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MEKANIKA FLUIDA

(TEP201)
• Dr. Ir. Erizal, MAgr.
• Dr. Ir. Nora Herdiana Panjaitan, DEA.
• Dr. Ir. Yuli Suharnoto
• Dr. Ir. Roh Santoso

Departemen Teknik Pertanian


Fakultas Teknolog Pertanian
Institut Pertanian Bogor

TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 1


MEKANIKA FLUIDA

@ Mempelajari tentang fluida yang


bergerak atau diam dan akibat yang
ditimbulkan oleh fluida tersebut pada
tempatnya.

TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 2


Tujuan Instruksional Umum

• Setelah menyelesaikan mata kuliah ini,


mahasiswa diharapkan mampu
menguraikan karakteristik fluida baik
dalam keadaan diam maupun bergerak
dalam kaitannya dengan kegiatan
perencanaan, pengelolaan dan
perancangan

TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 3


JADWAL KULIAH
Selasa 07.00-08.40 / Rabu 15.00-16.40

No. Pokok Bahasan Pengajar


1 Pendahuluan Erizal
2-3 Fluida Statik Erizal
4-5 Konsep aliran fluida Yuli Suharnoto
6 Aliran fluida ideal Yuli Suharnoto
7 Aliran fluida kompresibel Nora Panjaitan
8-9 UTS
10-11 Aliran fluida nyata di dalam pipa Nora Panjaitan
12 Mesin-mesin fluida Roh Santoso
13 Teori lapisan batas Erizal
14-15 Aliran fluida pada saluran terbuka Roh Santoso
16 Analisis dimensi dan similitude Yuli Suharnoto

Sebagian bahan kuliah dapat diambil di:


http://web.ipb.ac.id/~erizal/mekflud/
TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 4
JADWAL PRAKTIKUM
No. Topik
1 Pendahuluan
2 Bilangan Reynold
3 Penentuan koefisien Orifice dan Venturi
4 Head loss karena gesekan
5 Head loss karena perubahan diameter pipa
6 Head loss karena belokan dan katup
7 Pengukuran debit aliran udara di pipa
8 Pengukuran debit aliran di saluran terbuka
9 Aliran kritis
10 Lompatan hidrolik
11 Ujian praktikum

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PRAKTIKUM
1. Mahasiswa harap hadir paling lambat 5 menit sebelum praktikum dimulai di
Laboratorium Hidrolika dan Hidromekanika Departemen Teknik Pertanian (F-G204).
2. Praktikum dilaksanakan 4 kali dalam 1 minggu (Selasa, Rabu, Kamis, dan Jum’at).
3. Pelaksanaan praktikum secara kelompok/grup yang terdiri atas 6-7 mahasiswa.
4. Pertanyaan sebelum praktikum wajib dijawab dan diserahkan kepada dosen/asisten
dosen.
5. Praktikum harus selalu dihadiri. Jika berhalangan harus mendapatkan surat izin dari
departemen.
6. Setelah praktikum dilaksanakan, buatlah laporan sementara berisi data hasil
pengukuran yang dilengkapi dengan daftar anggota grup/kelompok.
7. Laporan perseorangan dan ditulis dengan tangan pada kertas ukuran A4, kemudian
penyerahannya paling lambat sebelum praktikum dimulai pada minggu berikutnya.
8. Laporan berisi :
• Pendahuluan yang berisi teori singkat dan tujuan praktikum
• Bahan dan Metode
• Hasil dan Pembahasan
• Kesimpulan dan Saran
• Daftar Pustaka
9. Segala bentuk pelanggaran dapat diberikan sanksi akademik berupa : skorsing
praktikum, tidak diperkenankan mengikuti ujian, dan lain sebagainya.
10. Pada akhir semester akan diadakan ujian praktikum oleh dosen.

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PENILAIAN & PUSTAKA
• Praktikum : 30%
• UTS : 30%
• Ujian Akhir : 40%

Streeter, V.L. dan E.B. Wylie. 1999. Mekanika Fluida. Penerbit


Erlangga. Jakarta.
Giles, Ranald, V. 1994. Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics.
Schaum’s Outline Series. McGraw Hill Book Co. New York
Hughes, W.F dan J.A. Brighton. 1967. Theory and Problem of
Fluid Dynamic. Schaum’s Outline Series. McGraw Hill Book Co.
New York
Vennard, J.K dan R.L. Street. 1976. Elementary Fluid
Mechanics. John Wiley and Sons. New York
Erizal dan Panjaitan, N.H. 2007. Pedoman Praktikum Mekanika
Fluida. IPB.

TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 7


Introduction to Fluid Mechanics*
Fred Stern, Tao Xing, Jun Shao, Surajeet Ghosh

AFD EFD CFD


(Analytical Fluid Dynamics) (Experimental Fluid Dynamics) (Computational Fluid Dynamics)

∇•U = 0
DU 1 2
= −∇p + ∇ U + ∇ • ui u j
Dt Re

*Revised version of 4/99 by Fred Stern and Eric Paterson

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Fluid Mechanics
• Fluids essential to life
• Human body 95% water
• Earth’s surface is 2/3 water
• Atmosphere extends 17km above the earth’s surface
• History shaped by fluid mechanics
• Geomorphology
• Human migration and civilization
• Modern scientific and mathematical theories and methods
• Warfare
• Touches every part of our lives

TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 9


History
Faces of Fluid Mechanics

Archimedes Newton Leibniz Bernoulli Euler


(C. 287-212 BC) (1642-1727) (1646-1716) (1667-1748) (1707-1783)

Navier Stokes Reynolds Prandtl Taylor


(1785-1836) (1819-1903) (1842-1912) (1875-1953) (1886-1975)
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Significance
• Fluids omnipresent
• Weather & climate
• Vehicles: automobiles, trains, ships, and
planes, etc.
• Environment
• Physiology and medicine
• Sports & recreation
• Many other examples!

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Weather & Climate
Tornadoes Thunderstorm

Global Climate Hurricanes

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Vehicles
Aircraft Surface ships

High-speed rail Submarines

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Environment

Air pollution River hydraulics

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Physiology and Medicine

Blood pump Ventricular assist device

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Sports & Recreation

Water sports Cycling Offshore racing

Auto racing Surfing

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Fluids Engineering
• Engineers have different kinds of tools
available for solving fluids engineering
systems
• Analytical Fluid Dynamics (AFD)
• Experimental Fluid Dynamics (EFD)
• Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
• This class provides an introduction to all three
tools: AFD through lecture and CFD and EFD
through labs

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Analytical Fluid Dynamics
• The theory of mathematical physics
problem formulation
• Control volume & differential analysis
• Exact solutions only exist for simple
geometry and conditions
• Approximate solutions for practical
applications
• Linear
• Empirical relations using EFD data

TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 18


Analytical Fluid Dynamics
• Lecture Part of Fluid Class
• Definition and fluids properties
• Fluid statics
• Fluids in motion
• Continuity, momentum, and energy principles
• Dimensional analysis and similitude
• Surface resistance
• Flow in conduits
• Drag and lift

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Analytical Fluid Dynamics
• Example: laminar pipe flow
ρUD
Assumptions: Fully developed, Low Re = < 2000
μ
Approach: Simplify momentum equation,
integrate, apply boundary conditions (no- Schematic
slip wall) to determine integration
constants and use energy equation to
calculate head loss 0
Du 0 ∂ p ⎡ ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ⎤ 0
=− + μ ⎢ 2 + 2 ⎥ + gx
Dt ∂x ⎣ ∂x ∂y ⎦
Exact solution :
u(r) = 1 (− ∂p )(R2 − r 2)
4μ ∂x
8μ du
= 8τ w = dy w = 64
Friction factor: f
ρV 2 ρV 2 Re
p1 p2 L V 2 32 μ LV
Head loss: + z1 = + z2 + h f hf = f =
γ γ D 2g γ D2
TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 20
Analytical Fluid Dynamics
• Example: turbulent flow in smooth pipe( Re > 3000)
Three layer concept (using dimensional analysis)
u + = u u* y + = yu * ν u* = τ w ρ
1. Laminar sub-layer (viscous shear dominates)
u+ = y+ 0 < y+ < 5
2. Overlap layer (viscous and turbulent shear important)
1
u+ = ln y + + B 20 < y + < 105 (R=0.41, B=5.5)
κ
U −u ⎛ r⎞ +
3. Outer layer (turbulent shear dominates) *
= f ⎜ 1 − ⎟ y > 10
5

u ⎝ r0 ⎠

Assume log-law is valid across entire pipe: u (r ) 1 ( r0 − r ) u *


= ln +B
u* κ ν

Integration for average velocity and using EFD data to adjust constants:

= 2log ( Re f 1 2 ) − .8
1
f
TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 21
Analytical Fluid Dynamics
• Example: turbulent flow in rough pipe
Both laminar sublayer and overlap layer
are affected by roughness
Inner layer: u+ = u+ ( y k )
Outer layer: unaffected
1 y
Overlap layer: u+ = ln + constant
κ k
Three regimes of flow depending on k+
1. K+<5, hydraulically smooth (no effect of roughness)
2. 5 < K+< 70, transitional roughness (Re dependent)
3. K+> 70, fully rough (independent Re)
For 3, using EFD data to adjust constants:
1 y 1 k D
u+ = ln + 8.5 ≠ f ( Re ) Friction factor: = −2log
κ k f 3.7

TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 22


Analytical Fluid Dynamics
• Example: Moody diagram for turbulent pipe flow
Composite Log-Law for smooth and rough pipes is given by the Moody diagram:

1 ⎡k D 2.51 ⎤
1
= −2log ⎢ + 12⎥
f 2 ⎣ 3.7 Re f ⎦

TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 23


Experimental Fluid Dynamics (EFD)
Definition:
Use of experimental methodology and procedures for solving fluids
engineering systems, including full and model scales, large and table
top facilities, measurement systems (instrumentation, data acquisition
and data reduction), uncertainty analysis, and dimensional analysis and
similarity.

EFD philosophy:
• Decisions on conducting experiments are governed by the ability of the
expected test outcome, to achieve the test objectives within allowable
uncertainties.
• Integration of UA into all test phases should be a key part of entire
experimental program
• test design
• determination of error sources
• estimation of uncertainty
• documentation of the results

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Purpose

• Science & Technology: understand and investigate a


phenomenon/process, substantiate and validate a theory
(hypothesis)
• Research & Development: document a process/system,
provide benchmark data (standard procedures,
validations), calibrate instruments, equipment, and
facilities
• Industry: design optimization and analysis, provide data
for direct use, product liability, and acceptance
• Teaching: instruction/demonstration

TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 25


Applications of EFD

Application in science & technology Application in research & development

Picture of Karman vortex shedding Tropic Wind Tunnel has the ability to create
temperatures ranging from 0 to 165 degrees
Fahrenheit and simulate rain

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Applications of EFD (cont’d)

Example of industrial application

NASA's cryogenic wind tunnel simulates flight


conditions for scale models--a critical tool in
designing airplanes.

Application in teaching

Fluid dynamics laboratory


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Full and model scale

• Scales: model, and full-scale


• Selection of the model scale: governed by dimensional analysis and similarity

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Measurement systems
• Instrumentation
• Load cell to measure forces and moments
• Pressure transducers
• Pitot tubes
• Hotwire anemometry
• PIV, LDV
• Data acquisition
• Serial port devices
• Desktop PC’s
• Plug-in data acquisition boards
• DA software - Labview
• Data analysis and data reduction
• Data reduction equations
• Fast Fourier Transform

TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 29


Instrumentation

Pitot tube

Load cell

Hotwire 3D - PIV
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Data acquisition system
Hardware

Software - Labview

TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 31


Data reduction methods
r = F(T )
w w
ra = F(Ta )
Q = F(Dz DM )
2
gp D
5 rw
f = F(r , r , z , Q) = (z - z )
w a SM 8LQ
2 ra SM i SM j Fast Fourier Transform
FFT: Converts a function from amplitude as function
Example of data reduction
of time to amplitude as function of frequency
equations

Example of FFT
application Free-surface wave elevation contours
0.15

0.1

A(f) 0.05

0
Aim: To analyze the natural unsteadiness of 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
the separated flow, around a surface piercing f [Hz]
strut, using FFT. Typical amplitude spectra
TEP201 Fluid Mechanics of the wave elevations 32
Uncertainty analysis
Rigorous methodology for uncertainty assessment
using statistical and engineering concepts

ELEMENTAL
ERROR SOURCES

INDIVIDUAL
1 2 J MEASUREMENT
SYSTEMS

X X X MEASUREMENT
1 2 J OF INDIVIDUAL
B ,P B ,P B,P VARIABLES
1 1 2 2 J J

DATA REDUCTION
r = r (X , X ,......, X ) EQUATION
1 2 J

r EXPERIMENTAL
B, P RESULT
r r

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Dimensional analysis
• Definition : Dimensional analysis is a process of formulating fluid mechanics problems in
in terms of non-dimensional variables and parameters.
• Why is it used :
• Reduction in variables ( If F(A1, A2, … , An) = 0, then f(Π1, Π2, … Πr < n) = 0,
where, F = functional form, Ai = dimensional variables, Πj = non-dimensional
parameters, m = number of important dimensions, n = number of dimensional variables, r
= n – m ). Thereby the number of experiments required to determine f vs. F is reduced.
• Helps in understanding physics
• Useful in data analysis and modeling
• Enables scaling of different physical dimensions and fluid properties
Example Drag = f(V, L, r, m, c, t, e, T, etc.)
From dimensional analysis,

Examples of dimensionless quantities : Reynolds number, Froude


Vortex shedding behind cylinder
Number, Strouhal number, Euler number, etc.

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Similarity and model testing
• Definition : Flow conditions for a model test are completely similar if all relevant
dimensionless parameters have the same corresponding values for model and prototype.
• Πi model = Πi prototype i = 1
• Enables extrapolation from model to full scale
• However, complete similarity usually not possible. Therefore, often it is necessary to
use Re, or Fr, or Ma scaling, i.e., select most important Π and accommodate others
as best possible.
• Types of similarity:
• Geometric Similarity : all body dimensions in all three coordinates have the same
linear-scale ratios.
• Kinematic Similarity : homologous (same relative position) particles lie at homologous
points at homologous times.
• Dynamic Similarity : in addition to the requirements for kinematic similarity the model
and prototype forces must be in a constant ratio.

TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 35


EFD process
• “EFD process” is the steps to set up an experiment and
take data
1. Setup facility
2. Install model
3. Setup equipment
4. Setup Data Acquisition using LabView
5. Perform calibrations
6. Data Analysis and Data Reduction
7. Uncertainty Analysis
8. Comparison with CFD results
9. Documentation and Reporting
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EFD – “hands on” experience

Lab1: Measurement of
kinematic viscosity of a fluid Lab2: Measurement of
flow rate, friction factor and
velocity profiles in smooth and
rough pipes.

Lab3: Measurement of surface pressure


distribution and lift coefficient for an airfoil

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Computational Fluid Dynamics
• CFD is use of computational methods for
solving fluid engineering systems, including
modeling (mathematical & Physics) and
numerical methods (solvers, finite differences,
and grid generations, etc.).
• Rapid growth in CFD technology since advent
of computer

ENIAC 1, 1946 IBM WorkStation

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Purpose
• The objective of CFD is to model the continuous fluids
with Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) and
discretize PDEs into an algebra problem, solve it,
validate it and achieve simulation based design
instead of “build & test”

• Simulation of physical fluid phenomena that are


difficult to be measured by experiments: scale
simulations (full-scale ships, airplanes), hazards
(explosions,radiations,pollution), physics (weather
prediction, planetary boundary layer, stellar
evolution).

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Modeling
• Mathematical physics problem formulation of fluid
engineering system
• Governing equations: Navier-Stokes equations (momentum),
continuity equation, pressure Poisson equation, energy
equation, ideal gas law, combustions (chemical reaction
equation), multi-phase flows(e.g. Rayleigh equation), and
turbulent models (RANS, LES, DES).
• Coordinates: Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates
result in different form of governing equations
• Initial conditions(initial guess of the solution) and Boundary
Conditions (no-slip wall, free-surface, zero-gradient,
symmetry, velocity/pressure inlet/outlet)
• Flow conditions: Geometry approximation, domain, Reynolds
Number, and Mach Number, etc.

TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 40


Modeling (examples)
Developing flame surface (Bell et al., 2001)
Free surface animation for ship in
regular waves

Evolution of a 2D mixing layer laden with particles of Stokes


Number 0.3 with respect to the vortex time scale (C.Narayanan)

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Modeling (examples, cont’d)

3D vortex shedding behind a circular cylinder (Re=100,DNS,J.Dijkstra)

DES,
Re=105,
vorticity
magnitude of
turbulent flow
around
NACA12 with
angle of attack
60.

LES of a turbulent jet. Back wall shows a slice of the dissipation rate and the
bottom wall shows a carpet plot of the mixture fraction in a slice through the jet
centerline, Re=21,000 (D. Glaze).
TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 42
Numerical methods
y
Δx
• Finite difference methods: jmax
using numerical scheme to j+1
approximate the exact derivatives j
in the PDEs Δy
j-1
∂2P Pi + 1 − 2 Pi + Pi − 1
=
∂x 2 Δx2
∂2P P j +1 − 2 P j + P j −1 o i-1 i i+1 imax x
=
∂y 2 Δy2
• Grid generation: conformal
mapping, algebraic methods and
differential equation methods
• Solvers: direct methods (Cramer’s
rule, Gauss elimination, LU
decomposition) and iterative
methods (Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel,
SOR)

Slice of 3D mesh of a fighter aircraft


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CFD process
• “CFD process” is the steps to set up a problem and
run the code
1. Geometry: Create the geometry you want
2. Physics: fluid properties, viscous modeling and
boundary conditions
3. Mesh: coarse, medium and fine meshes
4. Solve: different solvers and numerical
methods
5. Report: time history of convergence of
variables
6. Post-Processing: visualizations (contours,
vectors), validation and verification

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Commercial software
• CFD software
1. FLUENT: http://www.fluent.com
2. CFDRC: http://www.cfdrc.com
3. STAR-CD:http://www.cd-adapco.com
4. CFX/AEA: http://www.software.aeat.com/cfx
• Grid Generation software
1. Gridgen: http://www.pointwise.com
2. GridPro: http://www.gridpro.com
• Visualization software
1. Tecplot: http://www.amtec.com
2. Fieldview: http://www.ilight.com

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“Hands-on” experience using FlowLab 1.1
(pipe template)

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“Hands-on” experience using FlowLab 1.1
(airfoil template)

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57:020 Fluid Mechanics
• Lectures cover basic concepts in fluid statics, kinematics,
and dynamics, control-volume, and differential-equation
analysis methods. Homework assignments, tests, and
complementary EFD/CFD labs
• EFD/CFD lab materials

Lecture Other Docs Lab 1: Lab 2: Pipe Lab 3: Airfoil


Viscosity Flow
EFD EFD UA Report Pre EFD Lab1 Pre EFD Lab2 Pre EFD lab3
Lecture Lab Report instructions EFD 1 EFD 2 EFD 3
Lab 1_UA Lab2_UA Benchmark Data
Instructions_UA Instructions_UA Instructions_UA
CFD Lab report instructions None Pre CFD lab1 Pre CFD lab2
Lecture CFD lab1 CFD lab2

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