficient running of the main engine. If not maintained and checked periodically, the crankcase lubricating oil can damage the bearings and other parts of the engine which can incur heavy loss and wastage of time in maintenance. Moreover if the damage is more, the ship might need to go off charter which is not acceptable in shipping activities. Weekly Checks on Crankcase In weekly test of crankcase, lubricating oil water test should be done. This is to ascertain that there is no leakage in the crankcase and its in fine condition. If water content is below 2 % of the total volume then it is acceptable and can be reduced with the help of purification. However, if it is above 2% then investigation needs to be made if there is any leakage of water inside the crankcase. In case of any leakage, the cracks are to be checks and fixed and the causes of water ingress is to be found. Once this is done the oil in the crankcase has to be replaced completely. Other checks also done during weekly checks are to ascertain TBN and viscosity of the oil. The crankcase must be topped up or change of oil needs to be done as per manufacturers recommendation. Once every three months the oil has to be sent for laboratory analysis i.e spectrography analysis to ascertain that the amount of wear and fine metal particles are within acceptable limit. In case if it is off limit, the laboratory analysis report will recommend procedure or precautions to be taken to tackle the situation.

Crankcase Inspection in large Slow Speed Engines The crankcase inspection is done every month whenever the ship is in port and there is sufficient time for inspection. Thorough inspection is required during this to analyze the condition inside and damage to the bearings. Before inspection following procedures has to be followed:

Permission has to be taken before reaching port to make sure that the authority is not having any problem with this. This is called Immobilization permission of the main engine. After the permission is received the checklist has to be filled. Safety issues have to be discussed with the people taking part in the inspection. When the engine is in stopped condition, the lubricating oil pump and cross-head oil pump have to be stopped and the breaker taken out so that it doesnt start on its own or by any other person by mistake. Proper sign and placards to be displayed regarding men at work. Since engine crankcase is an enclosed space, an enclosed space checklist is also to be filled. After stopping the engine and the pumps the crankcase doors have to be opened and sufficient time is to be given to cool and ventilate the space as the temperature inside is very hot and deprived of air. After the cooling and ventilating the space, the person entering the space should be with proper personnel protective equipments like boiler suit, safety harness, and anti slipping pads for shoes. Make sure there are no tools, pen etc in your pockets which might drop inside and cause damage to bearing and machinery parts Before entering, the person has to be detailed as what needs be checked inside. Special attention is also given if any other issue is specified by technical department or any major problem found on other ships.

Inside Crankcase Following Checks are to be Made

1.

Check the overall quality of oil whether it is clean or dirty with carbon particles.

2. Check for any distinguished smell, if found, this could be because of bacterial contamination of oil. The smell is generally of rotten eggs. 3. Check for any metal particles near the grating in the crankcase.

4. Check the condition and damage to the gratings. 5. Check the slip marks on the web; they should be in the same line. If slip is found then report is to be made to the company and classification society regarding this. 6. Check for any bluish dark patches, this indicates that hot spots are caused by friction of insufficient lubrication. 7. 8. 9. Check cross head for any damages. Check cross head guides for damages and marks. Check the bed plate for any welding cracks etc.

10. Check any metal seen near the bearings coming out due to wiping. 11. Check for piping and any loose connections between them. 12. Check the locking wires and locking washers on bolts of stuffing box. 13. Make any other checks specified by technical department. 14. Before coming out make sure there is nothing left inside.

How to Prevent Crankcase Explosion on a Ship?


by Mohit 31 October 2010 No Comment Crankcase explosion is one of the most dangerous reasons that can lead to massive accidents and fires on a ship. It is therefore imperative to prevent all the reasons that can lead to crankcase explosion on a ship. In this article we will learn about the various methods to prevent crankcase explosion on a ship.

The first and foremost thing to avoid any type of explosion on a ship, it is necessary to take the preventive steps right from the basic roots. In a main engine crankcase also there are safety features provided to detect the causes of explosion. There are two main features provided on the crankcase to prevent crankcase explosion. They are as follows: 1. Oil Mist Detector

The Oil mist detector takes continuous samples from the main engine crankcase and check whether the sample concentrations of mist are well below the level at which a crankcase explosion can take place. The oil mist is drawn into the instrument with the help of small fan which takes suction from each crankcase through sampling tubes provided on each crankcase.

The oil mist detector consists of a small rotator with which it takes sample from one cylinder at a time and the rotator then turns to the next after approximately 4 seconds. The sample from the rotator goes to the measured cell and the reference cell takes sample from rest of the crankcase to evaluate the difference in oil mist. An overall mist density of the crankcase is also measured by comparing the samples with the fresh air once every rotation of the sampling valve is done. A beam of light from a common lamp is reflected through mirrors and output is measured from a photo cell. Under normal conditions the output from the reference and measured contact is same and hence no deflection is measured. However, a deflection in the output gives an alarm indication and the valve rotator stops at position to know which chamber has high mist concentration. Some engines are even fitted with slowdown alarms so that when the oil mist alarm rings, the engine automatically slows down to prevent crankcase explosion. 2. Crankcase relief doors

The Crankcase relief doors are also fitted to prevent any damage to the crankcase and ingress of fresh air inside the crankcase. The crankcase doors are spring loaded valves which lift up in case there is any rise of pressure inside the crankcase. Once the pressure is released they re-seat to prevent any ingress of fresh air. This helps especially in case of any ingress of air that can lead to a secondary explosion followed by a lot of surge and damage to the crankcase. The opening pressure and sizes of the valves are specified by different classification societies, depending on the volume of the crankcase. The number of doors to be present also depends on the bore of the cylinder. Reference Instrumentation and control engineering by G.J Roy Operation and maintenance of machinery in motor ship by N.E Chell Share 0digg Home Tech

Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Scavenge Fires


by Mohit 20 October 2010 No Comment One of the most common reasons for a fire in a ships engine room, scavenge fire is the deadliest of all fires. Scavenge fire has been the reason for several major accidents on ships in the past and it is for this reason that it is termed as the most dangerous cause for accidents on a ship.

In order to understand scavenge fire it is important to learn the basics. In this article we have brought to you everything you ever wanted to know about scavenge fires from causes to actions. Understand and fight scavenge fires the way it should be. Getting the Basics Right: What is Scavenge fire? For any fire to occur we need three elements which make the fire triangle. The three important elements for any type of fire are:1. Oxygen -this is available plenty in the scavenge space. 2. Heat source- this could happen because of blowing by of gases between piston rings and liner or as a result of any rubbing between two surfaces. 3. Fuel- this can be from un-burnt fuel, carbon or cylinder lubricating oil leaked into the space When all these elements are present in a proportion ratio and lie within the flammable limit inside the scavenge space the later become a hot spot for eruption of fire. The fire which thus results is known as the scavenge fire. Causes of scavenge fire.

There are many reasons for scavenge fire. However, the main ones are as below: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Excessive wear of the liner. The piston rings might be worn out or have loose ring grooves. Broken piston rings or rings seized in the grooves. Dirty scavenge space. Poor combustion due to leaking fuel valves or improper timing. Insufficient or excess cylinder lubrication.

Indications of scavenge fire There are a few signs which indicates a scavenge fire. One should be extremely cautious in case any of the below mentioned conditions are observed. 1. 2. 3. Scavenge temperature will start increasing. The turbochargers will start surging. High exhaust temperature.

4. Loss of engine power and reduction in rpm. This happens because a back pressure is created under the piston space due to fire. 5. Smoke coming out of the scavenge drains.

6. The paint blisters will be formed on the scavenge doors due to high temperature but this will occur only in large fires and extreme cases. Actions to be taken Action taken in case of a scavenge fire depends on the type of the fire, whether small or large. In case of large fire the following signs will be easily visible the peeling or blistering of paint, large reduction in engine rpm and surging of turbocharger. For small fires 1. Start reducing the engine rpm and reduce it to slow or dead slow.

2. Increase the cylinder lubrication of the affected unit. Special attention to be given for this as this does not feed the fire. In case of increase of fire do not increase the lubrication. 3. 4. The fire can be due to leaky fuel valves, so lift up the pump of the affected unit. Keep scavenge drain closed.

5. Keep monitoring the scavenge and exhaust temperatures and let the fire starve and wait for it to burn itself out. 6. 7. After confirming that the fire is out start increasing the rpm slowly. Keep monitoring the scavenge temperature for any signs of re-ignition.

For large fires 1. Stop the engine immediately and engage turning gear, and keep engine rotating with turning gear. 2. Extinguish the fire with fixed fighting system for scavenge fire. This may be co2 system or a steam connection for smothering the fire. 3. In case fixed system is not available on very old ships an external cooling is provided to prevent distortion due to heat. 4. Once after confirming that the fire is extinguished. The scavenge space is allowed to cool down and later opened for inspection and cleaning of the scavenge space. ReferenceThe Operation and Maintainence of Machinery in Motorships By N.E Chell Share 0digg Home Marine Safety, Procedures/Maintenance

Procedure for Entering an Enclosed Space on a Ship

by Mohit 15 October 2010 No Comment A ship is a complex structure from inside with several small and enclosed spaces. Many of these enclosed spaces are used for installing some machinery or for storing machine parts or workshop equipments. A ship has a matrix of pipelines which runs through each of its parts, including enclosed spaces.

But that is not the point of discussion here. An enclosed place can be used for several reasons; however, the main issue arises when one has to enter these enclosed places in order to do some repairing work or for cleaning purposes. Because of zero ventilation, these enclosed places generate and store toxic gases which are either produced from chemicals stored in the place or leakage from pipelines. If a person enters such place without taking precaution, he or she may suffer unconsciousness and sometimes even death. In order to prevent such unfortunate circumstances there is a proper procedure that needs to be followed for safety and wellness of the person entering the enclosed space. Procedure for Entering an Enclosed Space

The following are the points that need to be followed before entering an enclosed space:

Risk assessment to be carried out by a competent officer as enclosed or confined space entry is deficient in oxygen, making it a potential life hazard. A list of work to be done should be made for the ease of assessment for e.g. if welding to be carried out or some pipe replacement etc. This helps in carrying out the work quickly and easily. Risk assessment also needs to be carried out. Risk assessment includes what work to be done, rescue operation etc. Potential hazards are to be identified such as presence of toxic gases. Opening and securing has to be done and precaution should be taken to check if the opening of enclosed space is pressurized or not. All fire hazard possibilities should be minimized if hot work is to be carried out. This can be done by emptying the fuel tank or chemical tank nearby the hot work place. The confined space has to be well ventilated before entering. The space has to be checked for oxygen content and other gas content with the help of oxygen analyzer and gas detector. The oxygen content should read 20% by volume. Percentage less than that is not acceptable and more time for ventilation should be given in such circumstances. Enough lighting and illumination should be present in the enclosed space before entering. A proper permit to work has to be filled out and checklist to be checked so as to prevent any accident which can endanger life. Permit to work is to be valid only for a certain time period. If time period expires then again new permit is to be issued and checklist is to be filled out. Permit to work has to be checked and permitted by the Master of the ship in order to work in confined space. Proper signs and Men at work sign boards should be provided at required places so that person should not start any equipment, machinery or any operation in the confined space endangering life of the people working. Duty officer has to be informed before entering the enclosed space.

The checklist has to be signed by the person involved in entry and also by a competent officer. One person always has to be kept standby to communicate with the person inside the space. The person may also carry a life line with him inside. The person should carry oxygen analyzer with him inside the enclosed space and it should be on all the time to monitor the oxygen content. As soon as level drops, the analyzer should sound alarm and the space should be evacuated quickly without any delay. No source of ignition has to be taken inside unless the Master or competent officer is satisfied. The number of persons entering should be constrained to the adequate number of persons who are actually needed inside for work. The rescue and resuscitation equipment are to be present outside the confined space. Rescue equipment includes breathing air apparatus and spare charge bottles. Means of hoisting an incapacitated person should be available. After finishing the work and when the person is out of the enclosed space, the after work checklist has to be filled. The permit to work has to be closed after this

The above mentioned procedure is extremely important to entering an enclosed space. These points are imperative to risk any crew members life while entering a confined space. Share 0digg Home Procedures/Maintenance

Important Points for Boiler Cleaning on a Ship


by Hiteshk 6 November 2010 One Comment Boiler cleaning is one of the most important processes that are to be performed routinely on marine boilers on a ship. Boiler cleaning is done to prevent and remove carbon and particle deposits from the boiler.

However, there are certain important points that are to be kept in mind while doing boiler cleaning. In this article we learn about these important points. Boiler Cleaning: Important Points

If the boiler water is treated properly with chemicals and the concentration of chemicals is within the acceptable range then the deposits on the walls of water and steam side of the boiler will be minimal. If boiler is operating on fresh water rather than heavy water the deposits inside the tubes will also be minimal and can be removed by boiling out. The hard deposits inside the tubes are removed with the help of scrubber and brush from the upper drum. If the boiler oil burner is functioning properly and proper maintenance is being carried out from time to time then the soot deposits inside the oil fired boiler will be minimal. But the soot deposits cannot be completely avoided as during starting of boiler soot formation is more and over a period of time it collects inside the boiler space. The soot deposits can be removed with the help of water washing with 10 percent soda solution through the inlet door in the uptake with the help of water hose. Necessary precautions are to be taken during water washing. It is to be noted that the refractory present inside the boiler does not get wet. During water washing the refractory should be covered with the plastic sheet and water should be drained off continuously through the drain provided at the bottom. In case the refractory gets wet, the lighting of boiler should be done very slowly, otherwise the refractory will crack and drop down and finally cause overheating and deformation inside.

The above mentioned points are the basic things to be kept in mind while doing boiler irrespective of the type boiler or ship.

Maintenance and Checks for Sewage Treatment Plant on Ship

by raunekk 24 October 2010 No Comment An efficient running of a sewage treatment plant on a ship requires periodic maintenance and daily checks of the system. Failure to do so can lead to an output that cannot be discharged into the sea, blockage of pipelines, and even failure of some parts. There are several factors that results in smooth working of a sewage treatment plant on a ship and this article enumerates all the maintenance and checks for that smooth running.

Routine Checks 1. During daily rounds the pressure of the system should be checked and should be within the limits. 2. The air lift return should be checked to make sure the system is working properly. This is usually checked by the flow through the clear plastic pipe present on the installation. A clear sludge can be seen flowing through the tubes back to the aeration chamber. 3. Over a period of time, the sludge content in the aeration tank due to the recycling of the sludge from settling tank and fresh sewage increases. This sludge content or suspended solid particle is measured in mg/liter. The method of checking it is to take sample in a conical flask provided by the manufacturer and filling it up to 1000ml mark. The sample is then allowed to be settled and reading of sludge content is checked. The sludge content should not be above the 200 mark, but if it is above the 200 mark, the tank has to be emptied for increasing the performance. In some ships this is checked by filtering the sample through a pre-weighed pad which is dried and re-weighed. This also depends from manufacturer to manufacturer, but is done every week. 4. Also the bio-pac is added every week to the plant to increase efficiency. The bio-pac contains aerobic bacteria which get activated when mixed with hot water. 5. The chlorination of the sample should be between 1-5 ppm and accordingly the dosing has to be increased or decreased. 6. The level of biological oxygen demand (BOD) is also checked and it should not be above 50 mg/liter. The sample is checked by incubating the sample at 20 degrees and well oxygenating the same. The amount of oxygen absorbed over a period of five days is measured. This is done to check the oxygen required for full breakdown of sewage after it has been treated by aerobic bacteria. 7. The internal coating of the sewage treatment plant should be checked for cracking and blistering. If any kind of damage is found then we first need to empty the tanks and then necessary repairs to be performed. Special precautions should be taken before entering the

tank as it may contain toxic gases that cause suffocation. The gases should be checked by dragor tube, a special tube in which samples of various gases are taken before entering. When it is made sure of the absence of toxic gases, entry is made with the mask and gloves. After completion of work the area has to be disinfected. Later, hands should be properly scrubbed and overalls be thoroughly washed. 8. If the sewage treatment plant is fitted with UV disinfectant system instead of the chlorination system, the UV lamp has to be changed as recommended by the manufacturer. 9. High and low level limit switches should be checked for auto cut-in and cut-out of the discharge to over-board pump. 10. Make sure the stand-by sewage discharge pump is put on auto during the working of the sewage treatment plant. Maintenance In case of a blockage of the sewage line there is a connection for back flushing which uses sea water. This is to be used to unclog the sewage pipelines; however, it is to note that all valves are closed and only the necessary valves are open, for it might back flush from WC of the cabins. Generally, stewards are instructed for using chemicals provided by various manufacturers such as Drew Marine and Unitor during washing so that no blockages of lines are caused. However, there shouldnt be any overuse of these chemical as it would lead to killing of aerobic bacteria which will decrease the efficiency of the plant and other problems. The amount of chemicals is to be as per manufacturer recommendation. Reference From marine auxiliary machinery by Mc George Share 0digg Home Procedures/Maintenance

Bunkering is Dangerous : Procedure for Bunkering Operation on a Ship


by Mohit 19 October 2010 8 Comments Bunkering is one process on ship which has been the reason for several accidents in the past. Bunkering on ship can be of fuel oil, sludge, diesel oil, cargo etc. Bunkering of fuel or diesel oil requires utmost care and alertness to prevent any kind of fire accident or oil spill. In this article we will learn about the bunkering procedure on a ship and what are the important points that are to be taken into consideration while bunkering.

Bunkering Procedure Before Bunkering 1. The chief engineer should calculate and check which bunker/fuel oil tanks are to be filled after he receives confirmation from the shore office about the amount of fuel to be received. 2. It might be required to empty some tanks and transfer the oil from one tank to other. This is required so as to prevent mixing of two oils and prevent incompatibility between the previous oil and the new oil. 3.A meeting should be held between the members that will take part in the bunkering process and they should be explained about the following:a. b. c. e. f. Which tanks are to be filled. Sequence order of tanks to be filled. How much bunker is to be taken. Emergency procedure in case oil spill occurs. Responsibilities of each officer are explained.

4.Sounding is taken before bunkering and record is made. 5. A checklist is to be filled so that nothing is missed on. 6. All deck scuppers and save all trays are plugged. 7.Overflow tank is checked to be empty. 8. Adequate lighting at bunker and sounding position is to be provided.

9. No smoking notice should be positioned. 10.On board communication between the people involved in bunkering is made. 11. Red flag/light is presented on masthead. 12. Opposite side bunker manifold valves are closed and blanked properly. 13. Vessel draught and trim is recorded before bunkering. 14.All equipments in SOPEP(shipboard oil pollution emergency plan) locker are checked to be in place. 15. When barge is secured to the ship side, the persons involved on barge are also explained about the bunker plan. 16.Barge paperwork is checked for the oils grade and the density if they are as per the specification. 17.The pumping rate of bunker is agreed with the barge. 18.The hose is then connected to the manifold. 19.All the valves required are open and checked. 20. Proper communication between the barge and the ship is to be established. 21.Sign and signals are to be followed as discussed in case of communication during emergency. 22.After this, the manifold valve is open for bunkering. During Bunkering 1. During start of the bunker the pumping rate is kept low, this is done so as to check that the oil is coming to the tank to which the valve is opened. 2. After confirming the oil is coming to the proper tank the pumping rate is increased as agreed before. 3. Generally only one tank filling is preferred because gauging of more than one tank at a time increases the chances of overflow. 4. The max allowable to which tank is filled is 90 % and when the tank level reaches about to maximum level the barge is told to pump at low pumping rate so as to top up the tank, and then the valve of other tank is opened. 5. During bunkering, sounding is taken regularly and the frequency of sounding is more when the tank is near to full. Many vessels have tank gauges which show tank level in control room but this is only to be relied if the system is working properly.

6. The temperature of bunker is also to be checked; generally the barge or supplier will provide the bunker temperature. Temperature above this may lead to shortfall in bunker. 7. A continuous sample is taken during bunkering with the help of sampling cock at the manifold. After Bunkering

1. Draught and trim of the ship is checked. 2. Take sounding of all the tanks bunkered. 3. The volume bunkered should be corrected for trim, heel and temperature correction. 4. In general for each degree of increase in temperature the density should be reduced by 0.64 kg/m3. 5. Four samples are taken during bunkering. One is kept onboard, one for barge, one for analysis, one for port state or IMO. One sample is given to barge. 6. The chief engineer will sign the bunker receipt and the amount of bunker received. 7. If there is any shortfall of bunker received the chief engineer can issue a note of protest against the barge/supplier. 8.After everything is settled the hose connection is removed. 9.The sample is sent for laboratory analysis. 10. The new bunker should not be used until the report from the lab. Share 0digg Home Maritime Law

STCW 2010 Manila Amendments: Change or No Change?


by Anish 2 December 2010 3 Comments Conventions are modified from time to time to cope up with the new technologies, stringent environment and safety policies and for improvement in the current system. On the same line, the STCW 95 convention was amended in manila on 25th June 2010 under the presence of IMO members, ensuring that the global needs for safety and environment policy and standard of training and certification to operate the advanced technology in coming future are achieved. The Manila conference started on 21st June 2010 and it took five days for associate members to get consensus for amending STCW 95. The Manila amendment STCW 2010 will come in force on 1st January 2012

Major Changes and Amendments Major changes and amendments were made for engine department followed by other structure of the system. The important changes to each chapter of STCW Convention and Code include: 1) Revalidation for higher and managerial level officer for certificate of competency (COC) issued by any governing authority. 2) New and improved training guidance for crews and officer serving onboard.

3) New requirements for MARPOL awareness which includes training in leadership and teamwork. 4) Stringent measures for preventing fraudulent certificate of competency (COC) to flow in international market. 5) Rest hour onboard has been increased from 70 hours to 77 hours per week for decent working of seafarer onboard. 6) Introduction of Electro-technical officer with approved training and COC.

7) More facilities and better training for junior engineer and cadets to tackle the problem of shortage of officer. 8) Updated drugs and alcohol policy and stringent medical examination.

9) New requirement for Able seaman to have a certificate of competency for boarding vessel. 10) New methods of training in modern technology like electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS). 11) Stringent competency norm for ship staff serving on tanker, gas and chemical carrier. 12) New and improved requirement for ISPS trainings and also trainings to tackle the situation of piracy attack. 13) Inclusion of modern training methods introducing distance learning and web based learning. 14) New training regulations for ship staff in polar water and personnel operating dynamic positioning system. 15) An initiative is taken by IMO to cope up the shortage of seafarers world wide by starting go to sea campaign. The above mentioned points are just a birds eye view of the discussion held in Manila conference. More points will be included when the norms come on paper.
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Different Types of Mechanical Measuring Tools and Gauges Used on Ships


by KaranC 13 May 2011 No Comment

Machinery onboard ships require regular care and maintenance so that their working life and efficiency can be increased, and the cost of operation, which includes unnecessary breakdowns and spares, can be reduced. For different types of machinery and systems, different measuring tools, instruments and gauges are used on ship. Measuring instruments and gauges are used to measure various parameters such as clearance, diameter, depth, ovality, trueness etc. These are important engineering parameters which describes the condition of the working machinery. Popular mechanical gauges and tools used on ships are: Ruler and scales: They are used to measure lengths and other geometrical parameters. They can be single steel plate or flexible tape type tool. Callipers: They are normally of two types- inside and outside calliper. They are used to measure internal and external size (for e.g. diameter) of an object. It requires external scale to compare the measured value. Some callipers are provided with measuring scale. Other types are odd leg and divider calliper.

Venire calliper: It is a precision tool used to measure a small distance with high accuracy. It has got two different jaws to measure outside and inside dimension of an object.It can be a scale, dial or digital type venire calliper.

Micrometer: It is a fine precision tool which is used to measure small distances and is more accurate than the venire calliper. Another type is a large micrometer calliper which is used to measure large outside diameter or distance.

Feeler gauge: Feelers gauges are a bunch of fine thickened steel strips with marked thickness which are used to measure gap width or clearance between surface and bearings.

Telescopic feeler gauge: It is also known as tongue gauge and it consists of long feeler gauge inside a cover with tongue or curved edge. The long feeler strips protrude out of the cover so that it can be inserted in to remote places where feeler gauge access is not possible. Poker gauge: This gauge is used to measure propeller stern shaft clearance, also known as propeller wear down. Bridge gauge: Bridge gauges are used to measure the amount of wear of Main engine bearing. Normally the upper bearing keep is removed and clearance is measured with respect to journal. Feeler gauge can be used to complete the process.

Liner measurement tool: Liner measurement tool is a set of straight assembled rod with marked length in each set. It is used to measure the wear down or increase in the diameter of the engine liner.

American Wire Gauge: American wire gauge or AWG is a standard tool which is circular in shape and has various slots of different diameter in its circumference. circumference. It is used to measure cross section of an electric cable or wire.

Bore Gauge: A tool to accurately measure size of any hole is known as bore gauge, It can be a scale, dial or digital type instrument.

Depth gauge: A depth gauge is used to measure the the depth of a slot, hole or any other surface of an object. It can be of scale, dial or digital type.

Angle plate or tool: It is a right angle plate or tool used to measure the true right angle of two objects joined together. Flat plate: Flat plate is a prcised flat surface used to measure flatness of an object when it is kept over the flat plate. Dial Gauge: Dial gauge is utilised in different tools as stated above and can be separately used to measure the trueness of the circular object, jumping of an object etc.

Lead Wire: It is a conventional method to used soft lead wire or lead balls to measure the wear down or clearance between two mating surfaces. The lead wire or balls of fixed dimension is kept between two surfaces and both are tightened against each just as in normal condition. The increase in the width of the lead wire or ball will shoe the clearance or wear down.

These are some of the main tools that are used onboard ship. If you feel we have missed any important tool, then let us know and we will add it in the list. Share 0digg Home Equipments, Headline, Tech

List of Processes Used in Marine Workshop of Ships


by Anish 21 March 2011 No Comment Workshop technology is the back bone of any engineering industry and when it comes to shipping, it becomes the most important aspect which is responsible for planning, construction and operation of a ship and its machinery. In this article, we will discuss the most common work shop technology elements which are widely used in shipping industry, both in ship and on shore. Any construction and operation of shipping structure or machinery is not possible without the following workshop practices: Welding

It is the process by which metals are joined by heating and melting the metals and simultaneously adding filler material. This forms a weld pool and makes a strong joint when cooled down. It functions on the principle of coalescence. Welding is widely used for fabrication and maintenance operations. Different types of welding are electric arc, laser, electronic beam etc but the most famous out of these is electric arc welding. Brazing It is the process of joining metals by heating base metals at a temperature of 800F after which a nonferrous filler metal with a melting point well below the base metal is added to form a strong joint by capillary action. When brazing is done, flux is used as it prevents the oxide formation while the metal is heated

Gas Cutting Gas cutting is the process of cutting metals by application of high temperature flame or torch produced by combination of two gases-oxygen and acetylene. It is the most common method used on board ship. Other metals cutting procedures are carbon air cutting, plasma arc cutting etc. Annealing It is a heat treatment process done to induce ductility in the metal. Material is heated above its recrystallization temperature and then it is cooled down which relieves its internal stresses and refines the structure. Riveting It is a process of fastening a metal in another metal by the use of riveting machine and small cylindrical shaft with head in one end. It is not as strong as annealing and welding but still comes handy in different parts of the ship. Lathe Practice A lathe machine is one of the most important parts of the ships workshop as it is used for various purposes such as manufacturing, cutting, shaping and checking different spares and parts of the ship.

With number of tools different operation can be performed on lathe like, machining, surface finishing, thread making, gear making, knurling etc. Drilling It is a process of cutting or enlarging a cylindrical hole in a solid material. This is done by applying a rotational pressure on top of the metal through a strong drill bit. Drill bit is a drilling tool made up of a higher strength metal like high speed steel or cobalt steel alloy. Grinding This process is used to smoothly cut the metal and to remove edges from the metal. In this process a grinding machine is used which rotates a highly abrasive grinding wheel acting as a cutting tool. The grains on the wheel cuts off a piece of metal by shear deformation. Buffing It is the process of cleaning and removing debris and hard deposits like carbon and sludge from the surface of the metals. A buffing wheel or buffing tool, which is a metal wire wheel, is attached to a portable hand driven buffing machine or an installed buffing wheel. Tapping It is a process of making threads in a hole of metal. Worn out threads are restructured by using taps and drills. Tapping tools are used in series to get a perfect thread. The tools are plug tap, intermediate tap and taper tap.

Thread extraction It is the process of removing or extracting a broken part of bolt or metal which is threaded in a hole. Extracting tool is fitted after drilling a hole in the metal or bolt to be removed. It is a reverse tap and turns the thread in the direction of the drawn pitch. This is just a brief overview of the main activities that takes place in marine workshop. The workshop practices used on board ship does not end here. Please add more by putting in your comments.

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Pressure Relief Valve Used On Ships: Construction and Working


by Anish 17 December 2010 No Comment The machinery systems on board ship consist of several safety features for safe and smooth operation of the ship and also for the safety of its personnel. Relief valve is one such important safety device which is used in almost all the machinery systems which deal with extremely high pressures. These high pressures often tend to go over the predetermined limits and the over pressure thus created is the pressure just above the maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) or designed working pressure. There are systems onboard a ship which are operated by pneumatics or hydraulics and sometimes even air or electronics. For this reason, the relief valve by construction and operation should be such that even in case of failure of the control system, relief valve must lift to safeguard the system from over pressurized.

How Relief Valve Operates? The relief valve operates by the action of spring which is determined by an operating pressure. The opening pressure of the spring can be adjusted by an adjusting screw provided on top of the relief valve. The spring acts opposite to the direction of the pressure and thus during normal operation of the machinery, the spring tension will not allow the valve to operate. When the pressure acting on the valve seat increases to above normal and equalizes with the force of the spring acting downwards, the relief valve will lift and release the excessive pressure until a level of equilibrium is reached. The lifting pressure of the valve can vary from 8~15% of the working pressure for unfired system, but also depends on manufacturers recommendations. As soon as the pressure of the system becomes normal, the spring which was set to lift at a particular pressure will close the valve as a result of the spring tension and the machinery or system will retain its normal operation. From safety point of view, valves are constructed to have a full lift to release the excessive pressure when the system is continuously operating in overpressure situation. Such types of valves are called safety valve and relief valve falls in the same category. Moreover, various safety codes and standards are written for controlling the design and application of the relief valve so that even after failure of other safety systems, relief valve will operate to avoid any catastrophe. Construction of Relief Valve

The relief valve is a critical part of the safety system which is integrated in the ships machinery; hence their designing is kept as simple as possible using materials of compatible strength which can operate in various conditions such as high temperature, air flow, fluid flow, corrosive media etc.

Different parts of relief valve are described below: Body: The body of the relief valve is normally made up of cast steel. It incorporates all the parts like valve spindle, valve, spring, seat etc. It must be strong enough to withstand the high pressure when valves open to release the excessive pressure through the body. Inlet & outlet connection: The relief valve inlet is connected to the machinery or system and its outlet connection can be open to atmosphere near to the system only in case of air system, driven through a duct outside the engine room normally for steam system or connected to the inlet or to some reservoir for hydraulic system. Diaphragm: The diaphragm act as a seal between the inlet outlet connection and valve body so that media should not leak through the valve body when relief valve operates. Valve seat: The seat must be soft enough so that it should not damage the valve and durable enough for higher operating life else the media for which the valve is used will leak. The seat is normally made of stainless steel coated with soft metal to tackle pressure and corrosion together. Valve: The valve plays an important role for controlled operation of the relief valve and its malfunction will lead to leakage of media from the machinery or system. It is normally made of stainless steel. Spindle/ plunger: The spindle/plunger also known as valve stem has a valve attached at the bottom and the spring acts on top of it. The force exerted by spring is transferred to the valve through spindle. The material used for spindle is stainless steel.

Spring and adjusting nut: The helical spring should have proper elasticity strength so that the valve seat can open and close at correct set pressure. Adjusting bolts are located on the top of the body. By rotating the screw the lifting pressure of the valve can be adjusted. The adjusting screw and the spring are generally made of steel alloy. You may also like to read Boiler mounting- A comprehensive list Reference: Book by Marine auxiliary machinery by H.D. McGeorge.

High Speed Centrifuge on Ship: Construction and Working


by Anish 9 December 2010 No Comment A high speed centrifuge is a type of separator which is used on ship to remove contamination from liquids such as fuel and lube oils. It is imperative to carry out this treatment in order to remove solid impurities and water before they are supplied to the marine engine. Thus, the task of centrifuge is to remove solid contamination from liquid and to remove undesirable liquid (water) from useful liquids (fuel). Principle of Working The separation principle of high speed centrifuge depends on the difference in the specific gravity of two different liquids. To understand, lets take a settling tank where fuel is stored and because of the difference in the gravity of water and fuel (water is heavier) the water gets collected at the bottom part of the due to the effect of gravity. Mathematically this process can be represented by: Fs = /6x D3 (w-o) g Where Fs is the separating force, w is density of water, o is density of oil and g is gravitational force. Now if we convert the tank into a conical rotating object, then the gravitational factor g will be replaced by the centrifugal force 2 r, where 2 is angular velocity of rotation and r is effective radius. Fs = /6x D3 (w-o) 2 r.

Now the separating force will be much higher in centrifuge as compare to settling tank. Construction of High Speed Centrifuge:

Basic components of the centrifuge are as follows: Exterior framework: The exterior frame work is normally made up of caste iron which supports the internal bowl and disk parts and carries water line, feed line and outlet line connections. Bowl and disk: There are bowls inside the frame, which can be a solid assembly operating non continuous and have space enough to retain the separated sludge. There can also be an arrangement in which the upper and lower parts are separate for discharging the accumulated sludge by a continuous operation. These parts are normally made up of high tension stainless steel.

Vertical shaft: The Vertical shaft is used to transform the electrical motor output into rotational motion for rotating the bowl in high speed through spur gear and horizontal shaft or belt. The material used for vertical shaft construction is an alloy of steel. Horizontal shaft or belt drive: The electrical motor drives the horizontal shaft through clutch pads and is used for transmitting the rotational motion to bowl assembly. A special belt having elastic character is used in some models in place of horizontal shaft, thus removing the use of the gear assembly. The horizontal shaft material is a special alloy of steel. Spur gear: A spur gear is placed between the horizontal and vertical shafts for the transfer of rotational motion. These gears are manufactured by special aluminum bronze material. Clutch or friction pads: An electric motor will get overloaded if it is connected directly to the bowl assembly for the rotation of the same as the complete assembly is very heavier. To avoid this, clutch or friction pads and drum assembly are installed on the horizontal shaft. Normally the number of pads varies from 2 to 4 depending upon the frequency supply to the motor.

As the motor starts, the pads inside the drum moves out gradually due to centrifugal force and cause friction in the internal wall of the drum resulting in rotation of the shaft and the bowl gradually without overloading and damaging the motor and gears. Attached Gear pump: A general construction of centrifuge consists of a horizontal shaft driven attached supply or discharge gear pump. In some system an external supply pump may be installed in place of the attached pump. Types of Centrifuge: There are normally two types based on the application: 1) Purifier: When a centrifuge is arranged for separating two liquids of different densities, for e.g. water from oil, it is known as a purifier. The main component of purifier is correct size gravity disc or dam ring which is responsible to create interface between the oil and water. 2) Clarifier: When a centrifugal is arranged to remove only impurities and small amount of water, it is called as clarifier. Since it is used mainly for that fluid where mostly solid impurities are to be removed, gravity disc is not used in clarifier; instead a sealing ring is used to keep the impurities intact unless desludged. The basic operations of clarifier and purifier are: - It contains stack of disk numbering up to 150 and are separated from each other by very small gap. A series of holes are aligned in each disk near the outside edge which permits the entry of dirty oil. - Due to difference in gravity and centrifugal force, the heavier impure liquid (water) and particles moves outside and lighter clean oil flows inwards and get separated. - The collected sludge and impurity can be discharged continuously or at a time intervals, depending upon the construction, automation and system incorporated. Share 0digg Home Auxiliary Machinery

Oily Water Separator: Construction and Working


by KaranC 17 November 2010 No Comment To minimize the oily content in bilge water, which can be discharged from the ship, MARPOL has a regulation under ANNEX I which limits the oil content in the bilge water that vessel can legitimately discharge into the sea. It is now a requirement for all vessels to

have an oil discharge monitoring and control system along with an oil filtering equipment known as the Oily Water Separator (OWS). As the name indicates, the function of oily water separator is to separate maximum amount of oil particles from the water to be discharged overboard from engine room or cargo hold bilges, oil tanks and oil contaminated spaces. As per the regulation, the oil content in the water processed from the OWS must be less then 15 parts per million of oil.

Construction and Working of OWS OWS consists of mainly three segments: Separator unit

This unit consists of catch plates which are inside a coarse separating compartment and an oil collecting chamber. Here the oil having a density which is lower than that of the water, which makes the former rise into the oil collecting compartment and the rest of the non-flowing oil mixture settle down into fine settling compartment after passing between the catch plates. After a period of time more oil will separate and collect in the oil collecting chamber. The oil content of water which passes through this unit is around 100 parts per million of oil. A control valve (pneumatic or electronic) releases the separated oil in to the designated OWS sludge tank. Heater may be incorporated in this unit for smooth flow and separation of oil and water. First stage helps in removing some physical impurities to achieve fine filtration in the later stage.

The Filter unit


This is a separate unit whose input comes from the discharge of the first unit. This unit consists of three stages filter stage, coalescer stage and collecting chamber. The impurities and particles are separated by the filter and are settled at the bottom bott for removal. In second stage, coalescer induces coalescence process in which oil droplets are joined to increase the size by breaking down the surface tension between oil droplets in the mixture. These large oil molecules rise above the mixture in the collecting collecting chamber and are removed when required. The output from this unit should be less than 15 ppm to fulfil legal discharge criteria. If the oil content in water is more than 15 ppm then maintenance work such as filter cleaning or renewal of filters is to be done as required.

Oil Content Monitor and Control Unit


This unit functions together in two parts monitoring and controlling. The ppm of oil is continuously monitored by Oil Content Monitor (OCM); if the ppm is high it will give alarm and feed data to the control unit. The control unit continuously monitors the output signal of OCM and if alarm arises, it will not allow the oily water to go overboard by means of operating 3 way solenoid valve. There are normally 3 solenoid valves commanded by control control unit. These are located in the first unit oil collecting chamber, second unit oil collecting chamber and one in discharge side of the oily water separator which is a 3 way valve.

The 3 way valve inlet is from the OWS discharge, where one outlet is to overboard and second outlet is to OWS sludge tank. When OCM gives alarm, 3 way valve discharges oily mixture in the sludge tank. Share 1 1digg Home Auxiliary Machinery, Equipments, Headline, Misc

Viscosity Meter and Viscosity Controller Used on Ships


by Anish 2 May 2011 One Comment As the fuel prices go sky high, ships are using lower grades of fuel for saving its operational cost. The fuel used for burning in auxiliary engine and main propulsion plant is normally heavy fuel oil. Along with other properties, viscosity is an important property which determines the efficiency of fuel combustion and of the marine engine. Viscosity of fuel oil depends on the grade of oil. If the viscosity of the fuel oil and its viscosity index are on the higher side, it would lead to more difficulty in achieving atomization state and poor combustion inside the engine cylinder. Understanding the Important Definitions Viscosity In simple term, it can be defines as resistance to the flow of the fluid offered by its internal layers due to internal frictions. It is measured in centi-stokes (cst). Less the viscosity, lesser the resistance to flow and the fuel can be easily atomized. Viscosity index It is an important factor in selecting any kind of oil, fuel or lube oil. Its the measure of change of viscosity of oil with variation in temperature. Since fuel oil is heated to achieve proper atomization, it should have proper VI. If its on the higher side, it will be difficult to alter the viscosity of oil by heater. Atomisation It is the process of breaking the fuel particle into fine mist spray under high pressure to improve the surface area of contact of fuel and air for proper combustion. Viscometer or Viscotherm The viscosity of the marine bunker HFO fuel when supplied at 50 deg C varies from 180cst to 380 cst. The fuel is heated and the viscosity of the fuel is reduced to 13~15 cst at the time of injection in the engine by means of electrical or steam heaters or both.

The viscosity to the high pressure fuel oil pump has to be maintained approximately at 13 cst to achieve efficient combustion. A viscotherm or viscometer is used to measure the viscosity of fuel oil at the fuel injection system of the engine. Construction and Working of Viscosity meter It consists of a capillary tube inside of which a gear pump is fitted which rotates at very slow rpm (say 40 rpm). There is an out side casing provided for the capillary tube. When the oil passes through the casing, some part of the oil pass through the gear pump and its capillary, and some part of the oil passes over the capillary tube. Hence a flow difference occurs inside the casing. The oil inside the tube maintains a laminar flow and outside the tube maintains a turbulent flow.

The pressure difference between outside and inside of the tube is measured which is directly proportional to the viscosity of the oil. Hence oil viscosity is maintained. Viscosity Controller The viscosity controllers acts as the controller of the 3 way valve from which steam is passed into the heater or bypassed from the heater as per the position of the control valve. Construction and working Normally pneumatic control system is used with bellows, flapper and nozzle. The output signal from the viscometer is connected to measured value bellow of the viscosity controller. Another bellow is supplied with set point of the required viscosity and both the bellows are connected opposite to each other to complete a flapper nozzle control

system. The output of flapper nozzle is the controlling signal of fuel oil heater 3 way valve.

A 3-way valve has 2 openings in which one is inlet and 2 are outlet. One outlet goes through the heater and one outlet is connected to a bypass line of heater. When the set value and measured values are same, no signal is given to control valve and valve position remains same. More of the steam bypasses the heater. When the measured value decreases, the output signal opens the control valve to steam side so that more steam is supplied and viscosity can be brought down. It is important to have a better grade of marine fuel oil with proper viscosity index for maintaining proper efficiency of engine and to reduce wear down of the fuel injection parts. Share 0digg Home Procedures/Maintenance

Procedure for Cleaning Fuel Oil Tanks on a Ship


by Aditib 11 November 2010 No Comment Ships use heavy fuel oil which has a very high viscosity. When stored in fuel tanks, this oil tends to stick inside the tanks forming layers of semi-solid substance. Moreover, many impurities of the oil settle down and stick to the surface of the tanks. It is therefore imperative that the fuel oil tanks are cleaned on a regular basis on ships. Generally, fuel oil tanks cleaning on the ship is done during dry dock and whenever the inspection of the fuel tanks is due. Cleaning is done for surveyor inspection or if there is any work to be done inside the tanks such as crack in fuel tank, leaking steam lines etc. For cleaning a tank various safety precautions are to be considered as it contains flammable gases and oil inside it.

Preparations Done before Cleaning The following steps are to be followed before starting the cleaning process: 1) Empty the tank as much as possible; strip the tank by trimming the ship forward or aft depending on the suction valve location. 2) When the ship is going for dry-dock the keel plan is to be sent to the shore facility so that they should not put any keel block in the way of the plug present in the bottom shell plating. 3) The tank has to be properly ventilated as it is an enclosed space and might contain flammable gases. 4) It is to be made sure that the steam connections are closed and proper signs and placards are displayed so that during cleaning nobody opens the valve and gets burnt or hurt. 5) The tank has to be checked for flammable gases. 6) The tank has to be checked for oxygen content with the help of oxygen analyser. 7) The tank is drained off left over oil with the help of plugs. 8 ) The location of plug can be found out in shell plating diagrams. 9) Generally this plug is covered with cement and made streamlined with the shell plating. 10) Enclosed space entry checklist is filled out so that no safety issues are compromised or left. During cleaning 1) Entry is only to be made inside the tank if the oxygen level is 21% by volume and flammable gases are vented out. 2) One person should always standby outside the manhole door and should be in communication with the person inside. 3) The person outside should continuously communicate with person inside and with the duty officer. 4) In case of hot work to be carried out, a fire line is to be carried inside. Also, a small fire extinguisher for small fire should be there. Inform Port state authority before commencing hot work. 5) The tank is cleaned manually with the help of brushes, rags etc. 6) The oxygen content is continuously monitored and in case the alarm indicates low level, the space has to be evacuated immediately without any delay. After cleaning 1) Make sure no tool are left inside which may get stuck in the valve or damage the transfer pump 2) The place where crack repair is done should be checked for leaks. 3) If it was a steam leak repair, the coils needs to be checked for steam leak inside.

4) In case of crack or plate renewal the tank has to be pressure tested and checked for leak. If the repair is major it has to be inspected by class surveyor before putting it in operation. 5) Close the manhole after inspection, repairs and cleaning. 6) Close and remove the sign permit to work. Image Credits Share 0digg Home Procedures/Maintenance

Procedure for Starting and Stopping of Sewage Treatment Plant on a Ship


by Mohit 24 October 2010 No Comment Any machine on the ship requires a proper procedure to be followed for starting and stopping it. Failure to follow this step-by-step procedure will lead to either failure in starting or stopping the machine or lead to some fault. Sewage treatment plant is one such equipment on the ship which requires a step-by-step procedure to be followed for starting and stopping it. In this article we will go through the procedure of starting and stopping a sewage treatment plant.

Starting of a Sewage Plant Sewage plant is generally running all the time during sailing, but it might need to be started when the ship is installed with a new sewage treat plant which needs to be stopped at regular interval of time for improving its performance and maintenance procedures. Below are the points that need to be followed for starting a sewage treatment plant. 1. Make sure if any maintenance is carried out on the sewage treatment system, all the openings have been closed properly before starting. 2. The sewage plant is be filled with fresh water inside the chamber. 3. At this stage, there are no aerobic bacteria inside the chamber, but the sewage has started coming to the plant. Thus, in order to increase efficiency and starting rate of

the plant bio pac is added to the plant by flushing the amount specified in the manual. This bio pac is mixed with warm water which helps in growth of these bacteria and also efficient functioning of the plant. 4. If the bio pac is not added, the plant might take up to 5 to 7 days to be completely functional. However, with the bio pac it becomes functional within 24 hours. 5. Start the air compressor or open the air valve as per the design of the plant. The pressure is maintained as per the manual. Generally 0.3-0.4 bars. 6. Open the sewage overboard valve and close holding tank valve when the ship is out of restricted waters. 7. The plant is continuously monitored and checked for the flow through the transparent plastic tubes. 8. The sample is taken for checking for suspended solids and chlorine content. Stopping of the plant Stopping of the sewage treatment plant is generally done either before entering the dry dock or in case some maintenance has to be carried out inside the treatment plant. 1. For stopping the system, close the inlet valve to the sewage plant and close the overboard valve and let the sewage go overboard. 2. Empty all the three chambers of the plant i.e. aeration, settling and chlorination chambers. If the chambers are not emptied, it will lead to growth of anaerobic bacteria which forms the toxic H2S gas. 3. If entry has to be made inside the tank, the later should be checked for hydrogen sulphide gas H2S with the help of dragor tube by taking a continuous sample from the plant. Entry is made with the help of mask and rubber gloves should be put on. 4. In case the ship is going to dry dock the overboard should be connected to shore reception facilities. Image Credits Share 0digg Home Procedures/Maintenance

Maintenance and Checks for Sewage Treatment Plant on Ship


by raunekk 24 October 2010 No Comment An efficient running of a sewage treatment plant on a ship requires periodic maintenance and daily checks of the system. Failure to do so can lead to an output that cannot be discharged into the sea, blockage of pipelines, and even failure of some parts. There are several factors that results in smooth working of a sewage treatment plant on a ship and this article enumerates all the maintenance and checks for that smooth running.

Routine Checks 1. During daily rounds the pressure of the system should be checked and should be within the limits. 2. The air lift return should be checked to make sure the system is working properly. This is usually checked by the flow through the clear plastic pipe present on the installation. A clear sludge can be seen flowing through the tubes back to the aeration chamber. 3. Over a period of time, the sludge content in the aeration tank due to the recycling of the sludge from settling tank and fresh sewage increases. This sludge content or suspended solid particle is measured in mg/liter. The method of checking it is to take sample in a conical flask provided by the manufacturer and filling it up to 1000ml mark. The sample is then allowed to be settled and reading of sludge content is checked. The sludge content should not be above the 200 mark, but if it is above the 200 mark, the tank has to be emptied for increasing the performance. In some ships this is checked by filtering the sample through a pre-weighed pad which is dried and re-weighed. This also depends from manufacturer to manufacturer, but is done every week. 4. Also the bio-pac is added every week to the plant to increase efficiency. The biopac contains aerobic bacteria which get activated when mixed with hot water. 5. The chlorination of the sample should be between 1-5 ppm and accordingly the dosing has to be increased or decreased. 6. The level of biological oxygen demand (BOD) is also checked and it should not be above 50 mg/liter. The sample is checked by incubating the sample at 20 degrees and well oxygenating the same. The amount of oxygen absorbed over a period of five days is measured. This is done to check the oxygen required for full breakdown of sewage after it has been treated by aerobic bacteria. 7. The internal coating of the sewage treatment plant should be checked for cracking and blistering. If any kind of damage is found then we first need to empty the tanks and then necessary repairs to be performed. Special precautions should be taken before entering the tank as it may contain toxic gases that cause suffocation. The gases should be checked by dragor tube, a special tube in which samples of various gases are taken before entering. When it is made sure of the absence of toxic gases, entry is made with the mask and gloves. After completion of work the area has to be

disinfected. Later, hands should be properly scrubbed and overalls be thoroughly washed. 8. If the sewage treatment plant is fitted with UV disinfectant system instead of the chlorination system, the UV lamp has to be changed as recommended by the manufacturer. 9. High and low level limit switches should be checked for auto cut-in and cut-out of the discharge to over-board pump. 10. Make sure the stand-by sewage discharge pump is put on auto during the working of the sewage treatment plant. Maintenance In case of a blockage of the sewage line there is a connection for back flushing which uses sea water. This is to be used to unclog the sewage pipelines; however, it is to note that all valves are closed and only the necessary valves are open, for it might back flush from WC of the cabins. Generally, stewards are instructed for using chemicals provided by various manufacturers such as Drew Marine and Unitor during washing so that no blockages of lines are caused. However, there shouldnt be any overuse of these chemical as it would lead to killing of aerobic bacteria which will decrease the efficiency of the plant and other problems. The amount of chemicals is to be as per manufacturer recommendation. Reference Share 0digg Home Auxiliary Machinery

Sewage Treatment Plant on a Ship Explained


by Mohit 24 October 2010 No Comment Discarding sewage produced onboard on a ship is one of the few tasks on a ship which should be taken utmost care of if one wants to same him and his shipping company from heavy fine. The sewage generated on the ship cannot be stored on the ship for a very long time and it for this reason it has to be discharged into the sea.

Though sewage can be discharged into the sea, we cannot discharge it directly overboard as there are some regulations regarding discharging of sewage that needs to be followed. Sewage on sea is generally the waste produced from toilets, urinals and WC scuppers. The rules say that the sewage can be discharged into the sea water only after it is treated and the distance of the ship is 4 nautical miles from the nearest land.

But if the sewage is not treated this can be discharged 12 nautical miles away from the nearest land. Also the discharged sewage should not produce any visible floating solids nor should it cause any discoloration of surrounding water. Generally, ships prefer treating sewage before discharging to save themselves from any type of embarrassment. There are different methods of treating sewage available in the market, but the most common of them is the biological type for it occupies less space for holding tank, unlike those of the other methods. Moreover, the discharge generated from this plant is eco friendly. It is to not that each sewage treatment system installed onboard has to be certified by classification society and should perform as per their requirement and regulations. Working of a Biological Sewage Plant The basic principle of the working of a biological treatment plant is decomposition of the raw sewage. This process is done by aerating the sewage chamber with fresh air. The aerobic bacteria survive on this fresh air and decompose the raw sewage which can be disposed off in the sea. Air is a very important criterion in the functioning of the biological sewage plant because if air is not present, it will lead to growth of anaerobic bacteria, which produces toxic gases that are hazardous to health. Also, after decomposition of the sewage with anaerobic bacteria, a dark black liquid causes discoloration of water which is not accepted for discharging. Thus in a biological sewage treatment plant the main aim is to maintain the flow of fresh air.

Division of Processes The biological sewage plant is divides into three chambers:Aeration chamber This chamber is fed with raw sewage which has been grinded to form small particles. The advantage of breaking sewage in small particles is that it increases the area and high number of bacteria can attack simultaneously to decompose the sewage. The sewage is decomposed into carbon dioxide, water and inorganic sewage. The air is forced through diffuser into the air chamber. The pressure of air flow also plays an

important role in decomposition of the sewage. If pressure is kept high then the mixture of air and sewage will not take place properly and it will escape without doing any work required for decomposition. It is for this reason; controlled pressure is important inside the sewage treatment plant as this will help in proper mixing and decomposition by the agitation caused by air bubbles. Generally the pressure is kept around 0.3-0.4 bars. Settling tank The mixture of liquid and sludge is passed to settling tank from the aeration chamber. In the settling tank the sludge settles at the bottom and clear liquid on the top. The sludge present at the bottom is not allowed to be kept inside the settling tank as this will lead to growth of anaerobic bacteria and foul gases will be produced. The sludge formed is recycled with the incoming sludge where it will mixes with the later and assist in the breakdown of sewage. Chlorination and Collection In this chamber the clear liquid produced from the settling tank is over flown and the liquid is disinfected with the help of chlorine. This is done because of the presence of the e-coli bacteria present in the liquid. To reduce these bacteria to acceptable level chlorination is done. Moreover, to reduce the e-coli, the treated liquid is kept for a period of at least 60 minutes. In some plants disinfection is also done with the help of ultra violet radiation. The collected liquid is discharged to overboard or settling tank depending on the geological position of the ship. If the ship is in restricted or near coastline then the sewage will be discharged into the holding tank; otherwise, the sewage is discharged directly into the sea when high level is reached and is disposed automatically until low level switch activates. Share 0digg Home General

Top 10 Things Port State Control Inspector Can Check in the Engine Room of a Ship
by KaranC 11 November 2010 No Comment The Port State Control is a regulatory body of a country that looks after the ships (foreign or national) arriving at the ports of the respective country. It also ensures that the ship arriving at the port complies with all safety and anti pollution requirements for safe operation of vessel when berthed, when sailing their coastal water and in mid sea. A port state control inspector can randomly inspect and verify the condition of a ship to check its compliance with the international regulation and the norms formulated by the country in which the ship is sailing. A PSC inspector can inspect a vessel and if he/she is not satisfied with any aspect then a deficiency to the master/ chief engineer of that ship is given which may result in: - Rectification of the deficiency before ship can sail. - Detention of the ship.

Top 10 things Port State Control inspector can check in Engine Room: 1) PSC Inspector checks the general appearance and cleanliness of the ship. He can randomly check the garbage bins to get an idea weather garbage management plan is being followed onboard or not. There have been instances where fine was imposed on the ship when PSC inspector found oily rag in a paper bin. 2) PSC inspector can check oil record book (ORB) for up to date entries and can tally with other logs like sounding record book. He may check other Engine room documents like Engine room log book, sounding book, checklist for carrying out hot work, enclosed entry etc. UK port state even demands hour log of staff. 3) Checks on Safety equipment is a favourite for PSC. The inspector may check Emergency generator starting and simulation of blackout situation, may try out Emergency bilge suction, emergency compressor and emergency fire pump etc. 4) The inspector can check Life Saving Appliances (LSA) and Fire fighting appliances (FFA) and equipments. LSA includes emergency escape breathing device (EEBD), emergency escapes, Water tight doors closing, sounding pipe with self closing weighted cock, signs and ply card showing exit etc. In FFA (Fire fighting appliances) items he may check auto stop of pumps, machineries and ventilation fan from remote place. He may check fixed fire system, fire alarm and detector system and operation of quick closing valve from remote position. 5) PSC inspector can check alarms and safety trips for Main engine, all alarms and trips for Auxiliary engine and other machineries like compressor, boiler etc. He may also check the lifting of safety valve of a boiler etc. 6) Oily Water Separator (OWS) is a machinery PSC inspector will surely look for. He may check the log stored in the Oil content monitor (OCM) and compare it with ORB and sounding book. United States Coast Guard (USCG) normally removes and checks the discharge pipe of OWS for any oil residue. PSC inspector can ask engine staff to start and run OWS with skin valve open and overboard shut. 7) The inspector may thoroughly check bilge tank top for oil and any leakages, all machineries for any type of abnormality and leakage. He will definitely check for any loose and illegal rubber hose and portable pump in Engine room. 8) Steering room is one of the favourite areas of PSC inspector to check for any leakages and abnormality. He may ask any crew member to demonstrate practically the procedure for emergency steering. 9) He may check bulkheads of tanks and ship side for any deformation and temporary repairs. He can inspect sea water, fuel oil or lube oil pipes, coolers, and system and overboard valves for any leakages and temporary repairs. 10) He can inspect floor plates for any corrosion and thinning of metal. The floor plates should not be slippery and should be properly fixed at a given place. He may check railings at upper and tunnel platform for any loose or broken areas.

These are some of the most popular aspects that a PSC inspector is interested in. However, these aspects may vary from person to person and port to port. A PSC inspection can turn out to be a devastating experience for both crew and the owner of the ship as it may lead to the detention of the ship if things are not properly maintained on the ship. This can lead to tremendous loss of money and time. To avoid this situation, regular maintenance of all equipments and periodic training of crew should be carried out.

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Ship Departure Checklist for Engine Department: What to Do When a Ship Leaves a Port?
by Mohit 2 November 2010 No Comment There are many things that are to be kept in mind when a ship leaves a port and prepares for a long voyage at the sea. In this article we will learn about the various jobs that are to be taken care of without fail for a smooth sail at the sea. The article is presented in the form of a checklist so that those interested can take a printout for their personal use.

Presented here is the engine department departure checklist for a ship leaving a port, assuming cold start with boiler and generator in running condition. Things to do 24 hours notice prior to departure for the first time

Check the oil level or sound the bunker tanks to measure level and make sure that the temperature is maintained to about 40 degrees or as per analysis report by opening steam. This is done for the transfer of oil from bunker tank to settling tank. If the oil is kept cold the pump might get damaged due to very high viscosity. Check the jacket water header tank for level and fil accordingly. Do not fill to much as when the engine starts running the water expands and it will start overflowing. After checking the level start the jacket water circulating pumps if there is a separate system for main engine. Check the jacket water temperature of the main engine and maintain it about 60 degrees as below this temperature it might start leaking into the scavenge space.

Things to do at 6 hours notice period


Check the oil level in the main engine sump, turbocharger tank. The duty engineer will start the lubricating oil pump and the cross head pump (generally in sulzer engines) and turbocharger pump. Check the oil flow through the sight glass of turbocharger outlet. Check the pressure of lube oil pump and turbocharger pump and cross head pumps. Start the shaft bearing pumps and check the level of header tank. Generally in UMS there is a program for starting all these pumps in sequence. This program is started after taking the engine room rounds and the levels are checked.

Things to do at 1 hour notice period


A quick round of engine room is taken and chief engineer has to be reported regarding the departure. Check oil level, header tank level, cylinder oil daily tank level. Check the pressure of fuel oil pump, booster pump, lube oil pump etc. Check sump oil level in air compressor. Drain air bottles for any water inside. Check that the turning gear is out. Check parameters of the running machinery. Start an additional generator so as to supply for additional demand of power from winches and thrusters. Start exhausts gas boiler water circulating pump. Check the telegraph for functioning in conjunction with deck officer on watch. Telegraph is checked for local and remote panels. Emergency telephones to be checked for functioning. When the chief engineer is present in control room, go to the steering gear and check for any leaks and port to starboard movement. Check the functioning of limit switches in steering gear. Check gyro reading in steering gear and cross check with reading on the bridge.

Things to do at 15 minutes notice


Open the main air starting valve for main engine. Ensure all air compressors are in auto and air bottles are full. Main engine is blown with open indicator cocks with air to check for any water ingress in main engine. If no leaks or ingress is found chief engineer is reported and the indicator cocks are closed. Close the turbocharger drain valves. Chief engineer reports to captain on bridge that the engine is ready for use and control is transferred to the bridge from engine control room. Flow meter counters of main engine, generator and boiler are taken for calculation purposes of oil in port.

Checks made when the engine is running


Engine room round is taken again. Check for any abnormality.

Check all the parameters of the main engine like temperature of exhaust valve, jacket water etc. Close steam heating for jacket later if not auto controlled. Once the ship is out from the port and pilot has left, open the other sea suction valve.

Checks made when ship is full away


Stop the additional generator. Stop the boiler if exhaust gas boiler is fitted. Start fresh water generator. Open sewage overboard valve. Start turbine and shaft generator if fitted. Take flow meter counter again for calculation of fuel consumed from port to full away. The watch is handed over to next duty engineer if watch has to be changed. In case of UMS ship, the bridge is informed after taking rounds of the engine room, about your taking break.

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Ship Arrival Checklist for Engine Department: What to Do When a Ship is About to Arrive at a Port?
by Hiteshk 2 November 2010 No Comment As a mariner, you must know that there are important jobs to be performed when a ship arrives at or departs from a port. These things are necessary for a smooth sail of the ship. Failure in carrying out any of these duties might lead to hindrances in sailing and maneuvering. In this article we have brought to things that should be done without any fail while the ship enters the port. The article is in the form of a checklist and thus can those who want can take a printout for their personal use.

Arrival Procedure /Checklist of Engine Department

Things that are to be done by the Duty Engineer on Receiving One hour notice from the Bridge 1. Inform chief engineer regarding arrival. 2. The bridge will start reducing the speed to maneuvering speed. 3. Start additional generator in parallel. 4. Stop the steam turbine and shaft generator if fitted. 5. Ensure the power is available for deck machinery and bow thruster. 6. The bridge will also start additional steering gear unit. 7. Take a round of steering gear room and check oil level linkages and motor current. 8. Start the boiler and raise the pressure, if exhaust gas boiler was running previously. 9. Close the dampers for exhaust gas boiler and open bypass. 10. Stop the fresh water generator. 11. Shut and lock sewage direct overboard discharge and start sewage plant or open valve for sewage holding tank. 12. Close the sea chest valve of the side of the ship which is going to face the berth. 13. Change over to high sea suction from low sea suction. 14. Drain the air receivers. 15. The engine is tested for ahead and astern direction from bridge. 16. The steering gear is also tested for full rudder angle. 17. When maneuvering ends, sea passage flow meter counter is taken for calculation of oil consumption from full away to end of sea passage. Things to do After the Ship Has Arrived at the Port

When finished with engine is given from bridge change over from bridge control to engine room control. Stop additional running generator. However make sure that the generator that is running is able to take all the load. Close main air starting valve. Open indicator cock and turbocharger drain valve. Engage turning gear and turn engine for 10 minutes. Open vent for exhaust gas boiler. Activate the arrival program if UMS to stop the lube oil pump, cross head pump, shaft bearing and stern tube bearing pumps etc or stop manually in manned engine room. If manned engine room, stop pumps after 30 minutes of running after arrival. Open heating for jacket water of main engine. Take round of the engine room. Inform bridge or ship control center that you are going to your accommodation or handover watch to next duty engineer in case of manned engine room.

Apart from these, perform all the duties as directed by the chief engineer. Share 0digg Home Procedures/Maintenance

Procedure for Starting and Stopping Generators on a Ship


by Mohit 16 October 2010 No Comment A generator on a ship is known as the heart of the ship. It is that life-line which supports each and every function of the ship. Generator of the ship requires special care, attention, and maintenance for its effective and economic running. Moreover, when it comes to operating a generator on a ship, its a totally different ball game.

Unlike the conventional generators that we use on land, a ships generator requires a special procedure for starting and stopping it. Though not a very complex one, the process demands a step-by-step system to be followed. Missing even a single step might lead to failure in starting or stopping the generator and can even lead to black-out, a situation which everyone on ship tries their best to stay away from. In this article, we bring to you an accurate, step by step procedure for starting and stopping a generator on a ship. Generator starting procedure Automatic Start 1. This method is only possible if sufficient amount of starting air is available. The air valves and interlocks are operated like in the turning gear operation. 2. In this method the operator has nothing to do, for the generator starts itself depending on the load requirement. 3. However during the Maneuvering process and in restricted areas, the operator has to start by going into the computer based Power Management System (pms). Once inside the system, the operator needs to go to the generator page and click start. 4. In PMS system, the automation follows sequence of starting, matching voltage and frequency of the incoming generator and the generator comes on load automatically. 5. In case of a blackout condition or a dead ship condition, the operator might have to start the generator manually. Manual start The manual process is totally different from the automatic start system. The following steps need to be followed.

1. Check that all the necessary valves and lines are open and no interlock is active on the generator before operating. 2. Generally before starting the generator the indicator cocks are opened and small air kick is given with the help of the starting lever. After this, the lever is brought back to the zero position, which ensures there is no water leakage in the generator. The leakage can be from cylinder head, liner or from the turbocharger . 3. The step is performed by putting the control to local position and then the generator is started locally. 4. In case any water leakage is found, it is to be reported to a senior officer or chief engineer and further actions are to be taken. 5. It is to note that this manual starting procedure is not followed generally on Ums ships, but it is a common procedure on manned engine room. 6. In engine rooms, which have water mist fire fighting system installed, this procedure is not followed because when the engine is given a manual kick with open indicator cocks, small amount of smoke comes out of the heads which can lead to false fire alarm, resulting in release of water mist in the specified area. 7. After checking the leakage, in case of any, the indicator cocks are closed and generator is started again from the local panel. 8. The generator is then allowed to run on zero or no load condition for some time for about 5 minutes. 9. After this the generator control is put to the remote mode. 10. If the automation of the ship is in working after putting in remote mode the generator will come on load automatically after checking voltage and frequency parameters. 11. If this doesnt happen automatically, then one has to go to the generator panel in Engine control room and check the parameters. 12. The parameters checked are voltage and the frequency of the incoming generator. 13. The frequency can be increased or decreased by the frequency controller or governor control on the panel. 14. The incoming generator is checked in synchroscope to see if its running fast or slow, which means if frequency is high or low. 15. In synchroscope, it is checked that the needle moves in clockwise and anticlockwise direction. 16. Clockwise direction means it is running fast and anti-clockwise means it is running slow. 17. Generally the breaker is pressed when the needle moves in clockwise direction very slowly and when it comes in 11o clock position. 18. This process is to be done in supervision of experienced officer if someone is doing for the first time, for if this is done incorrectly the blackout can happen which can lead to accidents, if the ship is operating in restricted areas. 19. Once this is done, the generator load will be shared almost equally by the number of generators running. 20. After this the parameters of the generator are checked for any abnormalities. Stopping procedure Automatic Procedure 1. In this procedure the generator is stopped by going into the PMS system in the computer and pressing the stop button to bring stop the generator.

2. This is to be followed only when two or more generators are running. 3. Even if you trying to stop the only running generator it will not stop due to inbuilt safety. The safety system thus prevents a blackout. 4. When the stop button is pressed the load is gradually reduced by the PMS and after following the procedure the generator is stopped. Manual Procedure 1. In this procedure the generator to be stopped, is put off load from the generator panel in the Engine control room. 2. The load is reduced slowly by the governor control on the panel. 3. The load is reduced until the load comes on the panel below 100 kw. 4. When the load is below 100kw the breaker is pressed and the generator is taken off-load. 5. The generator is allowed to run for 5 minutes in idle condition and the stop button is pressed on the panel. 6. The generator is then stopped .

Blackout Situation on a Ship: What are the First Steps that should be Taken?
by Anish 1 November 2010 No Comment

Blackout is one condition each and every mariner is familiar with and also afraid of. It is one situation everyone on the ship is terrified of because it brings the whole ship to a standstill. From bridge to engine room, from dinning crew members to the sleeping ones, everyone is affected by a blackout.

If you are the one working in the engine room, then a blackout condition is your responsibility and you should be responsible for the same, sooner or later the blame is going to come on you. In this article we will learn what are the first things that need to be done in case of blackout condition on a ship? Understanding Blackout Condition

Blackout condition is a scenario on a ship, wherein the main propulsion plant and associate machinery such as boiler, purifier and other auxiliaries stop operating due to failure of power generation system of the ship Generator and alternator. With technologies and automation, measures are provided to avoid such blackout situation by means of auto load sharing system and auto standby system in which the generator set that is running in parallel or standby comes on load automatically if the running diesel generator fails. What to Do in Case of a Blackout? In case of Blackout following precautions and actions should be taken:1. Never panic in such situation, be calm and composed. Emergency

generator will restore the power in no time. 2. Inform Officer on bridge briefly about the condition. 3. Call for man power and inform the chief engineer. 4. If the main propulsion plant is running, bring the fuel lever to zero position. 5. Close the feed of the running purifier to avoid overflow and wastage of fuel. 6. If auxiliary boiler was running, shut the main steam stop valve to maintain the steam pressure. 7. Find out the problem and reason for blackout and rectify the same. 8. Before starting the generator set, start the pre- lubrication priming pump if the supply for the same is given from the emergency generator; if not, then use manual priming handle (provided in some generator). 9. Start the generator and take it on load. Then immediately start the main engine lube oil pump and main engine jacket water pump. 10. Reset breakers and start all the other required machinery and system. Reset breakers that are included in preferential tripping sequence. (Nonessential machinery). It requires both skill and patience to tackle a situation like blackout specially when the vessel is sailing or maneuvering. However, the best way to tackle such situations is to be calm and composed; and to know your engine room and machinery very well in advance.

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How is Power Generated and Supplied on a Ship?


by Anish 31 October 2010 One Comment

A ship is like a floating city with all the privileges enjoyed by any normal land city. Just like a conventional city, the ship also requires all the basic amenities to sustain life on board; the chief among them is power or electricity. In this article we will learn as to how power is generated and supplied on board a ship.

Power generation On board Shipboard power is generated using a prime mover and an alternator working together. For this an alternating current generator is used on board. The generator works on the principle that when a magnetic field around a conductor varies, a current is induced in the conductor. The generator consists of a stationary set of conductors wound in coils on an iron core. This is known as the stator. A rotating magnet called the rotor turns inside this stator producing magnetic field. This field cuts across the conductor, generating an induced EMF or electromagnetic force as the mechanical input causes the rotor to turn. The magnetic field is generated by induction (in a brushless alternator) and by a rotor winding energized by DC current through slip rings and brushes. Few points to be noted about power on board are :

AC, 3 phase power is preferred over DC as it gives more power for the same size. 3 phases is preferred over single phase as it draws more power and in the event of failure of one phase, other 2 can still work.

Power Distribution on board

The Power Distributed on board a ship needs to be supplied efficiently throughout the ship. For this the power distribution system of the ship is used. A shipboard distribution system consists of different component for distribution and safe operation of the system. They are:

Ship Generator consisting of prime mover and alternator Main switch board which is a metal enclosure taking power from the diesel generator and supplying it to different machinery. Bus Bars which acts as a carrier and allow transfer of load from one point to another. Circuit breakers which act as a switch and in unsafe condition can be tripped to avoid breakdown and accidents. Fuses as safety device for machinery. Transformers to step up or step down the voltage. When supply is to be given to the lighting system a step down transformer is used in the distribution system. In a power distribution system, the voltage at which the system works is usually 440v. There are some large installations where the voltage is as high as 6600v. Power is supplied through circuit breakers to large auxiliary machinery at high voltage. For smaller supply fuse and miniature circuit breakers are used. The distribution system is three wires and can be neutrally insulated or earthed. Insulated system is more preferred as compare to earthed system because during an earth fault essential machinery such as steering gear can be lost.

Emergency Power

In case of the failure of the main power generation system on the ship, an emergency power system or a standby system is also present. The emergency power supply ensures that the essential machinery and system continues to operate the ship. Emergency power can be supplied by batteries or an emergency generator or even both systems can be used. Rating of the emergency power supply should be made in such a way that it provides supply to the essential systems of the ship such as a) Steering gear system

b) Emergency bilge and fire p/p c) Watertight doors.

d) Fire fighting system. e) f) Ships navigation lights and emergency lights. Communication and alarm system.

Emergency generator is normally located outside the machinery space of the ship. This is done mainly to avoid those emergency situations wherein access to the engine room is not possible. A switch board in the emergency generator room supplies power to different essential machinery. Reference Introduction to marine engineering by D.A Taylor

Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Container Refrigeration Unit


by Anish 28 October 2010 No Comment A reefer container is an enclosed unit used for transporting temperature sensitive cargo. The container requires external power supply for its operation. The article describes everything you ever wanted to know about container refrigeration units.

When reefer containers are loaded in ships, the power supply is provided from the power generated from the D.G sets of the vessel. Some important points about container refrigeration are: - Container Refrigeration unit is fitted in front of the container and it serves as container front wall. - Some units are dual voltage, designed to operate on 190/230 or 380/460 volts A.C, 3 phase, 50-60 hertz power. - Operating control power is provided by single phase transformer which steps down the A.C supply power source to 24 volts, 1 phase control power. Understanding the Basic Sections of Refer Unit 1. Compressor Section - Consist of compressor (with H.P switch) and power cable storage compartment. Power transformer may be an option where the ship supply differs. - It also contain modulating and suction solenoid valve (for controlling the quantity of gas flow). - Safety fittings in the section are- moisture liquid indicator, pressure relief valve, filter drier etc. - Safety of the system is further enhanced by electronic monitoring with the help of following sensors- Compressor suction and discharge sensor, supply air temperature sensor, supply recorder sensor, ambient sensor. 2. Condenser Section - The condenser section contains condenser fan and its motor, an air cooled condenser coil and condenser saturation sensor. - For air cooled condenser air is normally pulled from bottom and discharged horizontally through centre of the unit.

- Some units consists of water cooled condenser /receiver. This unit is expensive. 3.Evaporator Section - This section contains temperature sensing bulb, return recorder bulb sensor and a thermostatic expansion valve (for flow of refrigerant and maintenance of inside temperature). - Assembly consist of evaporator coil and heater, drain pan and heater, defrost and heat transmission switches. - The evaporator fan circulates air throughout the container by pulling air in top of refrigeration unit and directing air through evaporator coil where its either heated or cooled and is then discharged out at the bottom of refrigeration unit into the container. 4. Fresh air Make up Vent - Purpose of this vent is to provide ventilation for commodities that requires fresh air circulation and must be closed when transporting frozen foods. - Air exchange depends upon static pressure differential which will vary depending upon how container is loaded. Safety and Operating Precaution An injury, no matter how small, should never go unattended. Always obtain first aid or medical attention immediately. a) Always wear safety gloves and glasses while working on any unit and also when charging refrigerant. b) Keep hand, tools, and clothing clear from evaporator and condenser fan. c) No work should be performed on any unit until all circuit breaker and start stop switches are turned off and power supply disconnected. d) Do not bypass any electrical safety device. e) When performing arc welding on unit or condenser, disconnect all wire harness connection from the module in control box. Do Not remove wire harness from the module unless you are grounded to unit frame with a static safe wrist strap. f) In case of electrical fire, open circuit switch and extinguish it with CO2 extinguisher.

Duties of a 4th Engineer on a Ship


by KaranC 4 November 2010 17 Comments According to policies of all shipping companies, seafarers joining any vessel have to be competent, qualified and experienced. Joining a ship as a fourth engineer is the first step

towards a sailing career on ship. It is only after becoming a fourth engineer that a mariner

experiences real responsibility on a ship. Though a fourth engineer, before joining the ship has cleared the required exams and training courses, it is appreciated that the training part becomes an ongoing process and there is always a requirement for refresher courses and periodical safety training. Duties of 4th Engineer by Default On all types of ships, irrespective of the shipping company, a 4th engineer shall report to the 2nd Engineer, who shall assign the duties to him, both at sea and at port and whose orders he or she shall consider effective and binding as though emanating from the Chief Engineer. Moreover, the 4th engineer shall also assist the 2nd engineer when necessary in carrying out duties of the later. Duties of 4th Engineer upon joining a Vessel A 4th engineer, upon joining a vessel, should carry out the following duties.

Upon joining a vessel, the relieving 4th engineer shall report his presence on board to the Chief Engineer or in his absence to the 2nd Engineer. The 4th engineer should take a thorough round of the engine department with the signing off engineer and do a proper taking over of the duties. He should check the inventory and location of all purifier and compressor spares. He should check Inventory and location of pumps spares and tools. He should check running hours and maintenance schedule of his designated machinery. He should check general condition of machinery and special procedure for operation. Condition and layout of bunkering system including valve operation, tanks and sounding pipe location should be checked. Condition and layout of sludge and bilge discharge system including valves and pump operation should also be checked. Thorough sounding of all fuel tanks, bilge and sludge tank should be taken. Daily consumption of lube oil, fuel oil, marine diesel or gas oil and cylinder oil for daily record keeping in sounding log is to be checked. Daily production of bilge and sludge on board for record keeping of waste water sounding log.

After completion of the engine room round together, the 4th engineer shall report the details to the 2nd engineer and notify discrepancies observed, if any.

The 4th Engineer as in charge of Purifier, Compressor, and machinery other than main engine, auxiliary engine and boiler, is responsible for:

Record keeping of machinery running hours under his charge. For carrying out planned maintenance routine under the supervision of chief or second engineer. Taking daily tank sounding of fuel oil, diesel oil, lube and cylinder oil on board ship and record keeping of the same. Record keeping of sludge and bilge on board. Acting as assistant in charge to chief engineer for operation during bunker of fuel, diesel and lube oil. Completing the month end official papers for his designated machinery. Compliance of environment policy and MARPOL requirements under the guidance of Chief Engineer. Maintenance and up keeping of the engine room log book and all those files on board advised by the Chief Engineer.

The above mentioned duties are the basic requirements for any 4th engineer going on board. However, duties might be subtracted or added on the basis of the type of the ship and shipping company. Image Credit

How and Why to Take Manual Sounding On a Ship?


by Anish 7 November 2010 No Comment Sounding is a term used for taking measurement of the amount of fluids in the tanks of a ship. But why it is important to take sounding and what is the process of taking one. In this article we will know the importance of taking sounding and the method of

taking the same. Why Sounding? On a ship, it is very important to keep the updated record of the quantity of liquid (in all forms) present in the tanks for the following reasons: 1) Port state authority can randomly check and demand the record of oil and bilge on board. They can randomly check the micro-biological content of ballast water present onboard.

2) For proper operation of machinery, different grades of lube oil should always be present onboard. Even a shortage of crankcase oil of any machinery can bring the ship to standstill. 3) A ship normally completes a passage of ports. For proper passage planning it is very important to have the record of fuel and diesel oil onboard to quote for the next bunkering operation and to avoid any kind of marine pollution by overflow of oil. 4) In oil tanker carrying oil as a primary cargo, continuous monitoring of sounding of all tanks is very critical at the time of loading of cargo to avoid a single drop of oil going overboard which is a criminal offence. 5) Many ports have there own regulation for not exceeding waste water onboard above a certain limit. An exact record is required to follow the same. 6) For SECA area and now in most of the countries with sulphur emission norms, true quantity to be recorded for all grades of fuel oil present onboard. 7) When Ships bilge water is processed and discharged through oily water separator, correct entry of sounding, quantity discharged and retained onboard is to be recorded. 8) When onboard sewage holding tank is emptied in mid sea, sounding, quantity and amount discharged to be recorded. 9) Quantity and quality of ballast water to be recorded for ready reference of chief officer for stability, berthing and canal crossing etc. 10) All tanks quantities which include fuel and lube oil should be handy with chief officer for executing next loading plan.

How to take sounding? Follow the steps mentioned below to take sounding on a ship using the sounding tape. 1) Make sure the bob is tightly held with the tape using a strap hook. Ensure that the tape is not damaged anywhere in between to avoid dropping of bob or tape inside the pipe. 2) Know the last reading of the tank in order to have a rough idea whether to take sounding or ullage. 3) Apply water/ oil finding paste to get exact readings. 4) Drop the tape inside the pipe and make sure it strikes the striker plate. 5) Coil up the tape and check for impression of paste and then note the sounding. 6) Check the trim and list of the ship to read the correct reading for volumetric content of the ship.

7) Note down the sounding in the record book with signature of the officer in charge. Sounding Measuring Tape For Manual measurement of sounding, a measuring tape normally made up of brass and steel with a weighted bob attached at the end of the tape is used. Sounding pastes are also available for both water and gas oil which highlights the level of fluid in tape. Image Credit Share digg Home Procedures/Maintenance

Sounding and Different Methods of Taking Sounding on a Ship


by Aditib 7 November 2010 No Comment A merchant ship is built to carry tonnes of cargo from one port to another. Along with cargo it has to carry oil which includes Fuel oil, Diesel oil and different grades of lubricating oil in bulk quantities to run the propulsion plant and other auxiliary machinery.

Ship also has several of tanks for ballast water which are strategically located on both the sides of the ship to stabilize the ship when it is loaded or unloaded with oil or cargo. Some tanks are also provided for storing fresh water for provision purpose or for the feed water system. Sewage holding tank may be constructed depending upon the size, type and owners demand. Storage tanks, bunker tanks, fresh water and ballast tanks are constructed as per the class, size and type of the ship. To maintain ships stability, equilibrium, and hence the safety it is necessary that the level of the fluids is checked at regular interval of time. This is known as taking sounding of the tanks. In this article we will learn about the sounding of the tanks and process of taking the same.

What is sounding? As discussed earlier, sounding is the process for calculating the total quantity of fluid (oil, bilge, sludge, or water) inside a ships tank. First the depth of the fluid from the surface to the bottom of the tank is derived corresponding to which volumetric quantity is calculated using the sounding table. What is sounding table? Sounding table is a chart describing the construction, capacity and most importantly the volumetric content of the tank at given depth of sounding or ullage. All vessels have there own sounding table documents for each tank containing fluid in bulk. We will now have a look at the different types of sounding methods used on a ship. Methods for taking sounding on a ship Manual sounding

In this method, a sounding tape is used with a heavy weight bob attached to one end of the tape using a strap hook. It is the most commonly used methods used for calculation of tank capacity. If the capacity inside a tank is more, free space of the tank is measured to calculate total capacity of the tank. This method is called ullage measurement. Electronic sounding

In electronic sounding, a sensor is used which senses the pressure inside the sounding pipe or by sensing the tank pressure and sends a signal to the receiver. Here the signal is translated to the tanks content value with the help of a PLC circuit. The value is displayed using electrical operated servo gauge or electrical capacitance gauge. Mechanical sounding Mechanical provisions are made inside the tank so that the quantity of tank can directly be read through a level marker or an indicator or a float level sensor. In the tank a float can be attached to a pointer through a pulley. As the level varies pointer reading will change accordingly. A level gauge glass is also attached to the tank to read the quantity of the fluid inside the tank. The gauge may also be a pneumatic/hydraulic operated gauge or differential pressure gauge.

Understanding Sounding, Ullage, and Frequency of Sounding


by KaranC 7 November 2010 No Comment If you have worked on ship, you must have come across the terms sounding and ullage, which often tend to confuse people. In this article, we will learn as to what the difference between sounding and ullage is, and what is the importance of each one of them?

Both Sounding and ullage can be easily understood with the help of following diagrams:

Sounding is the measured height of the fluid from the surface of the fluid to the bottom of the tank. Ullage is the void space in the tank measured from the top of the tank to the upper surface of the fluid. Ullage is measured when the content of a tank is highly viscous and if the tank is filled to the maximum. Sounding pipe is constructed in the tank. These pipes protrude slightly above from the top of the tank so that sounding can be taken safely and easily without opening any manhole door. They even have protecting caps at the top which can be opened at the time of sounding. The sounding pipe is open from the bottom which allows the liquid filling up the pipe and facilitating it to have the same level as of the tank. After measuring sounding or ullage, it is compared in the sounding book to know the volumetric quantity of the tank. Thus, sounding of the pipe becomes sounding of the tank. To avoid pressurizing of tanks, which can give a wrong reading in the sounding pipe and to avoid distortion n of bulkheads of tank, a vent pipe is provided which releases the air and vapors inside the tank. Frequency Sounding frequency on a ship differs from company to company and according to the working policy and the nature of operations going on board. A brief brief note as per the general procedure followed on ship is given below: 1) All Fuel oil tanks lube oil tanks and diesel oil tanks must be sounded twice a day, once in morning and once in evening, and recorded in the event of leak or any other emergency related ed to oil content of tanks. 2) All waste water tanks including bilge and sludge tank must be sounded twice a day. 3) Ballast water tank and fresh water tanks should be sounded once a day. 4) As bunkering operation is one of the most critical operations, the the frequency of operation drastically increases at the initial and final stages of the operation (every 15 minutes) to check

the inflow of oil in correct tank at initial stage and to avoid overflow of oil during final stage of operation. 5) When waste water of ship is internally transferred, discharged overboard through 15 ppm equipment or given to the shore facility, sounding is to be taken twice or thrice every hour. 6) When ballasting or de-ballasting of the tank is going on, hourly sounding is to be taken or as decided by the chief officer. 7) Fresh water tank sounding to be taken daily. Feed water tanks in the engine room are to be sounded at every watch to keep a track of leakages

hip Departure Checklist for Engine Department: What to Do When a Ship Leaves a Port?
by Mohit 2 November 2010 No Comment There are many things that are to be kept in mind when a ship leaves a port and prepares for a long voyage at the sea. In this article we will learn about the various jobs that are to be taken care of without fail for a smooth sail at the sea. The article is presented in the form of a checklist so that those interested can take a printout for their personal use.

Presented here is the engine department departure checklist for a ship leaving a port, assuming cold start with boiler and generator in running condition. Things to do 24 hours notice prior to departure for the first time

Check the oil level or sound the bunker tanks to measure level and make sure that the temperature is maintained to about 40 degrees or as per analysis report by opening steam. This is done for the transfer of oil from bunker tank to settling tank. If the oil is kept cold the pump might get damaged due to very high viscosity. Check the jacket water header tank for level and fil accordingly. Do not fill to much as when the engine starts running the water expands and it will start overflowing. After checking the level start the jacket water circulating pumps if there is a separate system for main engine. Check the jacket water temperature of the main engine and maintain it about 60 degrees as below this temperature it might start leaking into the scavenge space.

Things to do at 6 hours notice period


Check the oil level in the main engine sump, turbocharger tank. The duty engineer will start the lubricating oil pump and the cross head pump (generally in sulzer engines) and turbocharger pump. Check the oil flow through the sight glass of turbocharger outlet. Check the pressure of lube oil pump and turbocharger pump and cross head pumps. Start the shaft bearing pumps and check the level of header tank. Generally in UMS there is a program for starting all these pumps in sequence. This program is started after taking the engine room rounds and the levels are checked.

Things to do at 1 hour notice period


A quick round of engine room is taken and chief engineer has to be reported regarding the departure. Check oil level, header tank level, cylinder oil daily tank level. Check the pressure of fuel oil pump, booster pump, lube oil pump etc. Check sump oil level in air compressor. Drain air bottles for any water inside. Check that the turning gear is out. Check parameters of the running machinery. Start an additional generator so as to supply for additional demand of power from winches and thrusters. Start exhausts gas boiler water circulating pump. Check the telegraph for functioning in conjunction with deck officer on watch. Telegraph is checked for local and remote panels. Emergency telephones to be checked for functioning. When the chief engineer is present in control room, go to the steering gear and check for any leaks and port to starboard movement. Check the functioning of limit switches in steering gear. Check gyro reading in steering gear and cross check with reading on the bridge.

Things to do at 15 minutes notice


Open the main air starting valve for main engine. Ensure all air compressors are in auto and air bottles are full. Main engine is blown with open indicator cocks with air to check for any water ingress in main engine. If no leaks or ingress is found chief engineer is reported and the indicator cocks are closed. Close the turbocharger drain valves. Chief engineer reports to captain on bridge that the engine is ready for use and control is transferred to the bridge from engine control room. Flow meter counters of main engine, generator and boiler are taken for calculation purposes of oil in port.

Checks made when the engine is running


Engine room round is taken again. Check for any abnormality.

Check all the parameters of the main engine like temperature of exhaust valve, jacket water etc. Close steam heating for jacket later if not auto controlled. Once the ship is out from the port and pilot has left, open the other sea suction valve.

Checks made when ship is full away


Stop the additional generator. Stop the boiler if exhaust gas boiler is fitted. Start fresh water generator. Open sewage overboard valve. Start turbine and shaft generator if fitted. Take flow meter counter again for calculation of fuel consumed from port to full away. The watch is handed over to next duty engineer if watch has to be changed. In case of UMS ship, the bridge is informed after taking rounds of the engine room, about your taking break.

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Troubleshooting Air Compressors on a Ship: The Ultimate Guide


by Anish 5 November 2010 No Comment
Air compressors on a ship require special attention and care for their smooth running. It is only through routine maintenance and checkups that you can expect smooth and efficient running of the compressors.

However, compressor is a peculiar equipment which tends to get some or the other problem while working. In this article, we will go through each and every problem that can arise in an air compressor and also enumerate ways to troubleshoot that problem.

This is the ultimate guide for troubleshooting air compressors on a ship 1) Lube Oil Pressure Low The following can be the reasons for lube oil pressure low in the air compressor: Faulty pressure gauge. Cock to pressure gauge in closed position. Low oil level in the sump. Leakage in supply pipe. Suction filter is choked. Oil grade in the crank case is not compatible. Attached Lube oil gear pump is faulty. Worn out Bearing, clearance is more.

2) Abnormal noise during operation If you get any abnormal noise during operation, the following can be the reasons:

Loose foundation bolts. Worn out bearings, clearance is high. Imbalance crankshaft resulting in high-end play. Valve plate broken or faulty. Relief valve lifting below setting pressure. Bumping clearance is less. Piston worn-out, broken piston ring.

3) Vibration in the machinery: In case of vibrations, the following reasons are to be considered and checked.

Foundation bolts are loose. Discharge pressure high, faulty discharge valve plates. Liner and piston worn out. Small bumping clearance.

4) Cooling water temperature is high Cooling water temperature can go high because of the following reasons: Inlet or outlet valve for cooling water is closed. Inter-cooler is chocked. Cooling water in the expansion tank is low. Pipe passage becomes narrow due to scale formation. Water-pump belt or gear drive broken. Pump not working.

5) First stage discharge pressure high In case the first stage discharge pressure is high, it must be because of : Pressure gauge is faulty. Inter-cooler air passage is chocked. Second stage suction valve is not closing properly, allowing air to escape from 2nd to 1st stage. Discharge valve of first stage is malfunctioning, and remains in closed position. Spring of discharge valve is malfunctioning.

6) First stage discharge pressure low In case the first stage discharge pressure is low, it must be because of :

Pressure gauge is faulty. Suction filter is choked. Unloader of first stage is leaking. First stage suction valve is not closing properly, resulting in compressed air leakage. First stage suction valve is not opening fully, leading to less intake of air. Discharge valve is faulty and remains open permanently. Relief valve after first stage is leaking. Piston ring of first stage is badly worn out, allowing air to pass.

7) Second stage discharge pressure high: In case of high discharge pressure in the second stage, the reasons can be: Faulty pressure gauge. Discharge valve to air bottle is shut. Second stage discharge valve plate worn out, and even the spring worn out. Valve is stuck in closed position. After cooler air passage choked. Air bottle is over pressurized.

8 ) Second stage discharge pressure low: When second stage discharge pressure is low, it could be because of:

Pressure gauge is faulty. Suction valve for second stage is malfunctioning, in open position. Suction valve for second stage is not opening fully, and thus less intake of air. Discharge valve is faulty and remains open during operation. Piston rings of second stage are worn out, leaking out compressed air. Relief valve of second stage is leaking. Un-loader of second stage is leaking.

9) Relief valve of first stage lifting If relief valve of the first stage is lifting, it can be because of Spring of relief valve is malfunctioning, thus lifting at less pressure. Discharge valve of first stage is not opening. Intercooler air passage is blocked. Suction valve of second stage is in stuck position. Water inside the compression chamber due to crack in the jacket and water is leaking inside.

10) Relief valve of second stage is lifting If relief valve of the second stage is lifting, look for the following reasons: Relief valve is malfunctioning, lifting at lower then setting pressure. Main discharge valve to the air bottle is closed. Discharge valve plates and spring are worn out, valve in closed position. Blockage in the after cooler air passage. Water inside the compression chamber due to crack jacket.

The above mentioned points are just a brief explanation to the problems of the air compressor tackled on board. However, they serve as a guiding light for finding the right fault in the compressor. Image Credit

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Air Compressor on a Ship: Checks for Starting and Stopping a Compressor


by Mohit 10 November 2010 No Comment Certain steps and systematic procedure need to be followed in order to start or stop an air compressor on a ship. In this article, we will learn how to start and stop an air compressor and also find out checks that are need to be made before starting the air compressor and also during its operation.

Checks before Starting the Air Compressor The following steps are to be followed before starting an air compressor on a ship. 1) Check the lube oil in the crankcase sump by means of dipstick or sight glass. 2) All the valves of compressor discharge must be in normally open condition. 3) If any manual valve is present in un-loader line, it must always be kept open. 4) All alarms and trips- Lube oil low pressure, water high temperature, over load trip etc. must be checked for operation. 5) All valves in cooling water line must be in normally open position. 6) Cocks for all the pressure gauges must be in open position. 7) Air intake filter should be clean. 8 ) If compressor has not been started from long time than it should be turned on manually with a tommy-bar to check for the free movement of its parts. Starting and Stopping procedure: What is Unloading the compressor? Unloading is a normal procedure during the starting and stopping of the compressor. It is carried out due to following reasons: 1) When starting a compressor motor, since the load on the motor is very high the starting current is also high. In order to avoid further loading of the compressor an un-loader arrangement is provided which is normally pneumatic or solenoid control and which releases the pressure during the starting of the compressor. Once the current comes down to the running value, the un-loader closes automatically. Normally a timer function is used for opening and closing of un-loader. 2) Air contains moisture and during the compression process some amount of moisture gets released. Liquid in any form is incompressible and if some amount of oily water mixture is present inside the cylinder then it will damage the compressor. To overcome this problem un-

loader is used. During starting un-loader comes in action and releases all the moisture accumulated inside the cylinder. 3) Intermediate operation of un-loader is also selected so that during the process of compression any moisture or oil accumulation cannot take place inside it. 4) During stopping the compressor un-loader is operated so that for the next starting the cylinder will remain moisture free. Checks during the Operation of Compressor: 1) Check if all the pressure gauges are showing correct readings of lube oil pressure, water pressure etc. 2) Check for any abnormal sound like knocking etc. 3) Check for any lube oil or water leakages. 4) If cylinder lubrication is provided, check the supply from sight glass. 5) Check if the discharge pressure for all units is normal. 6) Check air temperature after the final stage is under limit. 7) Check the flow of cooling water from sight glass. 8 ) If attached cooling water pump is provided check for its free rotation. 9) Check the relief valve of all units for leakage. In some compressor, provision is given to check the relief valve with hand lever, if provided check all units.

Efficiency of Air Compressor and Uses of Compressed Air on a Ship


by Mohit 5 November 2010 2 Comments
The Efficiency of an air compressor on a ship depends on several factors. A compressor provides highly pressurized air which increases the temperature to exceptionally high levels. In order to get quality performance out of air compressors, it is important to check and control the pressure and temperature within optimum range. In this article we will learn as to what it takes for efficient running of an air compressor on a ship.

Efficient working of Air Compressor An air compressor is to provide air at high pressure. The temperature during the compression process is known as the compression temperature. The compression temperature that is generated is enough to ignite vaporized oil if present in the system. Moreover, in the process, a lot of energy is also wasted in the form of heat. To avoid the loss of heat and overheating of internal parts, inter-coolers are fitted in the air compressor. With the help of inter-coolers, it is possible to approach the ideal isothermal compression to achieve maximum volumetric efficiency. Sea water is commonly used for the cooling purpose in air compressor. Sea water is circulated in the system using an attached pump or by using main or auxiliary sea water circulating system. It is to note that sea water causes scale deposits in cooling passages. Sometimes, fresh water from a closed loop system is also used to avoid scale deposit problems.

Graph showing saved work due to inter cooling Uses of Compressed Air on Ship Compressed air is used for the following purposes on a ship. For starting of main engine, auxiliary engine, emergency generator and emergency fire pump. For automation and control air for main and auxiliary engine. For different application on the deck side and in engine room such as chipping, drilling, buffing, pressurized water jet cleaning etc. by use of pneumatic tools and machinery. For overhauling machinery by use of pneumatic tools and hydraulic jack. For pressure testing of different machinery parts, pipeline etc. Compressed air is also used for ships whistle and fog horn. It is used in life boat for heaving up the later, if air motor is attached as a heaving provision. For supplying water to accommodation and various parts of the ship through hydrophore by keeping the later pressurized with air. For conducting aerobic breakdowns of the on board sewage in sewage plant. For pressurized spray painting. Used in soot blowing of boiler and economizer. Used in portable pneumatic pumps like Weldon pumps for oil, water and bilge transfer. For general cleaning and services.

The above mentioned are the most common purposes for which compressed air is used. The application and uses may differ from ship to ship.

Procedure for Starting Breathing Air Compressor On a Ship

by Mohit 6 November 2010 No Comment A breathing air compressor is used to fill up the oxygen bottles used for fire fighting or entering enclosed spaces. The breathing air compressors, as they are known, needs to be operated in a special way. They are smaller than the conventional compressors found on ship.

While operating the breathing air compressor, there are certain points that should be followed in order to ensure smooth starting and operation of the compressor. The article describes the procedure for starting a breathing air compressor on a ship. Pre- Starting Procedure Follow the below step-by-step procedure before starting the compressor.

Fill water in the filling tank to keep the bottles cooled as heat is generated while filling the air. Check oil level in compressor-sump through indicator glass fixed on the side of the compressor. Check O-ring is placed in DIN-coupling male part and is in good condition and also no O-ring is there in the female-part of the valve on the bottle. Place bottle in water tank. Connect hose to the bottle and do not tighten too firmly as the pressure will ensure a proper fit. Open the valve on the hose by turning counter clockwise. Open the valve on the bottle by turning it counter clockwise.

Procedure for starting the compressor Following steps are to be followed for starting the compressor:

Even though the unit has automatic condensate draining you should drain the condensate frequently while filling by turning the knob.

The compressor will stop on reaching 300Bar. If not you must stop it immediately.

Close the bottle valve (1) by turning clockwise. Close the hose valve (2) by turning anticlockwise. After filling all bottles open the hose valve carefully to relieve pressure from hose. Drain condensate from the compressor and water from the filling tank.

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Safety Features and Maintenance Procedure for Air Compressor on a Ship


by Hiteshk 7 November 2010 No Comment

Every Air compressor on a ship is fitted with several safety features to avoid abnormal and dangerous operational errors of the equipment. If safety, safety, alarms and trips are not present on the air compressor, abnormal operation may lead to breakdown of the compressor and may also injure a person working on or around it.

Different safety features on an air compressor are Relief valve: Fitted after every y stage to release excess pressure developed inside it. The setting of the lifting pressure increases after every ascending stage. Bursting disc: A bursting disc is a copper disc provided at the air side of the compressor. It is a safety disc which bursts when the pressure exceeds over the pre-determined pre value. Fusible plug: Generally located on the discharge side of the compressor, it fuses if the air temperature is higher than the operational temperature. The fusible plug is made up of material which melts mel at high temperature. Lube Oil low pressure alarm and trip: If the lube oil pressure goes lower than the normal, the alarm is sounded followed by a cut out trip signal to avoid damage to bearings and crank shaft. Water high temperature trip: If the intercoolers coolers are choked or the flow of water is less, then the air compressor will get over heated. To avoid this situation high water temperature trip is activated which cut offs the compressor.

Water no-flow trip: If the attached pump is not working or the flow of water inside the intercooler is not enough to cool the compressor then moving part inside the compressor will get seized due to overheating. A no flow trip is provided which continuously monitor the flow of water and trips the compressor when there is none. Motor Overload trip: If the current taken by motor during running or starting is very high then there is a possibility of damage to the motor. An overload trip is thus fitted to avoid such situation. Maintenance A compressor requires a proper planned routine maintenance for safe and efficient operation and to avoid breakdown maintenance. Routine for maintenance depends on the manufacturers advice given in the manual. The following are the maintenance checks that should be carried out after the mentioned running hours. @ 250hrs: 1) Clean air filter. 2) Check un-loader operation. 3) If belt is provided for driving cooling water pump, check its tightness. @ 500hrs: 1) Change lube oil and clean sump. 2) Clean lube oil filter. 3) Check and renew suction and discharge valves with overhauled one. @ 1000 hrs: 1) Crankcase inspection, main and big end bearing inspection. 2) Relief valve overhauling. @ 4000 hrs: 1) Piston and big end bearing overhauling, piston ring renewal. 2) Intercooler cleaning. 3) Motor overhauling. Running hour may differ from maker to maker. The above description is a rough idea for a general maintenance of marine air compressor. Without the supply of air, a ship will soon be termed as a dead ship. It is very important for a marine engineer to understand the importance of the compressor; hence its the responsibility of the engineer onboard to maintain the compressor, the air receiver and the air pipe line and the overall system in the proper condition.

Different Parts of a Marine Air Compressor Used on a Ship


by Anish 7 November 2010 No Comment A marine air compressor provides compressed air for various purposes on a ship. An air compressor is one of the most important equipments on a ship which needs special care and routine maintenance. In this article we will know the basics of the marine air compressor by first getting familiarized with the different parts of the same.

The main parts of the marine air compressor are:

1) Cylinder liner:

It is made of graded cast iron and is accompanied with water jacket around it to absorb heat produced during compression process. It is designed so as to give a streamline passage to the pressurized air resulting in minimum pressure drop. 2) Piston: For a non-lubricating type compressor, light weight aluminum alloy piston are used and for lubricating type graded, cast iron piston are used with piston rings for sealing and scrapping off excess oil. 3) Piston Rod: In high capacity compressor which is normally big in size, piston is attached to piston rod made up of alloy steel. They are fitted with anti friction packing ring to avoid chances of compressed air leakage. 4) Connecting rod: Connecting rod plays its role to minimize thrust to the bearing surface. It is made up of forged alloy steel. 5) Big end bearing and Main bearing: They are constructed to give rigidity to the running rotational mechanism. They are made up of copper lead alloy and have a long operational life if proper lube oil and lubrication is provided. 6) Crank shaft: It is a one piece designed part, using counterweights for dynamic balancing during high speed of rotation to avoid twisting due to torsion forces. Connecting rod big end bearing and main bearing are connected to crank shaft at crank pin and journal pin which are polished to ensure long working life of bearings. 7) Frame and crankcase: Normally they have rectangular shape and accommodate all the moving parts and thats why are made up of rigid cast iron. Main bearing housing is fitted on a bore in crank case and is made with highest precision to avoid eccentricity or misalignment. 8 ) Oil pump: A lubricating oil pump is fitted to supply lube oil to all the bearings, which can be chain or gear driven, through crank shaft. Pressure of oil can be regulated by means of regulating screw provided in the pump. A filter in the inlet of the pump is also attached to supply clean and particle free oil to the bearings. 9) Water pump:

Some compressor may have attached water cooling pump driven by crankshaft through chain or gear. Some system does not use attached pump as they use water supply from main or auxiliary system for cooling. 10) Suction and Discharge valve: These are multi-plate valves made up of stainless steel and are used to suck and to discharge air from one stage to another and to the air bottle. Proper assembling of valves is very important for efficient operation of the compressor. 11) Suction Filter: It is a air filter made up of copper or soft steel with a paper material to absorb oil and wire mesh to avoid any metal or dust particle to go inside compression chamber. 12) Inter-coolers: Inter-coolers are normally fitted in between two stages to cool down the air temperature and to increase the volumetric efficiency of compressor. Some compressor have inbuilt attached copper tubes for cooling and some have outside assembly of copper tube inter-coolers. 13) Driving Motor: An Electrical motor is attached to the compressor for making it operational and is connected to the compressor through the flywheel. There are the main parts of a marine air compressor. The parts may vary according to the requirement of the system or ship. Share 0digg Home Auxiliary Machinery

The Basics of Air Compressor On a Ship


by Anish 5 November 2010 No Comment
Compressor is one such device which is used for several purposes on a ship. As the main aim of the compressor, as the name suggests, is to compress air or any fluid in order to reduce its volume. Some of the main applications of compressors are main air compressor, deck air compressor, AC compressor and refrigeration compressor. In this article we will learn about air compressors and its types.

Air Compressor produces pressurized air by decreasing the volume of air and in turn increasing its pressure. Different types of air compressors are used according to the usage. Types of Air Compressors There are mainly four types of compressors: 1) Centrifugal compressor 2) Rotary vane compressor 3) Rotary screw compressor 4) Reciprocating air compressor. However, on ship reciprocating air compressor is widely used. Uses of Air Compressor on Ship: On board a ship, compressed air is used for several purposes. On the basis of application, different air compressors are kept for a particular usage. Normally, air compressors on board ships are: - main air compressor, - topping up compressor - deck air compressor - Emergency air compressor Main air compressor

Main air compressor is used for supplying high pressurised air for starting of main and auxiliary engines. The pressurised air generated by the air compressor is stored in air storage bottle. These are high capacity compressors and the air pressure that is required from these compressors to start the main engine is 30 bars. Control air is also supplied from air bottle through a pressure reducing valve and a control air filter. Normally they are twice in number and can be more than that for redundancy. Topping up compressor Topping up compressor takes up the lead to cover up for the leakage in the system. This means that as soon as the air pressure in the system goes below a particular level, the topping up compressor replenished the system with pressurized air. Deck air compressor Deck air compressor is used for deck use and as service air compressor and might have a separate service air bottle for the same. These are lower capacity pressure compressors as pressure required for service air is in between the range of 6 to 8 bar. Emergency air compressor Emergency air compressor is used for starting auxiliary engine at the time of an emergency or when the main air compressor has failed for filling up the main air receiver. This type of compressor can be motor driven or engine driven. If motor driven, it should be supplied from emergency source of power. Reference McGeorge Marine Auxiliary Machinery

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Safety Features and Maintenance Procedure for Air Compressor on a Ship


by Hiteshk 7 November 2010 No Comment

Every Air compressor sor on a ship is fitted with several safety features to avoid abnormal and dangerous operational errors of the equipment. If safety, alarms and trips are not present on the air compressor, abnormal operation may lead to breakdown of the compressor and may also injure a person working on or around it.

Different safety features on an air compressor are Relief valve: Fitted after every stage to release excess pressure developed inside it. The setting of the lifting pressure increases after every ascending stage. st Bursting disc: A bursting disc is a copper disc provided at the air side of the compressor. It is a safety disc which bursts when the pressure exceeds over the pre-determined pre value. Fusible plug: Generally located on the discharge side of the compressor, compressor, it fuses if the air temperature is higher than the operational temperature. The fusible plug is made up of material which melts at high temperature. Lube Oil low pressure alarm and trip: If the lube oil pressure goes lower than the normal, the alarm is is sounded followed by a cut out trip signal to avoid damage to bearings and crank shaft. Water high temperature trip: If the intercoolers are choked or the flow of water is less, then the air compressor will get over heated. To avoid this situation high water water temperature trip is activated which cut offs the compressor.

Water no-flow trip: If the attached pump is not working or the flow of water inside the intercooler is not enough to cool the compressor then moving part inside the compressor will get seized due to overheating. A no flow trip is provided which continuously monitor the flow of water and trips the compressor when there is none. Motor Overload trip: If the current taken by motor during running or starting is very high then there is a possibility of damage to the motor. An overload trip is thus fitted to avoid such situation. Maintenance A compressor requires a proper planned routine maintenance for safe and efficient operation and to avoid breakdown maintenance. Routine for maintenance depends on the manufacturers advice given in the manual. The following are the maintenance checks that should be carried out after the mentioned running hours. @ 250hrs: 1) Clean air filter. 2) Check un-loader operation. 3) If belt is provided for driving cooling water pump, check its tightness. @ 500hrs: 1) Change lube oil and clean sump. 2) Clean lube oil filter. 3) Check and renew suction and discharge valves with overhauled one. @ 1000 hrs: 1) Crankcase inspection, main and big end bearing inspection. 2) Relief valve overhauling. @ 4000 hrs: 1) Piston and big end bearing overhauling, piston ring renewal. 2) Intercooler cleaning. 3) Motor overhauling. Running hour may differ from maker to maker. The above description is a rough idea for a general maintenance of marine air compressor. Without the supply of air, a ship will soon be termed as a dead ship. It is very important for a marine engineer to understand the importance of the compressor; hence its the responsibility of the engineer onboard to maintain the compressor, the air receiver and the air pipe line and the overall system in the proper condition.

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What is Marine Growth Preventive System (MGPS) On a Ship?


by Anish 29 October 2010 No Comment Ships while sailing use seawater for several purposes. The seawater is used in the ships system and discharged after the use. However, seawater contains several marine organisms which enter the ship along with the seawater and deposit and flourish on the parts of the ships system. If preventive measures are not taken, the marine growth can cause damage to the particular part in the long run. In this article we will learn about the causes and effects of marine growth in a ships system along with the measures to fight it.

What Causes Marine Growth? Sea water contains both macro and micro marine organisms such as sea worm, molluscs, barnacles, algae, hard shells like acorn barnades etc. These organisms stick to the surface of the ship and flourish over there, resulting in marine growth. Marine fouling can form huge clusters of marine growth inside the piping system of the ship. This is mainly caused because of the entering of the seawater into the seawater system. The organisms find the perfect spot inside the system wherein the environmental conditions and other relevant factors such as temperature, ph, nutrients etc are appropriate for them to breed and disseminate. Effects of Marine Growth As the marine organisms flourish they block and narrow the passage of cooling water in the ships system resulting in the following factors: - Impairing the heat transfer system.

- Overheating of several water-cooled wate machineries. - Increase in the rate of corrosion and thinning of pipes. - Reduced efficiency which can lead to loss of vessel speed and loss of time. Fighting Marine Growth

To avoid formation of marine growth MGPS or marine growth preventive system s is used onboard ship. Description and working of MGPS is as follows. Basic principle on which MGPS runs is electrolysis. The process involves usage of copper, aluminum and ferrous anodes. The anodes are normally fixed in pairs in the main sea chest or o in such place where they are in the direction of the flow of water. The system consists of a control unit which supplies impressed current to anodes and monitors the same. While in operation, the copper anode produces ions, which are carried away by water r into the piping and machinery system. Concentration of copper in the solution is less then 2 parts per billion but enough to prevent marine life from settling. Due to the impressed current, the aluminum/ferrous anode produces ions, which spread over the system and produce a anti corrosive film over the pipes, heat exchanger, valves, refrigeration and ac unit etc, internally.

MGPS anodes are fitted with specially designed safety cap which helps in removing the anode for replacement on board ship. Normally Normally MGPS have a design life which coincides with the dry dock of the vessel. Share 0digg Home Main Engine

What is Turbocharger Surging?


by Mohit 4 November 2010 No Comment A turbocharger is one of the most important parts of the main propulsion system of the ship. Turbocharger surging is a phenomenon of turbocharger which affects its its performance and reduces the efficiency. In this article, we will learn everything about turbocharger surging.

Turbo charger surging may be defined as a high pitch vibration of audible level coming from the blower end or compressor end of the turbocharger. turbocharger. Whenever the breakdown of gas flow takes place, a reversal of scavenge air takes place through diffuser and impeller blades into the blower side which causes surging. Surging is to be avoided as it interferes with the combustion in the main engine and may may cause damage to the thrust bearings.

Therefore, the turbochargers are needed to be matched properly with the engine air consumption rate and pressure across the operating range of the engine and they should not fall in the surge limits.

What are the Causes of Turbocharger Surging? The following are the causes of turbocharger surging:

Improper power distribution between the main engine cylinders may cause turbocharger surging as one unit is producing more power and other is producing less. Due to this the air consumption required by both the turbochargers differs, which leads to surging. Fouled compressor on turbine side In this case if the inlet filters are dirty then enough air can not be supplied for combustion, which leads to surging. Similarly if the turbine side is also dirty i. e nozzle, blades etc enough air can not be produced for combustion. Highly fouled exhaust i.e. economizer, if fitted may cause back pressure in the turbocharger and thus finally lead to surging. Bad weather This is one more reason for surging. Due to bad weather the engine suddenly starts racing and sudden load change takes place. This happens because during bad weather or pitching the propeller moves in and out of the water, causing the change in load on the engine.

How to Prevent Turbocharger Surging? The following are the ways to prevent turbocharger surging. However, it is to note that some points may vary with design and construction of the turbocharger.

Keep the turbocharger intake filter clean. Water-wash the turbine and the compressor side of the turbocharger. Proper maintenance and checks should be done on turbocharger periodically. Soot blow should be done from time to time in case of economizer or exhaust boiler.

Indicator cards to be taken to assess cylinder and power distribution of individual units. Share 0digg Home Auxiliary Machinery

Bow Thrusters: Construction and Working


by Mohit 8 December 2010 No Comment Bow thrusters are type of propellers, which are smaller in size and which help in better maneuverability of the ships at lower speeds. They are generally used for maneuvering the vessel near the coastal waters or while entering or leaving a port. Bow thrusters help in assisting tug boats in berthing the ship without wasting time. This saves a lot of money for the shipping company because of lesser stay of the ships in the ports. Moreover, presence of bow thrusters on a vessel eradicates the need of two tugs while leaving and entering the port, and thus saves more money. Generally, bow thrusters are transverse thrusters placed at the forward and aft end of the ship. The thruster placed in the forward end is known as the bow thruster and the one placed in the aft is known as the stern thruster. The requirement for the number of thrusters to be installed depends on the length of the ship.

Construction and Working of Bow Thrusters The bow and stern thrusters are placed in the through-and-through tunnels which open at both sides of the ship. There are two such tunnels at forward and aft ends of the ship. The thruster takes suction from one side and throws it out at the other side of the ship, thus moving the ship in the opposite direction. This can be operated in both the directions i.e. port to starboard and starboard to port. The bow thrusters are placed below the water line of the ship. For this reason, the bow thruster room should be checked for water accumulation at regular intervals of time.

The bow and the stern thrusters can be electric driven or hydraulic driven or diesel driven. However, the most commonly used are electric driven, as in hydraulic driven thrusters there occur many leakage problems. Also, with diesel driven bow thrusters, the amount of maintenance required is more and every time before starting someone needs to go to the thruster room to check the thrusters.

Bow thruster consists of an electric motor which is mounted directly over the thruster using a worm gear arrangement. The motor runs at a constant speed, and whenever there is a change required in the thrust or direction, the controllable pitch blades are adjusted. These blades are moved and the pitch is changed with the help of hydraulic oil which moves the hub on which the blades are mounted. As the thruster is of controllable pitch type, it can be run continuously, and when no thrust is required the pitch can be made to zero. The thruster is controlled from the bridge and the directions are given remotely. In case of remote failure, a manual method for changing the pitch is provided in the thruster room and can be operated from there. Maintenance Required

1) The insulation needs to be checked regularly and should be kept dry. This is done because bow thrusters are not used frequently and thus there are chances of damages by moisture. Moreover, because of the frequent idle state of the bow thrusters, there can be reduction in the insulation resistance especially in colder regions. 2) The space heater is checked for working condition so that the insulation can be kept dry. 3) The bearings of the motor and the links are to be greased every month. 4) The condition of hydraulic oil is to be checked every month for water in oil and samples should be sent for lab analysis for further checking. 5) The thickness of the contactors is to be checked from time to time. 6) Checks are to be made for any water leakages in the bow thruster room which is indication of seal leaking. 7) The flexible coupling between the motor and thruster should also be checked. Advantages 1) Better maneuverability at low speeds of the ship. 2) Safety of the ship increases when berthing in bad weather. 3) Saves money due to reduction of stay in port and less usage of tug boats. Disadvantages 1) A very large induction motor is required, which takes a lot of current and load, and thus large generator capacity is required. 2) Initial investment is high. 3) Maintenance and repairs are costly when there is damage. You may also like to read Ships propeller explained. Share 0digg Home Equipments, Marine Safety

Over Speed Trip in Diesel Engines & Types of Over Speed Trips
by Anish 11 November 2010 No Comment An over speed trip is a safety feature provided on the diesel engine of the ship to restrict uncontrolled acceleration of the engine, leading to mechanical failure or untoward accidents. In order to prevent the speed of a diesel engine to go beyond the pre-set speed range, an over speed trip is used in the diesel engines. How Over Speeding can be Harmful? A Diesel engine is designed for the mechanical stress associated with the centripetal and centrifugal forces of the moving parts inside it in a specified operational range. Centripetal force is directly proportional to the square of the rotational speed, stress increases rapidly with increase in speed. Mechanical connection strength can be overcome by the exceeding stresses due to the increase in operational speed. These can result in breaking of rotating parts or damage to the machinery itself. Over speed is thus a serious safety hazard and can lead to a fatal situation.

What does Over Speed Trip Does? Due to sudden changes in the load on the diesel engine, the speed of the engine may vary. Though a governor is provided to control the speed of the diesel engine, the speed might go out of control, damaging the engine. Thus, for this reason over speed trips are used. No matter what type of the over speed trip the engine uses, the main aim of the over speed trip is to cut the fuel supply to the engine cylinders in case the engine speed rises above a specific level. Preventing Over Speeding of Engine Reducing the likelihood of an uncontrolled and catastrophic over speed is essential and can be done by two methods: a) Mechanical over speed trip b) Electronic over speed trip In this article we will have a look at the electronic over speed trip. Electronic Over Speed Trip To understand the electronic over speed trip, a normal lay out of the system is described below. The electronic over speed trip consists of a) Fly wheel mounted speed sensor Magnetic speed sensor is preferred in generator engines. Due to the discontinuity of actuator surface (gear tooth of flywheel) voltage is excited in the pick off coil of sensor, producing an electric analog wave. This cyclic wave created by the flywheel is read by the sensor.

b) Signal condition unit This unit act as a receiver to the speed sensor. Basic function of the signal conditioner is to convert one type of electronic signal which may be difficult to read into another type into a more easily read format. This can be achieved by amplification, excitation and linearization of an electrical signal. c) Detection and Comparison unit There is a set value which is normally 10 % above the rated speed and acts as base value for this unit. Signal condition unit output is continuously detected and compared with the set value.

d) Trip signal unit If the difference between the set value and detected value is above the limit, then this unit gives a trip signal which in turn shuts down the generator.

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What is Ballast Water Management Plan ?


by Anish 16 November 2010 3 Comments In order to reduce the harmful effects on the marine environment that are spread through aquatic micro organisms transferred from one area to another through ballasting operations of the ship, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted a convention in order to control and manage ships ballast and sediments ion on 13th February 2004. Port state authorities from around the world implemented their own requirements for ballasting and de-ballasting operation for ships sailing in their terrestrial water. To simplify the requirement of the control of ballast water problem, a ballast water management plan was introduced which was to be used and implemented on board sailing vessels entering international waters.

Contents of Ballast Water Management Plan The ballast water management plan includes the following:

International rules and regulations for different port state controls all over the world. Location of ports providing shore discharge facility of sediments and ballast water. Duties of the personnel on board for carrying out ballast operation. Operational procedure along with the method to be used for ballasting.

The locations at different coastal water for ballast exchange should be mentioned in the plan. Sampling point and treatment method should be given in the ballast water management plan.

Record of the ballast water exchange with all the following data to be noted:

Date of the operation Ships ballast tank used in the operation. Temperature of the ballast water. Salinity of the ballast water in PPM (salt content in parts per million). Position of the ship (latitude and longitude). Amount of ballast water involved in operation. All the records entered must be signed by a responsible officer (normally chief officer). Master is overall in-charge of the operation and he will also acknowledge the ballast/ de-ballast operation by signing the BMP log. Date and identification of the tank last cleaned. If there is accidental discharge of ballast exchange it must be entered and signed. Same information is to be given to concerned port state authority.

Advantage of ballast water management plan: With the help of a proper ballast management plan and some additional information, operational delays can be avoided which will help to save time and money. Reporting for requirements of different post state authority is simplified. And the most important of all is that a safe ballast exchange can be carried out anywhere in the world. Share 0digg Home Equipments

Propeller, Types of Propellers and Construction of Propellers


by Anish 4 December 2010 3 Comments A propeller is a rotating fan like structure which is used to propel the ship by using the power generated and transmitted by the main engine of the ship. The transmitted power is converted from rotational motion to generate a thrust which imparts momentum to the water, resulting in a force that acts on the ship and pushes it forward. A ship propels on the basis of Bernoullis principle and Newtons third law. A pressure difference is created on the forward and aft side of the blade and water is accelerated behind the blades.

The thrust from the propeller is transmitted to move the ship through a transmission system which consists of a rotational motion generated by the main engine crank shaft, intermediate shaft and its bearings, stern tube shaft and its bearing and finally by the propeller itself.

Material and Construction of Propeller Marine propellers are made from corrosion resistant materials as they are made operational directly in sea water which is a corrosion accelerator. The materials used for making marine propeller are alloy of aluminium and stainless steel. Other popular materials used are alloys of nickel, aluminium and bronze which are 10~15 % lighter than other materials and have higher strength. The construction process of the propeller includes attaching a number of blades to the hub or boss by welding or forging in one piece. Forged blades are highly reliable and have greater strength but are expensive as compare to welded ones. A marine propeller is constructed by sections of helicoidal surfaces acting together to rotate through water with a screw effect. Types of Propeller Propellers are be classified on the basis of several factors. The classification of different types of propellers is shown below: A) Classification by Number of Blades Attached: Propeller blades may vary from 3 blade propeller to 4 blade propeller and sometimes even 5 blade propeller. However, the most commonly used are 3 blades and 4 blade propellers. 3 blade propeller:

A 3 blade propeller has following characteristics: The manufacturing cost is lower than other types.

- Are normally made up of aluminium alloy. - Gives a good high speed performance. - The acceleration is better than other types. - Low speed handling is not much efficient. 4 blade propeller:

A 4 blade propeller has following characteristics: - The manufacturing cost is higher than 3 blade propellers. - 4 blade propellers are normally made up of stainless steel alloys. - Have better strength and durability. - Gives a good low speed handling and performance.

- Has a better holding power in rough seas. - 4 blade propeller provides a better fuel economy than all the other types. 5 blade propeller:

A 5 blade propeller has following characteristics: Manufacturing cost is higher of all.

- Vibration is minimal from all the other types. 5 blade propellers have better holding power in rough seas.

B) Classification By pitch of the blade: Pitch of a propeller can be defined as the displacement that a propeller makes for every full revolution of 360 . The classification of the propellers on the basis of pitch is as follows. Fixed Pitch Propeller: The blades in fixed pitch propeller are permanently attached to the hub. The fixed pitch type propellers are casted and the position of the blades and hence the position of the pitch is permanently fixed and cannot be changed during the operation. Fixed pitch propellers are robust and reliable as the system doesnt incorporate any mechanical and hydraulic connection as in Controlled Pitch Propeller (CPP). The manufacturing, installation and operational costs are lower than controlled pitch propeller (CPP) type. The manoeuvrability of fixed pitch propeller is also not as good as CPP. Controllable Pitch Propeller:

In Controlled Pitch type propeller, it is possible to alter the pitch by rotating the blade about its vertical axis by means of mechanical and hydraulic arrangement. This helps in driving the propulsion machinery at constant load with no reversing mechanism required as the pitch can be altered to match the required operating condition. Thus the manoeuvrability improves and the engine efficiency also increases.

This drawback includes the possibility of oil pollution as the hydraulic oil in the boss which is used for controlling the pitch may leak out. It is a complex and expensive system from both installation and operational point. Moreover, the pitch can get stuck in one position, making it difficult to manoeuvre the engine. Share 0digg Home Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Container Refrigeration Unit


by Anish 28 October 2010 No Comment A reefer container is an enclosed unit used for transporting temperature sensitive cargo. The container requires external power supply for its operation. The article describes everything you ever wanted to know about container refrigeration units.

When reefer containers are loaded in ships, the power supply is provided from the power generated from the D.G sets of the vessel. Some important points about container refrigeration are: - Container Refrigeration unit is fitted in front of the container and it serves as container front wall. - Some units are dual voltage, designed to operate on 190/230 or 380/460 volts A.C, 3 phase, 50-60 hertz power. - Operating control power is provided by single phase transformer which steps down the A.C supply power source to 24 volts, 1 phase control power. Understanding the Basic Sections of Refer Unit 1. Compressor Section - Consist of compressor (with H.P switch) and power cable storage compartment. Power transformer may be an option where the ship supply differs. - It also contain modulating and suction solenoid valve (for controlling the quantity of gas flow). - Safety fittings in the section are- moisture liquid indicator, pressure relief valve, filter drier etc. - Safety of the system is further enhanced by electronic monitoring with the help of following sensors- Compressor suction and discharge sensor, supply air temperature sensor, supply recorder sensor, ambient sensor. 2. Condenser Section - The condenser section contains condenser fan and its motor, an air cooled condenser coil and condenser saturation sensor. - For air cooled condenser air is normally pulled from bottom and discharged horizontally through centre of the unit.

- Some units consists of water cooled condenser /receiver. This unit is expensive. 3.Evaporator Section - This section contains temperature sensing bulb, return recorder bulb sensor and a thermostatic expansion valve (for flow of refrigerant and maintenance of inside temperature). - Assembly consist of evaporator coil and heater, drain pan and heater, defrost and heat transmission switches. - The evaporator fan circulates air throughout the container by pulling air in top of refrigeration unit and directing air through evaporator coil where its either heated or cooled and is then discharged out at the bottom of refrigeration unit into the container. 4. Fresh air Make up Vent - Purpose of this vent is to provide ventilation for commodities that requires fresh air circulation and must be closed when transporting frozen foods. - Air exchange depends upon static pressure differential which will vary depending upon how container is loaded. Safety and Operating Precaution An injury, no matter how small, should never go unattended. Always obtain first aid or medical attention immediately. a) Always wear safety gloves and glasses while working on any unit and also when charging refrigerant. b) Keep hand, tools, and clothing clear from evaporator and condenser fan. c) No work should be performed on any unit until all circuit breaker and start stop switches are turned off and power supply disconnected. d) Do not bypass any electrical safety device. e) When performing arc welding on unit or condenser, disconnect all wire harness connection from the module in control box. Do Not remove wire harness from the module unless you are grounded to unit frame with a static safe wrist strap. f) In case of electrical fire, open circuit switch and extinguish it with CO2 extinguisher. 7Share 1 0digg Home General

Understanding Sacrificial Anodes on Ships


by Anish 21 November 2010 No Comment Corrosion is one of the greatest enemies of the ship and its machinery. It is also the toughest enemy to fight against for the people working on the ship. Iron is one substance which is used in abundance on the ship. From the main body of the ship to the smallest equipment used in operations, iron makes its presence felt in almost every type of equipment used on board the ship. A ship is continuously in contact with water and moisture laden winds which makes it highly susceptible to corrosion. The other body of the ship (mainly hull) is continuously in contact with water, making it extremely vulnerable to corrosion. It is for this reason sacrificial anodes are used to protect the parent material. In this article we will have a look at the working of sacrificial anodes on ship.

It is to note that the sacrificial anodes which are protecting the parent material should lie higher in the electromotive series or galvanic series of metals. How Sacrificial Anodes Work?

Sacrificial anodes works on the principle similar to electrolysis, according to which if an anode and a metallic strip are dipped in electrolytic solution, anode electron will dissolve and deposit over the metallic strip and make it cathode. In the case of a ship, sea water acts as an electrolyte and transfers the electrons from the anode by oxidizing it over the steel plate and making a protecting layer. If the metal is more active it will be easily oxidized and will protect the metallic compound by making it act as cathode. The anode will corrode first sacrificing itself for the other compound and it is thus called sacrificial anode. Electromotive series or galvanic series metals Anode materials Magnesium(Mg) Aluminium(Al) Zinc (Zn) Chromium(Cr) Iron(Fe) Nickel(Ni) It can be seen from the table that for protecting iron any material above in the series are useful. These metals are preferred because they are easy and cheap to replace the anodes rather than complete a large sheet of metal.

These anodes are used in various applications such as : 1) Protecting the ships hull. 2) Protecting the ballast tanks corrosion. 3) Protecting the heat exchangers. 4) Sea chests The most common metals used for sacrificial anode is zinc.

Frequency for Changing of Anodes The frequency for changing of anodes depends on the application where the anodes have been used. In case the anodes are attached to the ships hull, then they are to be checked during dry dock which takes place after 2 to 3 years. If the anodes are found completely corroded then anodes of bigger size should be fitted, for fully corroded means that the material used was of poor quality or a large amount of material is required to protect the hull. Generally, sacrificial anodes are changed at every dry dock. If sacrificial anodes are used for heat exchangers and it is found during inspection that the anode left is only 10% then also it has to be changed. How to Assess if the Anodes are Working Properly or Not? During the inspection of heat exchangers or sea chest, if the condition of anode is same as it was installed then it indicates that the sacrificial anodes are ineffective. The main reason for this is that the electrical continuity between the parent materials is not made. Because of this the parent metal starts getting corroded instead of the anodes. It is therefore important to check the electrical continuity during installation. If you liked this article, you may also like to read What is Marine growth preventive system (MGPS) ?. Image Credit Share 0digg Home Maritime Law

What is Ship Oil Pollution Emergency Plan (SOPEP)?


by Mehnazd 16 November 2010 No Comment When oil spill occurs at sea, it spreads over the surface of the sea water, leaving a deadly impact on marine mammals, birds, the shore line and most importantly the ocean and the environment. The cost to clean up an oil spill depends on the quantity and quality of oil discharged in the sea and is calculated on the basis of factors such as legal claims, money paid as penalties, loss of oil, repairs and cleanups, and the most important loss of marine life and the effects on human health which cannot be measured against any amount. As prevention is better than cure, in order to avoid the above mentioned monitory losses and primarily to avoid marine pollution and losses of marine species, a prevention plan is carried on board by almost all cruise and cargo vessel. This plan is known as SOPEP or ship oil pollution emergency plan.

Understanding SOPEP As mentioned earlier, Sopep stands for Ship oil pollution emergency plan and as per the MARPOL 73/78 requirement under Annex I, all ships with 400 GT and above must carry an oil prevention plan as per the norms and guidelines laid down by International Maritime Organization under MEPC (Marine Environmental Protection Committee) act. The Gross tonnage requirement for oil tanker, according to SOPEP, reduces to 150 GT as oil itself is a kind of cargo which doubles the risk of oil pollution. Master of the ship is the overall in charge of the SOPEP of the ship, along with the chief officer as subordinate in charge for implementation of SOPEP on board. SOPEP also describes the plan for the master, officer and the crew of the ship to tackle various oil spill scenario that can occur on a ship. For oil tankers, action plan widens regarding the cargo handling and cargo tanks containing huge quantities of oil. Contents of SOPEP SOPEP contains the following things:

The action plan contains duty of each crew member at the time of spill, including emergency muster and actions. SOPEP contains the general information about the ship and the owner of the ship etc. Steps and procedure to contain the discharge of oil into the sea using SOPEP equipments. On board Reporting procedure and requirement in case of oil spill is described. Authorities to contact and reporting requirements in case of oil spill are listed in SOPEP. Authorities like port state control, oil clean up team etc are to be notified. SOPEP includes drawing of various fuel lines, along with other oil lines on board vessel with positioning of vents, save all trays etc. General arrangement of ship is also listed in SOPEP, which includes location of all the oil tanks with capacity, content etc. The location of the SOPEP locker and contents of the locker with a list of inventory. 6Share 2 0digg

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What is Ballast and De-ballasting?


by Anish 15 November 2010 No Comment Ballasting or de-ballasting is a process by which sea water is taken in and out of the ship when the ship is at the port or at the sea. The sea water carried by the ship is known as ballast water. Ballast or ballast water is sea water carried by a vessel in its ballast tanks to ensure its trim, stability and structural integrity. Ballast tanks are constructed in ships with piping system and high capacity ballast pumps to carry out the operation. In ancient times, ships used to carry solid ballast for stability as the cargo was minimal or there was no cargo to be carried. However, as time passed difficulties were faced during loading and discharging of solid cargo. The process of transferring of solid cargo was also time-consuming and for this reason solid ballast was replaced by water ballast. As sea water was readily available and in huge amount, it was used for the ballasting and de-ballasting process.

Ballasting or de-ballasting is required when the ship is to enter a channel, cross any canal like Panama canal and Suez Canal, during loading or unloading of cargo, and when ship is going for berthing. Ballasting and De ballasting Simplified When no cargo is carried by the ship, the later becomes light in weight, which can affect its stability. For this reason, ballast water is taken in dedicated tanks in the ship to stabilize it. Tanks are filled with ballast water with the help of high capacity ballast pumps and this process is known as Ballasting.

However, when the ship is filled with cargo, the stability of the ship is maintained by the weight of the cargo itself and thus there is no requirement of ballast water. The process of taking out ballast water from the ballast tanks to make them empty is known as de-ballasting.

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Procedure for Starting Emergency Steering System


by Anish 11 November 2010 No Comment An emergency steering system, as the name suggests, is a system which is used during the failure of the main steering system of the ship. The article explains as to what exactly is the steering system and what the procedure for starting the emergency steering system is. What is Emergency steering? A ship consists of electromechanical steering gear unit which steers the vessel from one port to other. Normally steering gear unit is 2 or 4 ram electro-hydraulically operated unit with two or more hydraulic motor for the ram movement.

A situation can occur in which the remote control operation may fail to work and their can be a sudden loss of steering control from the bridge. This can be due to sudden power failure, any electrical fault in the system or the control system which includes faulty tele-motor or servo motor which is used for transferring the signal from bridge to the steering unit. To have control the steering of the ship at such emergency situation with manual measure from within the steering gear room, an emergency steering system is used.

Procedure for Emergency steering Operation The following points should be followed for emergency steering operation. - The procedure and diagram for operating emergency steering should be displayed in steering gear room and bridge. - Even in emergency situation we cannot turn the massive rudder by hand or any other means, and thats why a hydraulic motor is given a supply from the emergency generator directly through emergency switch board (SOLAS regulation). It should also be displayed in the steering room. - Ensure a clear communication for emergency operation via VHF or ships telephone system. - Normally a switch is given in the power supply panel of steering gear for tele motor; switch off the supply from the panel. - Change the mode of operation by selecting the switch for the motor which is supplied emergency power. - There is a safety pin at the manual operation helms wheel so that during normal operation the manual operation always remains in cut-off mode. Remove that pin. - A helms wheel is provided which controls the flow of oil to the rams with a rudder angle indicator. Wheel can be turned clockwise or anti clockwise for going port or starboard or vice versa.

- If there is a power failure, through sound power telephone receive orders from the bridge for the rudder angle. As soon as you get the orders, turn the wheel and check the rudder angle indicator. A routine check should always be done for proper working of manual emergency system and steering gear system. An emergency steering drill should be carried out every month (prescribed duration 3 months) in the steering gear room with proper communication with bridge to train all the ships staff for proper operation of the system so that in emergency situation ships control can be regained as soon as possible, avoiding collision or grounding.

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Understanding Indicator Diagram and Different Types of Indicator Diagram Deficiencies


by KaranC 4 November 2010 No Comment Indicator diagrams are used to assess the performance of each unit of the main engine on a ship. It is based on the indicator diagram that the overall performance of the main engine is found out. Indicator diagrams are taken at regular intervals of time and matched with that of the ships sea trial diagrams to check if there is any major difference in performance. If there is any difference, it is important that the problem is rectified before starting the engine.

Understanding Indication Diagram

Generally there are two types of indicator diagrams one is power card and other is draw card. With the help of these two diagrams we can determine the compression pressure, peak pressure and the engine power. High loading is to be prevented on main engines units or else it can lead to several problems such as bearing damage, cracking etc. It is therefore for this reason very important to read these diagrams properly as they provide several details about the cylinder working pressures and load. In earlier days, the indicator diagram was taken with the help of mechanical indicator which was to be fitted on top of the indicator cocks. Bur nowadays a pressure transducer is fitted on the indicator cocks with the help of which the indicator diagram can be taken at any moment and displayed in the computer. How Can You Assess or Interpret Just by Looking at the Card Diagram. The indicator diagram shown below is a normal diagram (Diagrams taken before the use of the engine) and the diagrams that are taken from the engine are taken and compared for deficiency.

Types of Deficiencies We will take a look at some of the common deficiencies found in indicator diagrams. Deficiency type 1

When the above diagram is compared with the normal diagram it can be seen that the compression pressure is normal and the maximum firing pressure is too high. This can be due to early injection, a result of incorrect fuel timing of the cams, incorrect VIT setting, or leaking fuel injector. Deficiency Type 2

In this diagram, it can be seen that the compression is same but the peak pressure is too low. This effect can be a result of following factors:

Bad quality of fuel. Fuel injector nozzle blocked. Fuel pumps leaking. Low fuel pressure. Injector seized.

Deficiency Type 3

This diagram shows that the compression pressure is low, and the peak pressure is also too low. This can be due to the

Leaking exhaust valve. Leak through piston rings i.e broken or worn out piston rings. High Liner wear. Burnt piston crown.

Low scavenge pressure.

Deficiency Type 4

This diagram shows high compression pressure together with high peak pressure. This can be as a result of the following:

Exhaust valve opening too late i.e incorrect exhaust valve timing. Overload of the engine.

Reference Operation and maintenance of machinery In motorship By N.E Chell Share 0digg Home Equipments, Procedures/Maintenance

Reasons for Cylinder Liner Wear and Ways to Measure it


by Mohit 4 December 2010 No Comment All types of machines and parts get worn out due to continuous usage and working. Proper maintenance and routine checks are necessary to ensure that the machines work for a longer time. In this article we will have a look at various reasons that leads to cylinder liner wear and how it can be minimized. Reasons for Cylinder Liner Wear The wear in the cylinder liner is mainly because of following reasons:1) Due to friction. 2) Due to corrosion.

3) Abrasion 4) Scuffing or Adhesion

Frictional Wear Whenever two surfaces slide over each other, friction is produced which leads to wearing down of both the surfaces. In liner wear the surfaces are piston rings sliding over the cylinder liner. The frictional wear depends upon various factors like speed of movement between the surfaces, material involved, temperature, load on engine, pressure, maintenance, lubrication, and combustion efficiency. Corrosion The wear due to corrosion is cause due to the burning of heavy fuel oil in the combustion space. This happens because heavy fuel oil contains high sulphur content. During combustion, acids are formed inside the space which should be neutralized by cylinder oil which is alkaline in nature. The production of acids will be more if sulfur content is more, leading to the formation of sulphuric acid. Sulphuric acid is formed due to absorption of the condensate or moisture present inside the combustion space. Sulphuric acid corrosion is found more in the lower part of the liner as the temperature of jacket water is very low. Corrosion due to sulphur will be high due to the presence of water in fuel and condensate in the air. This wear is generally seen between the quills. The wear near the quills enlarge and gives a characteristic of the clover leaf shape to the wear pattern. This phenomenon is called clover leafing. Abrasion This type of wear is due to the hard particles present and formed during combustion. Catalytic fines in the fuel and the ash formed during the combustion causes abrasive wear. Adhesion or Scuffing

This is a form of local welding between the particles of piston rings and the liner surface. As the piston is moving inside the liner, the welding which has occurred breaks and leads to the formation of abrasive material. The abrasive material will increase the rate of wear of the liner. This is generally caused by insufficient lubrication due to which large amount of heat is produced and microscopic welding of rings and liner surface takes place. Due to this type of wear the liner loses its properties to adhere cylinder oil to the surface. One more reason or this phenomenon is polishing of the surface caused by scuffing, giving liners a mirror finish. How Cylinder Wear Can be Minimized? Cylinder wear can be minimized by carrying out the following steps: 1) By avoiding any ingress of water inside the liner by properly treating the fuel oil. 2) By maintaining the correct feed rate and grade of cylinder oil. 3) By avoiding ingress of moisture from the charge air. 4) By maintaining proper jacket water temperature. How Cylinder Liner Wear is Measured or Gauged?

Cylinder liner has to be gauged at regular intervals as specified in the maintenance manual. The records of gauging are kept for each cylinder and wear rate is calculated. The liner has to be cleaned and inspected before the gauging. Generally while taking the measurement the temperature of the liner and micrometer should be kept at the same temperature. If the temperature exceeds than that of the liner or vice versa then the readings has to be corrected by multiplying the value with the correction factor and deducting the value obtained from the reading taken. The reading obtained at the end will be the correct reading.

The cylinder liner wear is measured by a standard template, which consists of strategically positioned holes, wherein the micrometer is placed and the readings are taken.

The readings are taken for both port starboard and forward aft positions. This is done because the wear is not same in both direction and the ovality is checked. The wear rate will be different in the liner. The wear will be more in the top one third part as combustion takes place there and temperatures and pressure is also very high at the top. An approximate normal wear rate of the liner is about 0.1 mm per 1000 running hours. The wear rate increases if the engine is overloaded. Generally the liner has to be replaced when the wear is about 0.6-0.8% of the bore diameter or as per the manufacturers recommendation. Share 0digg Home Procedures/Maintenance

Types of Piston Rings and Piston Ring Maintenance


by Anish 24 November 2010 No Comment Piston rings are manufactured and classified on the basis of function and usability. Marine engines of higher capacity generally have all the three types of rings with little difference in their appearances. However, in smaller marine engines, different types of piston rings are used for dedicated purposes. In this article we will have a look at the different types of piston rings used in marine engines. Types and Functions of Piston Rings

Compression Rings or Pressure Rings The compression rings provide sealing above the piston and prevents the gas leakage from the combustion side. The compression rings are located in the top most grooves of the piston. However, this may differ according the design of the engine. The main function of these rings is to seal the combustion gases and transfer heat from the piston to piston walls.

Second or Intermediate Rings The oil in controlled by shearing the layer of the oil left by oil ring, thus providing the top compression rings enough lubrication. Moreover, it also provides help to the top compression ring in sealing and heat transfer.

Oil Control / Scrapper Rings The oil control rings controls the amount of lubricating oil passing up or down the cylinder walls. These rings are also used to spread the oil evenly around the circumference of the liner. The oil is splashed onto the cylinder walls. These rings are also called scraper rings as they scrap the oil off the cylinder walls and send it back to the crankcase. These rings do not allow oil to pass from between the face of the ring and the cylinder. Things to be Checked During Inspection of Piston Rings During Routine Inspection

During normal scavenge space inspection the piston rings are pressed with the help of a screw driver. This is done to check the spring action or tension of the rings. This also tells whether the ring is broken or not. If ring is broken there will be no spring action. The rings are checked for their freeness in the grooves, as they might get stuck due to carbon deposits and might finally break causing a lot of damage to the liner. The clearance between the ring and the groove is also checked and the wear is calculated. The ring is checked for scuffing marks and damage and overall condition is also assessed. During Major Overhaul

During major overhauls the rings are changed completely with the new set. But following steps needs to be considered for scrapping the rings:1) If the piston ring is found stuck inside the groove. 2) If the axial height of the rings is reduced and the clearance in rings and groove is large. 3) If the chrome layer is peeled off or damaged. During overhaul the grooves have to be properly cleaned off carbon deposits and checked for damage in the ring grooves. Before putting the piston rings it should be rolled rounded first in the grooves. In this process the ring is moved completely inside the grooves. With this test we can check that the grooves are deeper than the radial width of the ring. The piston rings are put inside the worn liner and the butt gap is also checked. While putting rings, they should be checked for markings as to which part is up or down and also different marking for different positions. Rings should be put with the help of proper toll i.e. with the help of ring expander. The clearance between the ring and the groove is checked with the help of the feeler gauge. The axial and radial clearance of old ring is checked and recorded to assess the amount of wear for number of running hours. Share 0digg Home Auxiliary Machinery, Equipments

Types of Heat Exchangers on a Ship

by Anish 3 December 2010 No Comment Different types of heat exchangers are used on board a ship. The type of heat exchange used for a particular usage depends on the application and requirement. In this article we talk about different types of heat exchangers used on a ship. The types of exchangers are mainly defined by their construction and are as follows: 1) Shell and Tube Type Heat Exchanger

This is the most popular type design with a shell accompanying several tubes and the flow of liquid to be cooled is mainly through tubes, whereas the secondary liquid flows over the tube inside shell. Shell and tube type heat exchanger is extremely economical to install and easy to clean; however the frequency of maintenance is higher than other types.

2)

Plate Type Heat Exchanger

Plate type exchanger consists of thin corrugated plates joined parallel together, creating cavity for fluid flow inside it. Alternate sides of the plate carries two different fluids, between which, heat transfer is carried out. Installation of this type of heat exchanger is expensive than shell and tube type, but maintenance cost is much lower. Efficiency of plate type is higher than shell and tube type for same size of unit and can withstand high pressure.

3)

Plate Fin Heat Exchanger

Plate and fin type heat exchanger is constructed similar to a plate type exchanger but also contains fins to increase the efficiency of the system. Aluminium alloy is used as it gives higher heat transfer efficiency and lowers the weight of the unit. Fins can be fixed in perpendicular to the direction of flow and are known as offset fins. Fins fixed in parallel to the direction of flow are straight fins. Fins can be fixed in curvature form to increase the heat exchanging effect and are thus known as wavy fins. Efficiency of this heat exchanger is slightly higher than plate type unit but installation and maintenance cost is higher

4)

Dynamic Scrapped Surface Heat Exchanger

In this heat exchanger because of the continuous scrapping of the surface long running time is achieved which helps in better heat transfer efficiency and decrease in the fouling of the system. The scrapping is done by a blade unit operated by a motor driven shaft with timer moving inside the frame. This heat exchanger is normally used for heat transfer of highly viscous fluid by increasing the turbulence of the fluid. Maintenance cost is less as compare to other types because of the auto cleaning process.

5)

Phase Change Heat Exchanger

As the name suggests, this type of heat exchanger is used to change the phase of a medium from solid to liquid or liquid to gas by principle of heat transfer. This type is normally operated in freeze cycle and melts cycle for change in phase to happen. The heat exchanger is normally constructed like a shell and tube type exchanger, but consists of at least two divider walls to construct upper and lower annular space for flow passage. It also consists of fins in both passage ways for efficient heat transfer.

6)

Spiral Heat Exchanger

This type of heat exchanger consists of concentric shape flow passages which help in creating a turbulence flow of a fluid which in turns increases the heat transfer efficiency. Initial installation cost is higher but highly efficient as compare to other types as space saving is much more because of the compact size. Maintenance cost is lowest as compare to other types for the same size of the unit. The Flow of fluid in spiral type is rotary current flow which itself possesses the property of self cleaning of fouling inside the spiral body.

7)

Direct Contact Heat Exchanger

In this type of heat exchanger, there is no separating wall inside the unit. Both the mediums are in direct contact for heat transfer process.

Direct contact type heat exchangers can be further classified as 1. 2. 3. Gas liquid Immiscible liquid- liquid Solid- liquid or solid- gas

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What is Clearance Volume or Bumping Clearance in Air Compressors?


by Hiteshk 22 November 2010 2 Comments Clearance volume or bumping clearance is the space between the top of the piston and the cylinder head of an air compressor. This clearance is an important aspect of the compressors and should be as less as practically possible to improve the volumetric efficiency of the compressor. The clearance volume should not be too less or too more. Moreover, it affects the efficiency of the machinery and thus should be checked at regular intervals of time. Significance and Effects of Bumping Clearance In an air compressor, when the discharge valve closes in the end of the compression cycle, a small amount of high pressure air is trapped in the clearance volume.

Before again taking suction, the air trapped in the clearance volume must expand below the suction pressure i.e. below the atmospheric pressure. The expansion of this trapped air in the clearance volume causes effective loss of stroke due to which the volumetric efficiency of compressor drops. Therefore, the clearance volume has a significant effect on the efficiency of the compressor.

Effects Due to Less Clearance Small clearance volume may result in piston banging or colliding to the cylinder head. This is dangerous when the compressor when is running in unloaded condition without any resistance to the movement of the piston. Effects Due to Large Clearance Large bumping clearance retards the formation of vacuum on the suction stroke and thus less air is drawn inside for compression and accordingly the weight of the air delivered is reduced proportional to the clearance volume.

Compressor has to run for a longer period to provide the necessary compression pressure. Reasons for Change in Clearance Volume During overhauls of the air compressor, if the gasket fitted between the cylinder head joints is of the wrong type, then the bumping clearance will increase, resulting in wear down of bottom bearings or wrong bearings are put in place. How Bumping Clearance is checked? Bumping clearance is checked by putting a lead ball or plastic gauges over the piston and then turning the compressor one revolution by hand. By doing this the lead ball will compress and the thickness obtained is the clearance volume. This thickness is measured with vernier caliper or micrometer and is then compared with the manufacturers value. Adjustments are made in case there is an offset in the value. Adjustment of bumping clearance Bumping clearance can be adjusted with the help of inserting shims (thin metallic plates) in the bottom bearings. Inserting shims will move the connecting rod and the piston which will change the clearance. What should be the Bumping Clearance? Generally bumping clearance depends on the manufacturer but as a thumb rule it should be between 0.5% to 1% of the bore of the cylinder.

How are Piston Rings Made?


by Mohit 23 November 2010 No Comment Piston rings of marine engines are made with the help of pot casting method. In this method a short cylinder of oval cross section is made and the piston rings are then cut and machined from the cylinder. With this method a homogeneous and balanced casting is formed around the entire circumference of the ring. The piston rings should have tension properties with which sealing effect is produced. In olden days, the tension in the engine room was produced by hammering around the circumference of the circular ring. Today, this tension is achieved by two methods:1) Thermally Tensioned Ring 2) Oval Pot Cam Turning Method

Thermally Tensioned Ring The thermally tensioned ring is one of the cheapest methods to induce tension in the piston rings but is restricted to smaller engines. In this method the piston ring is machined from the circular pot to the required cylinder diameter. After making the ring, a gap is cut and a metal piece is inserted in the gap which expands the ring and induces a tension in the ring. After expanding, the ring and the distance piece is placed inside the oven to relieve any stresses induced during the process. The major disadvantage of this process is that the ring loses its tension because of the heat of the engine. Oval Pot Cam Turning Method The oval pot cam turning method is expensive but the rings produced from this method retain their tension while working in heat of the engine. The rings are machined in a cam turning lathe. By changing the cam shape and the oval form, the pressure distribution around the ring is changed and a tension is induced. After the pot has been machine a gap is cut in the ring of about 7-13% diameter and rings are grounded on the flanks to ensure good sealing in the piston ring grooves. Plating of piston rings

The piston rings used in the marine engines should be harder than the liner material in which they are used. To provide additional strength to the piston rings, some materials like chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, titanium, nickel and copper are added to them. Chrome plating is one of the most common methods of surface treatment. It is generally used on the running surface of the piston rings and on the landing surfaces i.e. in ring grooves. Chromium has the advantage of high wear resistance, low friction and corrosion resistance properties. The coating done should be of high quality and be able to operate under all conditions inside the engine without damaging or peeling off or breaking. Plasma coating

It is also one of the methods used for plating the rings. In this method, a gas mixture is passed through an arc generated between the tungsten electrode and water cooled copper tube. A very high temperature is thus generated and the gas molecules start to disintegrate. The plasma state level carbides and ceramic are sprayed as fine powder which melts and coats the ring surface. This plasma coating provides better properties than those provided by the chrome plating.

The disadvantage of chrome and plasma coating is that the thickness of coating and the bonding to parent metal is limited. A new method of laser hardening treatment is also done. This produces a wear resistant layer which is several times thicker than that of the conventional coatings. Sometimes, copper is plated directly over the chrome layer of the ring. The plating thickness is very thin and the life of this is long enough to cater for running in period. Plasma coated rings are graphite coated to cater with the running in periods. Share 0digg Home Auxiliary Machinery

Heat Exchangers on Ship Explained


by Hiteshk 2 December 2010 No Comment Heat exchanger is an equipment which reduces the temperature of a medium by transferring temperature of that medium to another, when both the mediums are separated by a solid membrane or wall like structure. For efficient operation, the surface area of the wall which separates the two mediums is maximized, simultaneously minimizing the flow resistance of the fluid. Exchanging of heat in a heat exchanger can be in between- liquid and liquid, gas and liquid, liquid and gas etc. For heat transfer basically three patterns of flow are used for construction of a heat exchanger. Opposite flow : Primary medium (to be cooled) and secondary medium (which is cooling the primary medium) enters in the heat exchanger in opposite direction to each other.

Cross flow : Primary and secondary medium enters in an exchanger perpendicular to each other.

Parallel flow : Primary and secondary medium both enter the heat exchanger parallel to each other.

Where are Heat Exchangers Used Onboard Ship? Each and every system in a ship is interlinked with each other in some way or the other. Even if one system fails, vessel can come to a standstill.

Heat exchanger plays an important role for efficient working of different systems, which include1) Propulsion Plant: - Main propulsion plant consists of different sub system for running of main engine like lube oil system, jacket water system (open or closed system), fuel system etc. - While generating energy all these systems gets heated up and the temperatures are controlled by the use of heat exchanger in the system.

- Heat exchangers normally used in main propulsion system are Shell and tube type and plate type heat exchanger. 2) Auxiliary Power Generation System: - Auxiliary power generation system is similar to the main propulsion system, except that the power is generated in terms of output. - Shell and tube type, plate type and plate fin type heat exchanger are generally used 3) Starting Air System: - High pressure air is produced in the compressor which is further cooled in inter-cooler, which acts as a heat exchanger - Shell and tube type exchanger is popularly used for this purpose. 4) Fuel injection system: - For proper atomization, fuel is heated up in a heater with heating medium as steam. Shell and tube type heater is used for this purpose. - For reducing Sox emission from propulsion plant, combustible fuel is mixed with spray of water, for this direct contact heat exchanger is used. 5) Refrigeration System: - In refrigeration system, for meat room, fish room and vegetable room, evaporator acts as phase change heat exchanger. - Shell and tube type unit is used for condenser unit in refrigeration system. 6) A.C system: - For maintaining the temperature, phase change heat exchanger unit is installed as evaporator. - Condenser unit is normally shell and tube type exchanger. 7) Fresh Water System: - For generating fresh water, sea water condenser and jacket water evaporator is used. Both are types of heat exchangers. - Shell and tube type and plate type heat exchangers are normally used for this. 8) Steam Turbine Unit: - If a ship consists of stem turbine or turbine generator, normally spiral heat exchanger is used for heat transfer.

Apart from the above mentioned places, there are several other applications where heat exchangers are effectively used for smooth running of the ship. Share 0digg Home Procedures/Maintenance

Procedure for Cleaning Fuel Oil Tanks on a Ship


by Aditib 11 November 2010 No Comment Ships use heavy fuel oil which has a very high viscosity. When stored in fuel tanks, this oil tends to stick inside the tanks forming layers of semi-solid substance. Moreover, many impurities of the oil settle down and stick to the surface of the tanks. It is therefore imperative that the fuel oil tanks are cleaned on a regular basis on ships. Generally, fuel oil tanks cleaning on the ship is done during dry dock and whenever the inspection of the fuel tanks is due. Cleaning is done for surveyor inspection or if there is any work to be done inside the tanks such as crack in fuel tank, leaking steam lines etc. For cleaning a tank various safety precautions are to be considered as it contains flammable gases and oil inside it.

Preparations Done before Cleaning The following steps are to be followed before starting the cleaning process: 1) Empty the tank as much as possible; strip the tank by trimming the ship forward or aft depending on the suction valve location. 2) When the ship is going for dry-dock the keel plan is to be sent to the shore facility so that they should not put any keel block in the way of the plug present in the bottom shell plating. 3) The tank has to be properly ventilated as it is an enclosed space and might contain flammable gases.

4) It is to be made sure that the steam connections are closed and proper signs and placards are displayed so that during cleaning nobody opens the valve and gets burnt or hurt. 5) The tank has to be checked for flammable gases. 6) The tank has to be checked for oxygen content with the help of oxygen analyser. 7) The tank is drained off left over oil with the help of plugs. 8 ) The location of plug can be found out in shell plating diagrams. 9) Generally this plug is covered with cement and made streamlined with the shell plating. 10) Enclosed space entry checklist is filled out so that no safety issues are compromised or left. During cleaning 1) Entry is only to be made inside the tank if the oxygen level is 21% by volume and flammable gases are vented out. 2) One person should always standby outside the manhole door and should be in communication with the person inside. 3) The person outside should continuously communicate with person inside and with the duty officer. 4) In case of hot work to be carried out, a fire line is to be carried inside. Also, a small fire extinguisher for small fire should be there. Inform Port state authority before commencing hot work. 5) The tank is cleaned manually with the help of brushes, rags etc. 6) The oxygen content is continuously monitored and in case the alarm indicates low level, the space has to be evacuated immediately without any delay. After cleaning 1) Make sure no tool are left inside which may get stuck in the valve or damage the transfer pump 2) The place where crack repair is done should be checked for leaks. 3) If it was a steam leak repair, the coils needs to be checked for steam leak inside. 4) In case of crack or plate renewal the tank has to be pressure tested and checked for leak. If the repair is major it has to be inspected by class surveyor before putting it in operation. 5) Close the manhole after inspection, repairs and cleaning.

6) Close and remove the sign permit to work. Share 0digg Home Auxiliary Machinery, Marine Environment

The Green Source of Power On Ship Shaft Generator


by Anish 1 December 2010 One Comment A ship consist of a power plant system which generates enough power for the propulsion plant machines, engine room and deck machines, and navigation equipment of the ship, along with daily life demands of the crew onboard which includes galley, lift and cabin power supply etc. For this, large quantities of fuel are burned within the prime mover which in turns rotates the rotator in the alternator and generates power. The burning of fuel increases the operational cost for owner, burdens the engine crew with maintenance of the generator and the most importantly, it causes air pollution. To eliminate the usage of independently driven generators when the ship is sailing in the mid sea, shaft generator concept is used. Shaft generator is a clean source of power, which means it does not burn any fuel to generate power, and for the same reason it is also called the green source of power.

Shat Generator: Principle of Working In an A.C generator, in order to produce power, the stationary armature conductors are cut by the rotating magnetic field, produced by the rotation taken from the propeller shaft of the main propulsion plant or main engine. The running machinerys power is supplied through main switch board with constant voltage and frequency by diesel generator. In case of shaft generator, which is driven by main engine, the speed of the former may vary at different situations like ship sailing in traffic water and crossing canals, resulting in variation in voltage and frequency of shaft generator.

To overcome this deficiency, two systems are used Onboard ship a) Power take off (PTO) system is incorporated with different kinds of frequency control system which makes sure of producing power with constant frequency. b) Hybrid system consisting of an advanced power electric system for conditioning the power generated from shaft generator so that the supply to the switchboard always remains constant at any engine speed. The modern application of the shaft generator includes its functioning as a motor by taking power from the electrical plant of the ship to drive the propeller at reduced speed. This application is expensive to install and is used for vessels which moves very slowly or vessel which stays still most of the time.

Advantages of Shaft generator system: 1) The biggest advantage- it dose not cause air pollution unlike other traditional methods of power production in ship. Moreover, noise level is also low.

2) It is more cost effective as it dose not requires expensive fuel for power generation as main engine itself is a prime mover. 3) The wear and tear and hence the maintenance schedule and costs for the same reduces for independent driven generator. 4) Installation space is less as it is installed close or in line with the shaft of the main engine. 5) The investment cost depends on the type and system of the shaft generator but for a basic designed shaft generator it is low. 6) The installation cost for shaft generator is also low as it doesnt require separate foundation, prime mover or exhaust system. Even time for installation is also less. 7) Low spare parts cost and man hour cost as the schedule maintenance period for shaft generator has larger time gap as compared to diesel generator. Disadvantages of Shaft generator: 1) For a basic shaft generator system, the efficiency of propeller and engine is reduced at low propulsion power. Since the frequency requirement is constant, for a main engine with a CPP, it has to run at constant speed even at low load. 2) No power generation in port as the prim mover is in stop condition.

3) Due to an additional attachment to shaft of the engine, the load in the engine also increases, resulting in increase in specific fuel and cylinder oil consumption when shaft generator is used. 4) Cannot cope up alone when the load demand is high as it may affect the main engine performance and maintenance. 5) It requires gears, couplings and other complicated arrangement for installation in some system. Share 0digg Home Equipments

What are Buffing Pads Used for?


by sharda 22 February 2011 No Comment Like any other working machinery, boats also get dirty and require polishing. Since the hull of the boat is made of fibreglass and faces a lot of scratches and hits from rocks and hard grass in the sea, it requires constant cleaning and polishing. This is why the boat needs buffing pads to keep the hull clean, and the polish and the shine intact.

A buffing pad is used in cars by mechanics to polish the surface of the car. But in the boating industry, due to the constant movement of the water and the close contact of the hull of the boat, buffing pads becomes even more relevant. A buffing pad is not limited by the size of the boat. This is why there two main types of buffing pads:

A manual buffing pad An electrical buffing pad

The type of a buffing pad used depends on the application, the crew of the boat and the type of materials that the boat is constructed with.

Small corners of the boat will be reached better with the help of electrical buffing pads while areas that are easily accessible can be buffed with the help of a manual buffing pad. In order to buff the boat, wax has to be used. By spreading wax on the buffing pad, one can buff the boat effectively. There are different types of materials of buffing pads that can be used for various levels of the coating on the hull of the boat. Two of the main types are a wool buffing pad and a foam buffing pad.

One has to wear protective gear while buffing a boat. Without wearing protective gear for the eyes, there is a risk of the wax getting into the eyes of the cleaner and affecting quite seriously. The main indication that a boat has been buffed successfully is when the fibreglass or the gel coating in the glass starts to gleam brightly. Buffing pads are a preferred mode of polishing and cleaning the boat. They offer a complete guarantee that the surface of the boat will be polished without any financial loss to the boat owner for repairs. This surety is what that will make a buffing pad very popular not only in todays times but also in the future. Share 0digg Home Equipments

What is a Prop Guard?


by Mehnazd 15 February 2011 No Comment A propeller is the most important part of the ship. The propeller is submerged under the water and has blades or wings like a fan, propelling the ship in the water. Since the propeller is under the surface of the water, it can happen that rocks and underwater reefs can damage the blades of the propeller. In order to avoid such damage, a propeller guard needs to be installed.

A propeller guard or a prop guard, as it is more commonly known, consists of a steel cage which surrounds the propeller. The prop guard freely allows the movement of the propeller and safeguards it against rough underwater parts. It is made of steel which makes it water resistant and prevents rusting in the salty waters of the ocean. Apart from rocks and reefs, prop guards also offer protection to people who might come in contact with the propellers while doing snorkelling and underwater swimming. Prop guards also protect marine animals who could lose their lives by colliding against the fast moving propellers.

The price of an ideal prop guard is around US $ 200. There are different varieties of prop guards, which differ according to the size of the propeller and the choice of the propeller guard that a ship owner wants. They come in sizes that vary anywhere between 7 to 12 inches. The two main types of propeller guards can be explained as follows: Type I: This type of prop guard has a steel covering shaped like a mesh (net). This is the more preferred type of propeller guard as the mesh acts a cage and protects the propeller from all sorts of possible damage. Type II: This type of prop guards has a steel covering that has large bands or gaps. This sort of propeller guard is preferred less than the previously mentioned variety as it does not offer a complete protection to the propeller.

A prop guard can be fitted very easily with the help of tools like a wench and a drill. Once fitted with a prop guard, a ship owner and the crew can rest assured that there will not be any extra costs incurred to continuously replace the propellers. Share 0digg Home Marine Electrical

What is Azipod Propulsion System on Ship?


by Mohit 18 December 2010 One Comment Azipod system used on ships is combination of both propulsion and steering systems. In conventional propulsion system, a large two stroke engine is connected to a shaft, which passes through shaft tunnel and stern tube and connects to the propeller outside the hull in the aft part of the ship. The steering of such system is done with the help of a rudder placed in the aft of the propeller. However, in azipod arrangement, the propulsion and steering systems are combined and made into one part. The system consists of a propeller which is driven by an electrical motor and the propeller is turned by the rudder which is connected to the system. The motor is placed inside the sealed pod and is connected to the propeller. It should be noted that the sealing of the pod should be perfect otherwise it can damage the whole motor and make the ship handicap from maneuvering. The motor used for this system is variable frequency electric motor. Using variable frequency, the rotational speed of the propeller can be controlled i.e. the speed can be increased or decreased.

The azipod system is also known as POD drive system, where POD stands for Propulsion with Outboard Electric motor. The whole azipod system is situated outside the hull in the aft of the ship. The azipod can turn in all the directions i.e. 360 degrees with the help of a rudder, and thus provides a thrust in any direction which is not possible in the conventional system. The propeller in the pod system is moved by the rudder which is placed in the steering flat, also the power module for the system. Understanding the Azipod System The azipod system is a type of electric propulsion system which consists of three main components:

1) Supply Transformer The power produced from the generators is as high as 6600 KV, which is stepped down to the necessary voltage by the supply transformer required and is provided to the motor placed in the pod.

2) Propulsion motor Propulsion motor is used to drive or to produce thrust. The system needs some method for rotating the propeller and this is done with the help of electric motor. 3) Frequency Controller/converter This is used to change the frequency of the supplied power so that the rotating speed spee of the motor can be controlled depending on the requirement.

Advantages of Azipod System 1) Greater maneuverability as the propeller can be turned in all directions. This enables better stop distance during crash maneuvering than that provided by the conventional conventional system. 2) In case of ships having large breadth, two or more azipods which are independent of each other can be used. This provides subtle maneuvering. 3) It saves a lot of space in the engine room as there is no engine, propeller, shafting and an other arrangements. The saved space can thus be used for storing more cargo. 4) The system can be placed below the ships height thus providing more efficiency than the conventional system. 5) Use of side thruster is eliminated as the pods can be used for providing the side thrust. 6) Low noise and vibrations than the conventional system. 7) Low fuel and lube oil consumption. 8) ) Environment friendly as emissions are extremely low. Disadvantages 1) Azipod system requires massive initial cost.

2) A large number of diesel generators are required for producing power. 3) There is a limitation to the power produced by the motor. As of now the maximum power available is 21 MW. 4) Cannot be installed in large ships with heavy cargo which need a lot of power and large motors. Share 0digg Home Equipments

What are Keel Guards?


by Monica 13 February 2011 No Comment A keel is the most important part of a ship. Sometimes it is also referred to as the spine of the ship. A keel is the base on which ships are built and is the bisector (divider) that separates the hull into two length-wise areas. Keel guards are a protection that is used to cover the keel of a ship from getting damaged. A keelguard or a keel protector holds a very important place in the safety of the ship. The keel of a ship is generally made of fibreglass, a material that does not break or shatter easily. But when a ship encounters very rocky or rough areas in the shallow parts of the water or when it collides against rocks in the high sea areas, then the fibreglass can break or get damaged. With the help of a keel guard, this damage can be avoided and the ship can be used for a much longer period of time. The material used to build a keel protector is composed of a special type of rubber known as polymer. This type of rubber is completely foolproof against rocks and rough areas, making keel guards a very successful technological development.

The material of keel guards also consists of very high-sticky gum that is used to stick the keel guard to the keel. While one is attaching the keel protector to a ships keel, care has to be taken that fingers are not placed on the adhesive. Doing so will result in the keelguard becoming ineffective in its purpose. This is why when one attaches the keelguard to the keel, the process is done by a brush than by hand. Also, before the keelguard is taped to the keel of the ship, in order to heat the adhesive, it has to be warmed in the sun for at least 10 minutes. Keel guards are guaranteed by recognised marine engineering standards and are highly cost efficient. The adhesive that is used is of the 3M variety. The temperature of the atmosphere while a keelguard has to be attached to a keel needs to be around 60 degrees (minimum).

The technology of keel guards is so unique that it will be a part of ships and boats even in the future. Durability and reliability are the unique selling features that make a keel protector the best that there today. Share 0digg Home Sports & Luxury, Types of Ships

What are Hydrofoil Boats?


by Mehnazd 22 November 2010 No Comment Hydrofoil boats incorporating the use of hydrofoil to help them propel much faster on the water are an attraction that has held the shipping industry for quite some time now. But it has to be noted that these hydrofoil boats are by no means a latest designing. They were created by A. G. Bell and Casey Baldwin in 1908 and were used extensively during the First World War by American troops to avoid the waters which were trapped by mines. How do they work? In modern times, however, these hydrofoil boats are gaining more momentum on account of them being faster and speedier on the waters. A hydrofoil boat works on very simple terms. The hydrofoil based on the base of the boat allows the boat to move easily through the waters and ensures that the body of the boat which in marine terms is referred to as the hull does not come in any contact with the water.

Also, since the hydrofoil works only if the boat is still on the surface of the water, it prevents the boat from rising out of the water and from causing the boat to capsize. And if by any chance, a hydrofoil boat manages to come out of the water, its designing will force the hull of the boat to crash back into the water and the hydrofoil gets submerged till adequate thrust is generated for the hydrofoil to lift the boat and carry on. Where are they Used?

These hydrofoil boats are mostly used for fishing but given the speed factor, these hydrofoil boats can be used for a multitude of purposes in the days to come. As cargo carriers, they can help to transport heavy materials across the ocean in a matter of days and weeks thereby helping to solve the problem of cargo getting delayed while reaching its intended destination. Also since hydrofoil forms the main engineering behind the propelling of the hydrofoil boat, even marine creatures can escape the inadvertent attack that they face when encountered with a cargo liner in the deep ocean. Important Points It however has to be noted that the hydrofoil that is used in the hydrofoil boats consist of much smaller foils than the foils on a hydroplane. The density of water is much higher than the density of air, because of which not much pressure is needed on the hydrofoils to maneuver the boat on the surface of the water thus explaining the reason about the foils in the hydrofoil of the hydrofoil boat being small. Conclusion Just like yachts which have revolutionized the shipping and the boating industry to a great level, the hydrofoil boats are also capable of doing something equally great. Right now the

usage of a hydrofoil boat is not much but given the benefits and the efficiency of such boats, it is quite possible that more and more parties will take to boats involving the use of hydrofoil as a successful alternative to the existing ones. These hydrofoil boats are compact and unlike several other items which have lots of restrictions imposed on them because of their compactness, they are free of any encumbrances, making them even lucrative from the point of view of any current and potential boat-owner. Reference Share 0digg Home Equipments

What is a Skeg Guard?


by Laxmi 20 February 2011 No Comment The term skeg has two meanings. In certain boats, it means an elongation or extension of the keel of the boat from the back of the boat (known as the stern). In other type of boats, the skeg means an external engine of a boat. In all types of ship, skeg is a very important part in a boat. Skegs are that part of the boat which look for overall operation and piloting of the boat. For this reason, they tend to face a lot of movement in the water. This continuous movement along with the location of the skegs (at the back of the boat) leads to the skegs facing the threat of unwanted damages and accidents. These damages could be caused due to rocks and stones in the shallow parts of the water. Even sea-grass and weeds could get entangled in the skeg and lead to a lot of problems for the boat owners. The cost of repairs for damages caused to the skegs involves welding and other complicated work which is very expensive. By attaching a skeg protector, a boat owner can ensure that the skegs can be used for a long period of time.

Attaching a skeg protector to skegs is not very difficult. It is a very simple process that can be done by the boat owner or by any member of the crew of the boat. The skeg guard is made of stainless steel which makes the equipment even more reliable. Steel is resistant to water and the skeg guard will not get corroded when the boat comes in contact with salty waters of the sea. The steel used in the skeg protector is made as per the regulations of the required marine authorities. Additionally, the price of a skeg protector is comparatively quite low which makes it even more feasible for interested clients. Precaution is better than cure is a very famous phrase. In the marine industry, there are many aspects that require protection from threats. There are keel guards to protect keels, hull guards to protect the hull of the boat to give a few examples. A skeg guard also features in this list. In the days to come, the value and worth of a skeg guard will be even more because of the fast-paced development of the boating industry. Share 0digg Home Equipments

What are Marine Fenders?


by Mehnazd 6 January 2011 One Comment Marine fenders are a type of marine equipment that are used to prevent boats, ships and other naval vessels from colliding against each other or against docks, wharves and piers. In other words marine fenders can be simply termed as a marine bumper. Marine fenders are important marine equipment as they prevent loss to the body of a boat or a ship. The fender systems that are used in naval vessels have evolved continuously throughout the times and now are devised in such a way that the prevention process is almost faultless and foolproof.

Marine fenders, in todays times are employed in such a way that they are kept on the hull or the head of a boat or a ship in order to prevent casualty to the hull or the head of the naval vessel if there is any collision happening between boats. However, at the same time, marine fenders are also employed in piers, docks, wharves and other regular boat entrance and exit points on a permanent basis.

This permanent fixing of marine fenders help because, in case there is a heavy traffic of boats passing through from a particular dockyard, and there is an accident or a collision then the casualty to the boat and the dockyard will be both minimised to a great extent. Fender systems have been devised in order to protect all vehicles from damage caused due to accidents. When it comes to marine fenders, the marine equipment is one of the best technological advancements to have occurred in contemporary times. Even in the earlier centuries, fender systems were used to prevent loss to a naval vessels torso but the concept and idea has evolved more in the modern times than in the past. Through successful innovations and initiations, there are a wide variety of marine fender systems available which act as excellent marine equipment.

There are various types of marine fenders which have emerged over the years and which provide excellent utility in the area of water transportation. The wide variety of marine fenders ensures that sufficient options are provided so as to enable a person or an authority to choose the best possible fender system or marine fender. Some of the types of marine fenders are as follows: Arch Fenders:

This type of marine equipment is used in order to provide aid and assistance to a type of marine fender known as the cylindrical fender. Since the maintenance aspect in arch fenders is absolutely zero, it is one of the best marine equipment and a best fender system. Arch fenders can be used for small and mid-ranged ships and boats and provide excellent quality service to the same. Cylindrical Fenders:

They are the most basic and common fender systems used in todays times. They can be used for all types of marine boats and ships and they are quite economical too when the aspect of fitting them up is taken into account. W Fenders:

These type of marine fenders are used mainly to aid the larger ships and boats because they offer a high rate of resistance and thus better protection to the water-crafts in case of any accident occurring.

Other types of marine fenders are the I fender, Cell Fender, Cone Fender and the Pneumatic Fender which along with the other three marine fenders, help in providing a very viable and feasible solution to the problem of accidents and collisions of naval vessels. Having a shipping conglomerate is a very important thing, but equally important is the preventive measure employed to safeguard the naval vessels in case of any collision. Fixing fender systems to ones boats and ships therefore is the best idea and the best safety procedure that can be applied and used not just effectively but also productively. Share 0digg Home General

How Maintenance Work is Done Onboard a Ship?


by Mohit 10 November 2010 No Comment Maintenance is one thing that keeps any mechanical equipment or machinery going. Weather it is a small machine or a large structure, efficient maintenance can help with prolonged life and favorable outcome. On a ship, maintenance is one thing that keeps machinery up to date and is smooth running condition. In this article we will learn as to how maintenance is being carried out on a ship. In a ships engine room, where the maximum machines are located, engineers and crew carry out the maintenance for safe and efficient operation. Each machine on board a ship requires maintenance which has to be carried out at regular intervals of time. In the earlier days, the number of crew members and engineers on a ship were large and so the maintenance was carried out fast and easily. However, in the present scenario, the number of crew members and engineers on the ship has reduced drastically. Many ships carry only 3-4 engineers on board a ship and even the time required to carry out maintenance on the ship has reduced. Maintenance requires manpower and time which may not be available all the time as the number of crew members is less and the amount of machinery is more.

It is for this reason important to plan the maintainence of the machinery in advance so that the machinery can be overhauled and maintained properly. Generally second engineer is required to plan the schedule of maintenance on a ship. Efficient planning and adequate usage of equipments is the key to productive maintenance. In this article we will have a look at the main types of maintenance procedures followed on a ship. Types of Maintenance Procedures 1) Preventive or Scheduled Maintenance System It is famously known as the PMS or Planned Maintenance System. In this type of system the maintainence is carried out as per the running hours like 4000 hrs, 8000 hrs etc., or by the calender intervals like 6 monthly, yearly etc. of the machinery. The maintenance is carried out irrespective of the condition of the machinery. The parts have to be replaced if it is written in the schedule, even if they can be still used. 2) Corrective or Breakdown Maintenance In this system the maintainence is carried out when the machinery breaks down. This is the reason it is known as the breakdown maintenance. This is not a suitable and good method as situations may occur wherein the machinery is required in emergency. The only advantage of this system is that the working of machinery parts is used to its full life or until it breaks. This system might get costly as during breakdown several other parts may also get damaged. 3) Condition Maintainence system In this system the machinery parts are checked regularly. With the help of sensors etc. the condition of the machinery is accessed regularly and the maintenance is done accordingly. This system requires experience and knowledge as wrong interpretation may damage the machinery and lead to costly repairs which may not be acceptable by the company. Share 0digg Home Equipments, Marine Safety

A General Overview of Engine Room Crane and Safety Features


by Anish 25 December 2010 No Comment A ship is a huge floating structure which is propelled with the help of a main engine, along with several other machinery and systems inside the engine room which require proper operation and continuous maintenance. Maintenance and repair of engine room machinery requires moving of heavy parts from one place to another. As individual parts of main engine and machinery of ship weighs in tonnes, engine room crane operation and safety plays a

major contribution for the continuous operation of the ship. In this article we will learn about one such equipment which helps immensely in this process the engine room crane. General Description of Engine Room Cranes The merchant vessels are fitted with engine room cranes mainly as per the main engine specification. This is done so that the crane can lift all the individual parts of the engine during routine maintenance. Normally, the capacity range for these cranes is from o.5 to 15 tonnes. Sometimes two cranes are fitted in an engine room, where in space and reach is a problem, to simplify the lifting operation. One crane with two hoists is also commonly fitted onboard.

The engine room crane consists of a motor coupled with wire drum so that the motor can lift or lower the crane hoist by winding or unwinding the wire over the drum. The whole system is then fitted in a trolley.

Two pathways are built with a rack and pinion arrangement, both in transverse and longitudinal direction of the engine room and over the main engine, where the trolley is placed so that the whole unit can move fore-aft and port starboard.

A remote is provided so that the crane can be operated from any position, thus allowing the user to keep a safe distance from the lifted load. It is the duty of the responsible engineer onboard to operate the crane and to have regular checks on the safety and working of the crane. Second engineer is responsible for operation, maintenance and safety checks of the engine room crane. Safety Features of Engine Room Crane: 1) The most important safety feature of the crane is the electromagnetic fail safe brakes which do not allow the crane to fall with the load even when there is failure of power. For this: Normally centrifugal brakes are used which are fitted inside the rotating drum.

The brake pads are always in applied state and pushed by magnetic springs when not in operation or when there is a power failure.

As the crane is operated or the power is supplied, the spring gets pulled inward or compressed due to the electromagnetic effect of the current. This allows the crane to be operated normally. 2) Emergency stop is provided in the remote so that the operator can stop the crane at any time.

3) The motor is fitted with distance limit switch in both transverse and longitudinal direction so that the travel of the trolley and hence crane should not overshoot the racks end. 4) Mechanical stoppers are provided for both directions in case the electrical distance limit trips fail. 5) The up and down travel of the hook is also attaches with automatic stopper to avoid overloading of the motor. 6) The motor is fitted with thermal protection trip. When the motor windings get overheated, trip will activate saving the motor winding from burning. 7) Load limit switch is also fitted which will trip the motor if the load to be lifted is above the crane capacity. 8) Its the responsibility of senior officers to operate the crane and to make sure all the personnel involve in any lifting operation are at a safe distance during operation of the crane. 9) Additional tools like i-bolts, shackle, wire sling, belts etc. used for lifting must be checked before use. 10) It should be noted that no one walks or stand below the crane when it is in the loaded condition. Share 0digg Home General

Port Gantry Cranes: A General Overview


by sharda 20 December 2010 No Comment Cranes are equipments that are used to maneuver heavy goods and items from one place to another. Gantry cranes are a variety of heavy cranes that are generally used to put together different heavy items into one single major item. Gantry cranes are commonly seen at busy ports for loading and unloading cargo. Since gantry cranes specialize in assembling the goods required to be put together, they are a very great help in ports. When it comes to ports, there is always a necessity to garner the cargo and then pile it in the right cargo-container or to load or unload a ship with cargo containers. Cranes are a necessity when it comes to lifting such cargo from one place to another and with respect to heavy cranes required for this purpose, gantry cranes are the best.

Understanding Gantry Cranes Gantry cranes are immobile, in the sense that the lifting aspect of the crane is attached to holders which resembles a rectangle. The goods that are required to be transported need to be taken to the place where the crane is situated or as it is more frequently done, there is a continuously moving ramp constructed near a gantry crane, which allows the crane to carry out its duties efficiently. However, gantry cranes are movable within the rectangular framework that covers the operation of these heavy cranes. They can be shuttled to and fro and from left to right within the rectangular support and the goods that are required to be transported are adjusted accordingly. Benefits at Ports The role of cranes, especially heavy cranes like gantry cranes is very valuable in the ports because there is a lot of cargo that is required to assembled, hauled and removed from one container to another, thus making the use of heavy cranes imperative for the operations.

Another important feature to be noted about gantry cranes is that even though they are heavy cranes, there is a certain weight limit which is laid down for this type of cranes. Weight limit is essential because if there is none set on the number of goods that can be carried and maneuvered by the gantry cranes, it is quite possible that due to the excessive weight load, the entire crane and its rectangular support might snap and break of. If this happens, it could prove to be a very heavy loss not just in terms of money for the cost of repairing the crane but

because it would mean some other gantry crane will have to be deployed to take care of the moving of goods because of the breaking down of a gantry crane. Since ports are busy it becomes important that this sort of loss is curtailed, thus making it relevant and important to stick to the weight limit set for the gantry cranes, in spite of them being cranes used for heavy duty purposes. It is only by adhering to the regulated norms; one can achieve full utility from heavy port gantry cranes. Conclusion Gantry cranes are very important mechanized tools in todays times. And when it comes to transportation of goods and items in ports, no other equipment is as beneficial as gantry cranes are. And as very important pieces of contemporary engineering science, such cranes feature as the primary tool when it comes to movement of goods and items from one place to another, thus making them a very valuable and worthy supportive appliance. Share 0digg Home General

What Are Telescopic Cranes?


by Mohit 20 December 2010 No Comment Telescopic cranes are another form of heavy cranes employed to transport and maneuver objects from one place to another. Cranes like the telescopic cranes are often used in day-today hauling operations but it has also to be noted that these heavy cranes are very important when it comes to carrying out maneuvering operations in ports as well. Telescopic cranes are mobile in the sense that they transport goods and items in a flexible manner. Also since telescopic cranes are further equipped with height adjustments, when it comes to hauling and transferring the goods from one place to another, the problems related to height are completely eradicated. In terms of ports, telescopic cranes offer one of the best servicing possible. This is because a port is a place that perpetually bustles with activity. Cargo embarking and disembarking is something that takes place in any port without a seconds pause. This being the case and given the disadvantages of several other types of heavy cranes, telescopic cranes offer premium support to the smooth functioning of the duties in a port.

Heavy cranes like telescopic cranes can be mounted atop a truck and then can be driven to those places where goods and cargo need to be shifted. In any port, one can find many of such telescopic cranes which enable the easy mobility and transfer of cargo to the right containers, thereby providing utility in the best way possible. The main difference between a telescopic crane and other conventional cranes is that the former has a hollow boom which contains several tubes fitted one side the other. A hydraulic mechanism enables the elongating and refracting motion of the beam. Considering todays fast paced development, it is but natural that cranes have started to be used extensively. But in terms of the shipping industry and transportation of goods and cargo via the medium of ships, cranes have always been the primary technology used. This is because when it comes to hauling goods and transferring cargo from one area in a port to another, it is very difficult to use simple luggage racks, for the quantity and weight of the cargo at ports is quite heavy and thus requires help of such telescopic cranes to carry out the procedure of cargo transfer. Telescopic cranes are very frequently used in ports because of the ease in mobility that they present and the height adjusting feasibility that they offer. They give flexibility a new name and also provide exceptional service at the same time. As heavy cranes, telescopic cranes are very popular and are highly demanded and easily visible in most of the ports across the world. Heavy cranes are highly important equipments. And of all the variants of heavy cranes, telescopic cranes are unique because they not only offer utility but also mobility side-by-side. By acknowledging the contribution of telescopic cranes as one of the best devised gadgets to aid cargo transfer in todays times, it is like giving these heavy cranes their rightful due of appreciation and credit. Share 0digg Home General

Container Gantry Crane : Construction and Operation

by Anish 10 December 2010 No Comment The modern container shipping industry is booming because of the provision for faster voyages and less port stays. The major factor for this quick work is the introduction of the new types of gantry cranes in the market which are quicker and more reliable. This provides a great turnaround time for cargo operation at ports. A container gantry crane is the biggest crane which is used in the operation sector of the shipping industry. It is designed for loading and unloading the container cargo from a container vessel. The crane is operated by a specially trained crane operator from within the cabin located on the top end of the crane and suspended from the trolley. It is the operator who lifts the container from the ship or dock for unloading or loading of cargo. It is very important for both the ship and the shore staff (gantry operator, stevedores and foremen) to be alert and to maintain proper communication between them to avoid any accidents.

Basic Construction of Container Gantry Crane - Supporting Frame: The supporting frame is the giant structure of the crane which holds the boom and the spreader. For transverse movement of the crane in the jetty, frames can be rail mounted or moved by rubber tyres only. - Transverse operator cabin: It is incorporated in the bottom of the support frame, in which, a crane operator, for transverse movement of the crane in the yard, will sit and operate. - Boom: The boom of the gantry crane is hinged at the water side, so that it can be moved up and down as per the requirement of the cargo operation or navigation. For smaller gantry, where there is a fly zone located near the port, low profile booms are used which are pulled towards the gantry when off operation.

- Spreader: Spreader is attached with the operators cabin on the rail structure and in the boom so that it can also move transversely on the boom for lifting cargo. The spreader itself can open and close depending upon the size and the number of containers to be lifted. The modern built spreader can lift up to 4 containers together. - Gantry operator cabin: Located at the top of the supporting frame, the cabin is 80 % transparent so that the operator can get a clear view of the loading and unloading operation.

The Basic Operation of Container Gantry Cranes Unloading: - For the loading operation, the stevedores remove the container lashing and the twist locks. Then as per the cargo plan, the selected container is discharged by a gantry crane. - The spreader is lowered on top of the container, and it locks the four corners (corner castings) by a twist lock mechanism. - Now the operator lifts the container and uses the transverse motion of the spreader to remove the container from the ship and load it over the truck in the shore platform. - The gantry operator can lift up to 4 containers at a time, depending upon the type of gantry and size of containers.

Loading: - The loading of the container is done one by one as per the cargo plan, keeping the ship stability in mind. - Normally truck and trailers bring the containers from the storage point to the gantry and spreader picks the container and loads it on the ship. - Only one container is grabbed by the gantry crane for loading purpose as more precision is require to load the container, and aligning the hold guide and other containers. The lifting capacity of gantry cranes may differ for different manufactures and this depends upon the size of the crane. The safe load lifting capacity is displayed clearly in the gantry structure. The power source for gantry crane is from the shore electrical power supply or from diesel generator attached to the framework. Normally A.C shore power supply is used which may vary from 4000 to 13500 volts. Share 0digg Home Procedures/Maintenance

Engine Room Flooding: Troubleshooting and Immediate Actions


by Mohit 11 November 2010 No Comment Engine room flooding as the name indicates, means filling up of the engine room space with water. Engine room flooding can affect the water tight integrity of ship. In this article we will find out what are the main reasons for engine room flooding what has to be done in case of engine room flooding. The engine room flooding can take place due to mainly three reasons: 1) Leakage from Equipment and system

Engine room flooding can take place due to leakage in the engine room space from machinery or sea or fresh water system. Leakages can generally be from big sea water pump, from sea water or fresh water cooler, leakage from boiler feed water system etc.

The leak can also take place from any of the fresh or sea water pipeline due to which a lot of water can enter the engine room space. Leakage of any ballast water tank in the double bottom of the engine room, leakage from manhole, or crack in the water tank can also lead to engine room flooding. Sea water or fresh water piping and system of the engine room are huge in size and thus hold large possibility for leakages. Action to be taken in such situations - Call for maximum man power to tackle the situation. - The sooner you find the fault the better. - Start the other circulating system and isolate the leaking pump, pipe, cooler etc. - Close inlet and outlet valves of the effected system to stop the leak. - Inform chief engineer regarding the leak and follow the instruction from him. - Put a notice or placard regarding leaking equipment or system and trip the breaker until repairs has been done. - In case of any tank leakage, start transferring the excess content from that tank to other tank and try to minimise it as much as possible. - Tank should not be used until cement box or welding has taken place or a repair has been done. 2) In case of leakage from Overboard Valve If the Leakage is after the valve and if the valve is holding shut the valve if the system involved for that valve permits normal operation of the ship with the valve closed.

- If the valve is not holding then identify the leak. It may be from the valve stem gland or flange joint; try to repair the leak. - If system for that valve can be isolated without disturbing the normal operation of the ship, put a blank in the valve. - If the repair is temporary then when ship reaches the port, call the divers to blank the valve opening from outside and carry out permanent repair. 3) Flooding due to crack in the hull or small hole in the hull - In this case, as soon as you find the leak, call for help from nearest coastal state because if the leakage is more, the ships stability will be affected. - By all means, the leakage has to be minimised and finally stopped. - If the leak is not big enough, then cement box is to be put in place of the leak and repairs are to be done accordingly. - In case of leakage due to damage from any accident like collision or grounding, there is nothing much that can be done as the opening in the bulkhead is large and there is no chance of stopping the leak. In such cases, the captain has to decide whether the ship is safe place to stay or not and decision for abandoning the ship has to be made. - In case of abandon ship signal being announced, the crew should muster to their respective lifeboat and abandon ship operation should be carried out. For any of the above reasons, if the water level ingress in the engine room is very high, then open the emergency bilge ejector valve with consent of the chief engineer and pump out the water overboard. Entry of the same is to be made in Oil record book (ORB) with date, time, and position of the ship and reason of direct discharge with signature of officer involved in operation, chief engineer, and master should be registered. Chief engineer has to be reported immediately in such condition without any delay. 5Share 1 1digg Home General

The Most Important Engine Room Documents a Ship Cannot Sail Without
by raunekk 14 November 2010 No Comment If you thought that with just an up-to-date engine room and a skilful crew you can set sail on your ship to high seas then you were wrong. A ship along with its engine room and

experienced men requires a set of important documents to sail safely and without any obstruction from any foreign country. A vessel can only travel from one foreign port to another with valid certificates and up to date recorded documents. All documents in the engine room and bridge should be duly filled, checked and sign by operating officer and countersigned by managerial level officer for smooth and lawful operation of the ship.

In this article we will discuss the importance of entire documentation along with the important documents which comes under engine department of the ship. Engine Room Log Book

The Engine room log book is used to record all the parameters of running machineries which includes main propulsion plant, power generation system, boiler, purifier, refrigeration plant, air conditioning plant etc. with signature of the duty officer. Any abnormal finding is noted by the duty engineer during his watch. Any major maintenance for machineries is recorded with date and remarks by the work carrying officer. Voyage number and from and to ports is written in the log book. Running hours of different machineries for every watch is recorded. Quantity of fuel, diesel and lube oil retained onboard is recorded by the chief engineer. Quantity of waste water retain onboard is recorded by the chief engineer. Special operation like bunkering of fuel, diesel and lube oil is noted with starting and finish time.

Special operation including operation of 15 ppm equipment is recorded with operational time. Remarks and signature of chief engineer for each day is also noted.

Oil record book It is one of the most important documents onboard with a written record for compliance of annex I of MARPOL.

When operating oily water separator, 15 ppm equipment for discharging treated bilge water overboard, the operation is recorded with time, position of ship, quantity discharged and retention. Maintenance operation of MARPOL equipments like OWS, Sewage treatment plant and incinerator to be recorded with the type of maintenance, date and time. Bunkering operation to be recorded including date, time, bunkering grade, quantity bunkered, port of bunkering, and retention of tank used in bunkered operation. Weekly retention of waste water that includes bilge and sludge system to be recorded. Any internal bilge or sludge transfer to be recorded with date and time and quantity transferred. Any maintenance on OWS is recorded and acknowledged by engineering officer carrying out the operation. It should always be accompanied with IOPP certificates and all the receipts of bunker (BDN) and sludge/bilge disposal operation. All the operation and records are acknowledged by officer carrying the job along with chief engineer signature. At the end of every page, master will sign the oil record book.

Engine Room Tank Sounding Log

It is used to keep a written record of soundings of all the engine room tanks including waste water tank, fuel oil and diesel oil service settling and bunker tanks. A responsible engineer officer (fourth engineer) will take and record sounding for all the tanks. Frequency of sounding is normally twice a day once in the morning and second in the evening. Record of sounding is acknowledged by the engineer officer taking the sounding. Every day sounding log is counter checked and acknowledged by the chief engineer.

Sewage Management Log

The sewage management log consists of ISPP certificate, operating procedure of sewage plant, and maintenance procedure of the sewage plant. Second engineer is responsible for maintaining the sewage management plan log. Any discharge of sewage overboard at sea is recorded in this log along with date, time, position of ship, and quantity discharged. All the records are acknowledged by the engineering officer carrying the operation. Any maintenance in sewage plant (chlorine tablet dosing etc) is recorded and acknowledged by the engineering officer carrying out the maintenance. Sample testing of sewage is also recorded and acknowledge.

Oil to Sea Interface Log

It is used to record working of those systems which has direct interface of oil with sea water. Chief engineer is responsible to maintain this log. It normally includes- Stern tube system and Lube oil coolers cooled by sea water system. Normally the level or quantity of oil in the system is recorded to check for any leaks. All reading is acknowledged by the chief engineer. Entry is to be done once in on a daily basis. Any abnormality is recorded and acknowledged by the chief engineer.

Seal log

Normally most of the shipping companies have a system for sealing all the MARPOL systems which include overboard lines for OWS, sewage system overboard and lines, bilge system and lines etc. with the help of seals. All the seals placed onboard have an individual number, which is logged in the seal log. The date and place where the seal is to be fitted is recorded in the log. Chief engineer is responsible to maintain and acknowledge all the records in the book. The date when the seal is removed, the purpose of removal is also logged in the seal log.

Saturday/Monday Routine Log

All the emergency equipments such as LSA, FFA equipments and systems on board ship, which are tried out in weekly, monthly or yearly basis, depending upon equipment operation and company requirement for satisfactory operation, are recorded in this log. It includes emergency generator, emergency fire pump, emergency compressor, life boat engine, emergency stops of pumps and ventilation fans, fire dampers and other equipment and systems as per company requirement. All officers onboard are designated with particular equipment for carrying out trial operation and procedure, which are to be entered in this log. Every entry is to be acknowledged by the officer carrying out the operation with remarks and brief description of the same.

Chief Engineer Night Order Book


Only Chief engineer is responsible for maintaining this log. Chief engineers instructions are written for night watch officers in this book. All engineer officers and trainee engineer officers have to read and acknowledge the order written by the chief engineer. Share 0digg Home Types of Ships

OBO Vessels : Rise and Fall


by Mohit 15 November 2010 No Comment OBO is an abbreviated name for Oil- Bulk- Ore cargo vessel. These are specially designed vessels which carry cargo in bulk in both liquid and dry form. The OBO vessels are some of the most highly sophisticated cargo vessels sailing today. Other popular vessels of the same type are- Combination carrier. - PROBO carrier Product- Ore- Bulk- Oil. OBO Carrier OBO vessel are expensive to built but because of their capability of carrying wet and dry cargo together ,they provide a more economical option as this feature reduces the number of empty voyages or ballast voyages. A bulk carrier can carry only dry cargo and a tanker can carry only liquid cargo. These make these two types of vessels to ply only on fix voyages with least flexibility. On the other hand, OBO vessels have multipurpose capability which allows them to ply on different voyages as per the demand and supply of the market to make the maximum profit.

OBO vessels were very popular in the year 1955-1980 and a sudden rise was seen during this period. One of the biggest OBO carriers of this period MV Derbyshire was of approximately 180000 DWT. Unfortunately, it sank in the Pacific Ocean after fighting a terrific storm while it was carrying ore as cargo. Why are OBO Becoming Unpopular? Construction and Features OBO is normally constructed with a single deck to impart structural strength to the vessel in addition to several divisions of transverse bulkheads which divides the cargo holds. Hatches for cargo hold are generally made in two pieces as larger and single hatches will reduce the structural strength of the ship. Also unlike bulk carriers, OBO vessel has pipe lines and equipments on deck which are used in operation while carrying liquid cargo. Moreover, a single large cover can hinder the operation of loading and unloading of oil cargo.

However, OBO vessels are losing their popularity because of the following reasons: 1) They are expensive to construct. 2) Loading of bulk cargo requires conveyors and grabs. Due to small hatch opening, the access for bigger grab and belts become difficult and take more time to load / unload the cargo. 3) Additional trimming of ship is required as the equipment above the deck can hinder the crane movement.

4) Equipments located above the hatches have to be removed temporarily by means of crane, which increases the port stay and overall cost of operation. 5) The equipments above deck can be damaged by the cranes and equipment used for loading and unloading operation of bulk cargo. 6) The load distribution of OBO ship is not even and the overall structure is not stiff which may result in deformation of bulkhead at rough weather. 7) Another major problem of OBO ship is the movement of cargo in the hold which results in list and instability of the ship due to the shift in the center of gravity of the ship. 8 ) When carrying oil as cargo, major problems arises due to two piece hatches which do not seal properly, leading to inert gas leakage and increase in fire risk. 9) When carrying oil cargo chances of oil leaking out in deck also arises due to improper sealing. 10) Unlike in bulk carrier, piping systems are laid inside oil cargo holds, which complicates the process of cargo hold cleaning, required during the switching of cargo. 11) Equipments on deck for OBO vessel are exposed to different types of bulk and liquid cargo and also to sea water, thus demanding proper and regular maintenance and increasing the operational cost of the vessel. Due to all the above points, OBO ships have became unpopular. Thus, nowadays very few OBO ship are sailing on high seas. If you liked this article, you may also like to read Cargo ship and World largest cruise ship . Share 0digg Home Equipments, Marine Navigation

Marine Chartplotter : A General Overview


by Anish 15 December 2010 No Comment A chartplotter is a system which allows ships to know about their exact location and position in the waters. When it comes to navigating through the waters, in todays times, a chartplotter is one of the many important and indispensable marine products and marine supplies, which are needed as a part of the ships electronic equipment catalogue. A chartplotter combines the usage of technologies like Global Positioning System (GPS), radar and AIS (Automatic Identification System) to plot and pinpoint the exact location and position of a ship in the high seas and oceans to aid a ships captain in easy seafaring. A chartplotter incorporates the computer technology as a displaying device for showing the actually positioned points of a ship when it is in motion. Therefore it can be said that when compared to other marine products and marine supplies, a chartplotter is far more reliable and feasible as a locating and navigating indicator.

Additionally, another important and noteworthy factor about the chartplotter is that unlike other equipments that are important in a ships routine course through the waters, the chartplotter has the potential to work even in spite of possibility of events and occurrences like satellite disruption, hurricanes and flash storms because it is integrated in the ships electrical system rather than linked by other means of connectivity. Therefore even if there is any occurrence of satellite disruption, there is no chance that the ship might be stranded in the middle of the ocean because of the absence of any correct and absolute positioning about its location in the waters. This is perhaps the most important USP of the chartplotter because it so happens that other marine supplies, even if they provide excellent utility, fall prey to satellite disruptions and other disturbances. Thus, it is very important that, in todays times that one trusts a chartplotter extensively as it gives absolute and complete utility at all times, irrespective of the situation.

For consumers marine, a chartplotter is one of the most conducive marine supplies from those which are available in contemporary times. And since the chartplotter technology is catching up as more and more shipping companies and ship builders look forward to set this technology in their respective vessels, it promises to be a very big hit in the days to come. And since it has got so much potential, it is quite evident

that there might be further developments to refine this technology for the consumers marine. If this happens, the chartplotter could reach heights that would be even higher than where it has managed to reach so far. Thus it becomes very important and relevant to keep on observing the facilities provided by the chartplotter because if one continuously observes, then it would enable the researchers to refine and up grade the technology to be even more helpful for the consumers marine than what it is now. Only through proper observation, monitoring, research and refining will the technology of a chartplotter reach far and wide than what it has managed to reach and enhance the life of shipmen, seafarers, shipping companies and ship builders to provide better service not just for themselves, their employers and employees respectively, but also to their clients as well. 10Share 1 1digg Home General, Main Engine

An Overview of Common Rail System of Marine Engines


by Mohit 21 November 2010 No Comment The common rail system, as the name suggest, is a system which is common for every cylinder or unit of the marine engine. Marine engines of the early times had a fuel system, wherein each unit had its own jerk pump and the oil pressure was supplied through the jerk pumps. However, in common rail system all the cylinders or units are connected to the rail and the fuel pressure is accumulated in the same. The supplied fuel pressure is thus provided through the rail. A similar type of common rail system is also there for servo oil system for opening of the exhaust valves. Speaking about the fuel injection system, the common rail system was launched even before the jerk pumps, but was also not successful because of few drawbacks. However, because of some latest advancement in technology and electronics, the common rail system has gained popularity.

The common rail engines are also known as smokeless engines as fuel pressure required for combustion is same for all loads or rpm of the engine.

The common rail is employed in the following system: 1) for heated fuel oil at a pressure of 1000 bars. 2) for servo oil for opening and closing of exhaust valves at a pressure of 200 bars. 3) control oil for opening and closing of valve blocks at a pressure of 200 bars. 4) compressed air for starting main engine. Main Components of Common Rail System High pressure pump

The common rail system consists of a high pressure pump which can be cam driven or electrical driven or both. Pressure requirement will be different for different system. For fuel oil the pressure are as high as 1000 bars, for servo and control oil the pressure is about 200 bars. The high pressure pumps are driven by camshaft with three lobe cams. These pumps makes several stroke with the help of three lobe cams and speed increasing speed gear. For fuel oil and servo oil the pumps are engine driven and for control oil it is motor driven. Rail unit

A fuel oil rail. B is the control oil rail. C servo oil rail. D Injection control unit(ICU) E Valve control unit (VCU) This is provided after the pumps where the accumulated pressure from the pumps is provided to the rail which supplies them to each unit when required. This is located at the engine,s top platform and just below the cylinder cover. These rail units extends to full length of the engine. These are enclosed in the case and have access from the top for maintenance and overhauls. Valve Block and Electronic control system

This is required for the control of the flow of the fuel oil, servo oil, control oil and starting air from the rail to the cylinder. The valve block is operated by the electronic control which operates when it gets a signal indicating that this cylinder is at top dead centre (TDC) and fuel has to be injected and decides when exhaust valve has to be opened. With the help of electronics the injection can be controlled remotely from the computer. For e.g. if we want to cut off fuel to one of the unit, then we need to cut off the signal given from the control system so that the valve will not open. The fuel oil system this block is known as ICU( Injection control Unit) and for exhaust valve it is known as VCU (Valve Control Unit). The control system for opening and closing of ICU and VCU is done by electro hydraulic control with which when the signal for open is present the valve for control oil opens and control oil pushes the valve of ICU and VCU to open. The signal for electronic control is given by crank angle sensor which senses about each cylinder and sends signal to system which decides whether to open a valve or close the valve. The timing of the opening of the valve can also be controlled by the electronics, which means that if the signal is given to open the valve early it will open early and vice versa. Advantages of Common Rail over Conventional Jerk Pump System The following are the advantages of the common rail system: 1) Same injection pressure for the engine at all loads or rpm which is not possible in jerk pumps as the later is dependent on the engine speed. 2) Injection timing can be varied during running of the engine, whereas in conventional system the engine has to be stopped and setting for timing has to be changed. 3) The design of common rail is simple as there are no individual fuel pumps and cams for each fuel pump are also removed.

4) The common rail gives smokeless operation whereas in conventional system smokeless operation is only during high rpm. 5) Reduced maintenance is required because of less number of pumps and increased efficient combustion time between overhauls. 6) With this system control of variable opening of exhaust valve can also be done which is not there in traditional system.

Freshwater cooling systems - motorships


Treated freshwater is used for internal cooling of diesel engines, thus avoiding corrosion problems associated with seawater. Auxiliary diesel engines on board ship generally have self-contained cooling systems using an engine-driven pump to circulate freshwater through the jacket for cylinder cooling, through the lubricatingoil cooler, and through the charge-air cooler. Emergency-generator engines use an engine-driven, fan-cooled radiator ducting air from the weather for rejecting heat. Auxiliary diesel-generator engines usually use a seawater-to-freshwater heat exchanger. For propulsion engines, the freshwater systems may be divided into subsystems for charge-air cooling, lubricating-oil cooling, jacket-water cooling, and sometimes, for fuel-injector cooling and piston cooling, as shown in Fig. 23.15.

Figure 23.15: Freshwater cooling system for a motorship The jacket-cooling water has enough useful waste heat to be used as a heat source for the ship's distiller. An expansion tank is installed, in a branch connection to allow for expansion of the cooling water as it heats. An air separator is installed in the line to ensure that the engine jacket does not become air-bound. Water losses are manually made-up to the expansion tank from the freshwater system. If pistons are water-cooled, as in some large, slow-speed, crosshead diesels, the cooling water reaches the piston through telescoping tubes within the crankcase. Most engines use oil to cool the pistons, making a separate freshwater piston-cooling circuit unnecessary.

Injector-cooling water, if used, may branch from the jacket-water system, or may be a separate system as illustrated in Fig. 23.15.

Diesel engine lubricating-oil systems


Fig. 23.18 shows representative lubricating-oil systems for a low-speed diesel engine. The lubricating-oil requirements are divided between two systems: cylinder oil, which is consumed within the cylinders and must be continually replaced; and circulating lubricating-oil, which lubricates and cools the bearings, and (usually) the pistons. The circulating oil is continuously cleaned by the lubricating-oil purifier.

Figure 23.18: Main engine lubricating oil systems for a motorship The lubricating-oil circulating system draws suction from the engine sump tank, which is built into the ship's double bottom. The suction bellmouth is located slightly above the sump bottom to avoid drawing in any settled water or sediment. The oil is drawn through a suction strainer by the lubricating-oil circulating pump, and then discharged through a finer strainer and the lubricating-oil cooler. A lubricating-oil cooler bypass valve is fitted to control the temperature of the oil supplied to the engine. The lubricating oil is then fed to the bearing-oil manifolds, the turbocharger bearings, and the hydraulic governor and control circuits. To protect the turbocharger, which takes several minutes to slow to a stop in the event of an emergency shutdown, a lubricating-oil gravity tank is installed. Although not included in the figure, storage and settling tanks are provided for the main engine oil, as in Fig. 23.17. The cylinder-oil system is used on crosshead engines and some trunk-piston engines. The cylinder oil is high-viscosity oil used to lubricate the piston rings and cylinder liner. It has a total base number...

Bilge systems
The bilge systems are used to remove water from the tank tops or bilges in the machinery spaces and other compartments throughout the ship. Bilge systems are divided to handle clean and oily bilge water. The clean bilge system pumps bilge water from dry cargo holds or other normally oil-free spaces including bilges in machinery spaces and the shaft alley. Clean bilge water is discharged directly overboard. However, because water in machinery space and the shaft alley bilges may

be contaminated with oil, an oily-water bilge system supplements the clean bilge system in these spaces. Oily bilge water is not discharged overboard. The clean bilge system uses manifold valves that branch to suctions in the spaces that the system serves, as illustrated in Fig. 23.19. At least two centrally located pumps, usually large centrifugal pumps, are required, but these pumps may also be used for other seawater services. On dry cargo ships the ballast system is cross-connected to the clean bilge system as shown. The manifold suction valves are of the stop-check type to prevent accidental flooding of the spaces. The clean bilge system is used as required, under manual supervision. On tankers the ballast system is divided, with only those ballast tanks aft of the engine room served by the bilge system, while the ballast system forward of the engine room is completely separated from the bilge system.

Figure 23.19: Clean bilge and ballast systems

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A Comprehensive List of Fuel, Diesel and Lube Oil Tanks on a Ship


by Anish 25 January 2011 2 Comments A ship is a massive storage floating structure which is primarily used to store and transfer liquid or dry type of cargo from one port to another. A ship requires tonnes of oil- both fuel and lubricating, along with water so that its propulsion and other auxiliary systems can operate efficiently. In order to store different types of oils and water, the ship is designed and constructed with several tanks. These tanks help to store fuel oil, lube oil, hydraulic oil, drinking water, fresh water, ballast water etc. The size, number, type, and location of the tanks depend on the following factors:

Size and type of the ship Propulsion plant, auxiliary engines type and design of other machineries. Area of voyage

Tanks are spread all over the ship from forward to aft and port to starboard. Different types of tanks present on the ship are: Fuel & Diesel Oil Tanks: Bunker tanks These are the biggest tanks in terms of capacity present on board a ship. They are used to store fuel and diesel oil received in bulk after bunkering. The locations of bunker tanks are normally outside the engine room and they are generally a wing or double bottom tank. Low sulphur oil and marine gas oil is bunkered in separate dedicated bunker tanks to avoid mix up of fuel. Settling tanks Generally, more than two settling tanks are present and located on a ship as part of the bulkhead of the engine room. Oil from the bunker tank is transferred into the settling tank. The diesel oil settling tank can be located as double bottom tank in the engine room. Settling tank for low sulphur oil and marine gas oil is kept separate from other fuel oil. Service tanks Service tanks onboard ships are used to store and supply treated oil to main engine, auxiliary engine and boilers. The number of such tanks can be one or more. Fuel oil and diesel oil service tanks are normally located as a part of the bulkhead of the engine room. Low service fuel oil (L.S.F.O) and marine gas oil (M.G.O) tanks are dedicated tanks to avoid mix up. Over flow tank Over flow tank is provided for both fuel and diesel oil system in the engine room for collecting the overflowed oil from bunker tank. Return lines and leak off lines may also be

connected to overflow tank. It is a normal practice to have a common overflow tank for high and low sulphur system.

Emergency generator diesel oil tank: Fuel for emergency generator is supplied form a separate diesel oil tank with capacity derived by the regulation given in SOLAS. The location of the tank is in the emergency generator room which is outside the engine room. Lubricating oil tanks It is almost impossible to think of any machinery operating without the use of lubricating oils. For this reason, various grades of lube oils are stored onboard ship. Different lube oil tanks present on board ship are: Main Engine Crank Case (M.E.C.C) Oil Tank The Main engine crank case oil is stored in one or more tanks and low sulphur system oil is kept in separate tanks. There are no other settling or service tanks in lube oil system and oil is taken directly from the main tank. Main Engine Cylinder Oil Tank The main engine cylinder oil is used inside the combustion chamber between the piston and the liner, and is stored in the cylinder oil tank. The bulk oil is bunkered directly into these tanks. The low sulphur oil is kept separate in different tanks. Main Engine Cylinder Oil Daily Tank The daily tank is located in the engine room and the oil is transferred from the storage tank to this daily tank. The capacity of daily tank is kept as per the main engine cylinder oil daily consumption. Main Engine Turbocharger Oil tank If the main engine comprises of a turbocharger system with forced lubrication, a turbocharger lube oil storage tank is provided. Maine Engine Turbocharger Daily Lube Oil Tank

A daily oil tank is provided in the engine room. Oil as per the daily consumption of the turbo charging system is transferred from the storage tank. Auxiliary Engine Lube Oil Tank Auxiliary engine are 4 stroke engines and no separate cylinder lube oil is used. Therefore, only auxiliary engine main lube oil is bunkered and kept in storage tank. One or more tanks may be present as per the ships requirement.