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Research Online

Faculty of Engineering - Papers (Archive) Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences

2008

Dynamic Responses of Marine Risers/Pipes Transporting Fluid Subject to Top End Excitations

J. Leklong

Technip Engineering, Thailand

S. Chucheepsakul

King Mongkuts University of Technology, Thailand

S. Kaewunruen

University of Wollongong, sakdirat@hotmail.com

Publication Details

This peer-reviewed paper was originally published as Leklong, J, Chucheepsakul, S, and Kaewunruen, S, Dynamic Responses of Marine Risers/Pipes Transporting Fluid Subject to Top End Excitations, Proceedings of the Eighth (2008) ISOPE Pacific/Asia Offshore Mechanics Symposium, Bangkok, Thailand, November 10-14, 2008. Copyright The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers 2008. Original conference information available here

Research Online is the open access institutional repository for the University of Wollongong. For further information contact the UOW Library: research-pubs@uow.edu.au

Proceedings of the Eighth (2008) ISOPE Pacific/Asia Offshore Mechanics Symposium Bangkok, Thailand, November 10-14, 2008 Copyright 2008 by The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers ISBN 978-1-880653-52-4

Dynamic Responses of Marine Risers/Pipes Transporting Fluid Subject to Top End Excitations

Jirapol Leklong*, Somchai Chucheepsakul**, and Sakdirat Kaewunruen***

*Technip Engineering (Thailand) Ltd, Bangkok, Thailand **King Mongkuts University of Technology, Trungkru, Bangkok, Thailand ***University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia

ABSTRACT

This paper deals with the dynamic responses to top end excitation of marine risers/pipes conveying internal fluid. The marine riser is often used as a flexible link between undersea bore head and subsurface offshore platform. The tidal waves and the changes of sea level consistently excite its top end connected to a floating vessel. In order to carry out the performance-based design of the marine risers, the evaluation of their dynamic responses to top end excitations is imperative. In this study, the marine riser is simulated using twodimensional beam elements. Energy functional of the marine risers conveying fluids is derived from variational principle. Nonlinear equations of motion influenced by the nonlinear Morison waveform are obtained through Hamiltons principle. Investigation of the dynamic responses of marine risers to top end excitation is achieved using the finite element method and Newmark Average Acceleration Method. Interestingly, either beating or resonant phenomenon can be observed from the responses. It is also found that the top tension plays a major role in the increment of undamped frequencies of marine risers, while either the internal flow rate or the external hydrodynamic drag force remarkably affects the displacement amplitudes of the marine risers dynamic responses.

(slow drift). In particular, these forces are acting at the top end of the marine risers in both horizontal and vertical directions, while the hydrodynamic drag force acts along the riser. Most vulnerable to excessive stresses are the flexible pipelines at the dynamic mode shape inflexion points subject to the corresponding resonances (Kaewunruen et al., 2005). It is widely accepted that even a small damage of the offshore structural components could lead to significantly detrimental effect to environment, human lives, and assets. It is thus imperative for structural offshore engineers to carry out the analytical simulations to determine the effects of those top end excitations on the dynamic responses and behaviour of the marine risers/pipes transporting the internal fluid. The marine risers have been first used since 1949 in Mohole Project in the US. In general design perspective, the marine risers are considered to carry their own weight and subjected to a static offset. They are also designed to confront the nonlinear hydrodynamic drag forces, internal and external fluid pressures, surface waves, undersea turbulences, and vortex induced vibrations. It is found that although there are a number of investigations related to the dynamic responses of the marine risers or pipes, the dynamic effect due to top end excitation has not been addressed yet. The previous research topics of interest have included both linear and nonlinear problems. Those key parametric studies have covered the effects of internal flow, bending rigidity, axial extensibility, top tension, Poissons ratio, and even radial deformation. A recent step stone in riser static analysis has been carried out by Athisakul et al. (2002) whereas the large strain and large sag (higher order geometric nonlinearity) have been considered using a variational approach. To obtain the analytical results, the shooting method has been employed and the results were compared against the nonlinear finite element analyses. It was found that the large extensible strain and the bending rigidity have little effect on the static equilibrium. However, a highlight is that the bending moment envelope of the risers increases as the static offsets (Monprapassorn, 2002; Chucheepsakul et al., 2003). In relation to dynamic analysis of marine risers/pipes, Irani et al. (1987) used energy and finite element methods to investigate the effects of internal flow and nutation damping on the dynamic responses of the marine risers to linear hydrodynamics. It was found that the internal

KEY WORDS: Marine risers; pipes; dynamic response; top end excitation; internal fluid; finite elements; direct integration. INTRODUCTION

There are a number of different types of offshore platforms, which are depending on the functional uses. All of the offshore structures are generally designed against the dynamic load actions due to the severe wind and wave interactions. Marine risers/pipes are part of the offshore platform, generally attached to the platform structures or floating vessels as a transportation means for the hydrocarbon resources underneath the sea bed e.g. crude oil, natural gas, and so on. Generally, the dynamic excitations acting on the marine risers/pipes are due to the ocean waves resulting in the complicated movements of the vessels. Sen (2006) described the movements, which comprise of high frequency response to the tidal waves and low frequency excursion

105

flow speed decreases the bending stiffness of the risers. This study has been confirmed by Moe and Chucheepsakul (1988) that the higher the internal flow speed, the lower the natural frequency of the marine risers. Chen and Lin (1989) compared the dynamic responses of marine risers to harmonic wave and linear hydrodynamic drag forces using Newmark intergration and Fourier Expansion methods. The results were in good agreement. Wu and Lou (1991) developed a mathematical model to investigate the effects of bending rigidity and internal flow on the dynamic responses of the marine risers. This study made use of perturbation method to tackle the problem. Interestingly, the results show that the bending rigidity plays a substantial role on the dynamic responses when the internal flow speed is very fast. Atadan et al. (1997) considered shear action on the marine risers in three dimensions on the basis of nonlinear riser extensibility. Butenin method (1965) was applied to obtain the analytical solutions. The results reveal that the hydrodynamic damping tends to streamline the dynamic responses of the marine risers onto steady states. The findings have later been confirmed by Bar-Avi (2000) who studied the dynamic responses of marine risers conveying fluid, considering geometric nonlinearity and hydrodynamic drag force. In his study, finite difference method was adopted. The structural damping effect has been evaluated by Park and Jung (2002). Rayleigh damping approximation method was employed in order to general the finite element matrices. Although, in their investigation, the internal flow has not been taken into account, it was found that the riser responses to the superposition of total excitations are slightly different to those due to the harmonic excitation. More recently, Chatjigeorgiou (2004) investigated the parametric excitation of vertical elastic slender structures and the damping effect in marine applications. The two-toone resonance behaviour to the lowest natural frequency of the riser was determined (Chatjigeorgiou and Mavrakos, 2005). In this study, the marine risers/pipes are modeled as the beam pipes in two dimensional spaces whereas the dynamic excitations at the top end could be simulated by the coupled harmonic displacements. The variational approach used to formulate and solve the problem of riser dynamics is a highlight in this paper. The top end excitation effects on riser responses are then determined using the numerical methods.

XH

FSw ( t ) = F0w sin(S t )

H

w

u

x ( z, t )

v k

v i

Z

XH

FSw ( t ) = F0w sin(S t ) FSu ( t ) = F0u sin(S t )

Vt

Vw

Vw ( z )

H

Vc ( z )

VARIATIONAL APPROACH

The dynamic responses of the marine risers/pipes are considered from the virtual displacements along the deformed risers. Fig. 1 shows a typical marine riser structure in different deformed states. The marine risers can be simulated by a beam-column-like structure. They are subjected to external forces in either lateral or longitudinal directions. Both ends of the riser are attached to ground anchorage at the bottom and to floating balloon at the top. The support boundary conditions are thus modeled by a non-fictional hinge at the bottom end, while the top end is considered as a free support. The static analysis of the riser was carried out through a previous study (Chucheepsakul et al., 1999). The riser mass, static top tension and the buoyancy were considered in the analysis. The static offset of the riser was predicted from the external wave and hydrostatic loading. At this stage, the top end support redistributes the static bending moment due to external forces and could be assumed as a pinned support, in order to obtain the equilibrium configurations of the riser. The initial static displacements in lateral and longitudinal are obtained from the energy method as shown in Appendix 1.

Assumptions

In this study, these assumptions have been made. The material property of the riser is homogeneous and linearly elastic. Due to the very high aspect ratio of the riser, the cross section of the riser is uniform. The effect of shear, torsion, rotational inertia, and Poissons ratio is negligible. The internal fluid fully flows inside along the pipeline. The risers behave within its elastic range.

The actions due to current drag force and sea surface wave loading are depicted in Fig. 2. To estimate the total external forces acting on the riser, the environmental conditions are considered, including the current velocity, density of sea water, temperature, sea water viscosity, surface wind speed, and so on.

106

Deformed Configuration

Considering a position of riser as shown in Fig. 3, the riser deforms to a new position when subjected to a perturbation. In this study, the coordinate system is referenced to the centerline of the riser at static equilibrium position. The new deformed configuration read

Ub =

Where

2 1 EI ( * ) ds 20

(6)

+ wt r ( s ) = r0 ( s ) + un

*

(1)

Virtual work done due to external forces is due to effective weight of risers (Eq. 7), hydrodynamic drag force (Eq. 8), and inertial force (Eq. 9). Those work done components read (Morison et al., 1950; Leklong, 2008):

Static state

t ds w ds * dr

Motion state

t*

We = we wds

0

u

r0 r

*

n*

n

WH = ( Fn ) u + ( Ft ) w ds

0

WI = ( mr arx + m f a fx ) u + ( mr arz + m f a fz ) w ds

0

Where

Using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, the strain and displacement relationships can be written as

we

Fn

= = = = = = = = =

Effective weight of the riser Drag force in lateral direction Drag force in longitudinal direction Mass of riser Mass of internal fluid Acceleration of the riser in x direction Acceleration of the riser in z direction Acceleration of the internal fluid in x direction Acceleration of the internal fluid in z direction

Ft

mr

mf

* =

d 2u d w + 2u + ds 2 ds

(2)

2 2 dw 1 dw du u + u + + w ds 2 ds ds

(3)

arx

arz

a fx

Energy Method

Total strain energy consists of the strain energy due to axial and flexural deformation, which can be written as

a fz

Ue = Ua + Ub

Where

(4)

Total kinetic energy consists of the kinetic energy due to riser and internal flow movements, which can be written as

Te = Tr + T f

Where Te = = = Total kinetic energy Kinetic energy due to riser movement Kinetic energy due to fluid movement

(10)

Ue =

Ua =

Ub =

Tr

Tf

Virtual axial strain energy is the strain energy due to axial deformation, which reads l 1 (5) U a = EA 2 ds 20 Where l = Length of riser

Work-Energy Functional

The total work energy functional includes the total strain energy, virtual work done, and total kinetic energy (Langhaar, 1962). Taking variation on total work energy functional yields

E A

= =

= [ EIu u + EA d d ]ds

0

(11)

107

By applying the Hamiltons principle, the equations of motion can be achieved as follows:

IV (12) && + 2m f Vu & + m f V 2u EA ( 0 + z ) u + EIu FnD = 0 mr + m f u

Using the integrations by part, the equation of motion can be arranged in matrix form (Leklong, 2008).

The mass matrix can be written as

(18)

Where

(13)

The gyroscopic matrix due to added mass can be written as

(19)

FnD

FtD

= =

Hydrodynamic drag force in normal direction Hydrodynamic drag force in tangential direction

w2 , w2

[G ] = [ N ] [ B][ N ] dz

T i =1

Nel

h 0

(20)

u 2 , u2

[ K ] = [ N ] [C ][ N ] dz + [ N ] [ D ][ N ] dz

T T i =1

Nel

(21)

w1 , w1

1

u1 , u1

{R} = [ N ]

i =1

Nel

h 0

% } dz {F

(22)

NEWMARK INTEGRATION

To determine the dynamic responses of the riser, the numerical direct integration method is employed in this study. Newmark integration method is found suitable for this problem (Bathe, 1996; Bhatt, 2002). The integration constants used are

a0 = 1

FINITE ELEMENTS

The riser structure shown in Fig. 2 can be discretized into finite elements as illustrated in Fig. 4. Each element is divided equally along the arc length of the riser. Using the cubic polynomial displacement approximation, the displacement vectors {u} in terms of nodal degree of freedom {d } and shape functions [N ] are

t 2

a1 =

a5 =

1 1 a = 1 a = t 2 t 3 2

t a = t (1 ) a = t 7 2 6 2

(23)

a4 =

{u} =

u [ N ] {d } w

(14)

The effective stiffness and load matrices for the numerical integration can be written as follows: (15)

[ N] = 01

N N2 0 0 N3 N4 0 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N3 N4

= K +a M +aC K 0 1

t +t

(24)

u1 u 1 w1 w1 {d } = u 2 u2 w2 w 2

t +t K U = t +t R

(26)

It should be noted that at each time step the iteration method is employed in order to cope with the nonlinear drag force pattern. The acceleration and velocity functions of the risers can be determined using the following equations.

t +t

The relationship between arc length and height discretions can be estimated by

ds =

& = tU & + a tU && + a t + tU && = a ( t + tU tU ) a tU & a tU && U 6 7 1 4 5

(27) (28)

t + t

(1 + x )dz

2

(17)

108

ubottom = wbottom = 0

(29)

Fsw ( t ) = F0w sin (s t )

(30a) (30b)

The initial conditions for determining the dynamic responses of the marine risers read

0

U =0

& =0 U

&& = 0 U

MODEL VALIDATIONS

The numerical validations of the model contain two parts: numerical and analytical results (Moe and Chucheepsakul, 1988; Kaewunruen and Chucheepsakul, 2004). The effect of internal flow friction is not considered in this study as it clearly reduces the flow speed. Table 1 Analysis input data Description and notation Top tension Number of riser elements Sea level Offset Riser weigh in air Outer diameter of riser Thickness of riser Sea density Internal flow density Modulus of elasticity of riser Added mass coefficient Drag force coefficient in normal direction Drag force coefficient in tangential direction Current velocity Internal flow rate Time Step Excitation frequency range Forced Amplitude Newmarks integration parameter Newmarks step parameter

TH

Quantity

N el

H

XH

W

DO

t

w

476.198 40 300 0 7850 0.26 0.03 1025 998 2.07x108 2.0 0.7 0.03 0 0-35 0.05 0.02 100 0.50 0.25

Fig. 5 Displacement responses of risers in frequency domain; a) 0 m/s; b) 5 m/s; c) 10 m/s; d) 15 m/s; e) 20 m/s; f) 25 m/s Table 2 Fundamental frequency of marine risers conveying fluid Internal flow speed (m/s) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Internal flow speed (m/s) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Numerical solution [A] 0.2987 0.2979 0.2956 0.2916 0.2858 0.2782 0.2683 0.2558 Analytical solution [B] 0.2878 0.2869 0.2843 0.2797 0.2728 0.2628 0.2476 0.2825 0.2814 0.2789 0.2780 0.2770 0.2599 0.2430 0.3005 0.2996 0.2990 0.2956 0.2870 0.2798 0.2685 0.2590 This study %Difference from [A] 0.6026 0.5707 1.1502 1.3717 0.4199 0.5751 0.0745 1.2510 %Difference from [B] -1.8416 -1.9170 -1.8994 -0.6078 1.5396 -1.1035 -1.8578

This study

CM

CDn

C Dt

Vc

F0

V t

The calibration data are tabulated in Table 1. These data are identical to previous study by Kaewunruen and Chucheepsakul (2004). To compare the results, the riser is excited by a wide range of forcing frequencies as shown in Fig 5. The resonances of the riser responses can then be determined as shown in Table 2. It is found that the fundamental frequencies of the marine risers in this study are in very good agreement with previous studies. Analogously, it should be noted that other modes of vibration found in this study are also in very good agreement with previous studies (Leklong, 2008).

109

Using the data in Table 1 as the initial input, the dynamic responses of the marine risers/pipes transporting fluid to top end excitation can be attained. Interestingly, both resonant and beat phenomena have been detected. These phenomena have been also found in the deep-ocean mining pipelines (Chung et al. 1997a; 1997b).

frequency ratio FR = s f varies from 0.5 to 2.0. The results show that the maximum displacements of the risers with bending rigidity are slightly lower than those without the bending rigidity. However, the resonant behaviours of the risers taken into account the bending rigidity tend to be higher than those without the bending rigidity.

The dynamic top tensions are determined from the dynamic strains at the top of the riser. The main contribution is from the first derivative of longitudinal displacements. It is found that the resonances to the natural frequencies of the riser occur at the frequency magnifications between 82 and 85, or about 54.7742, 65.7733, 109.622, 153.471 rad/s for the first, second, third, and fourth modes of vibration, respectively. Figs. 6 presents the dynamic top tensions in time domain due to different excitation frequencies. It is found that the dynamic top tensions at the excitation frequency of 65.7733 rad/sec prevail the beating phenomena.

Fig. 7 Displacement responses of marine risers/pipes in time domain: a) FR = 0.5; b) FR = 0.8; c) FR = 0.9; d) FR = 1.0; e) FR = 1.1; f) FR = 1.2; g) FR=1.5; h) FR=2.0

The internal flow speeds (V) from 0 to 35 m/s are considered in the parametric studies. Losses due to internal flow frictions in the pipe system clearly deter the internal flow speed and are not considered in this investigation. The dynamic responses of the marine risers transporting the internal fluids are illustrated in Fig. 8. The results clearly exhibit that the displacement responses of the risers with bending rigidity tend to converge onto steady state response amplitudes. It is noticeable that when the internal flow speeds increase, the steady-state convergence time durations decrease. Table 3 summarizes the convergence time onto the steady states of the marine risers conveying different internal flow speeds.

Fig. 6 Dynamic top tensions of marine risers/pipes in time domain: a) 0.1147 rad/s; b) 0.4 rad/s; c) 0.8 rad/s; d) 54.7742 rad/s; e) 65.7733 rad/s; f) 100 rad/s

To identify the effect of bending rigidity on the dynamic responses of the marine risers, the internal flow speed is kept at zero. The dynamic behaviours of the riser taking into account the bending stiffness and without such stiffness are considered, as illustrated in Fig. 7. The

110

40

0.0 500.0x109 1.0x1012 1.5x1012

2

30

20

10

2.0x1012

2.5x1012

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

2200

(a) (b) Fig. 9 Natural frequencies of marine risers/pipes: a) effect of elastic modulus; b) effect of top tension.

E (kN/m )

The hydrodynamic drag forces are computed from the Morrison wave theory, which involves two key factors: drag force and inertial mass coefficients. The drag force coefficients describe the risers surface roughness, which are affected by Reynolds Number. In this study, only the steady flow is taken into consideration and the drag force coefficients ( C Dn ) vary from 0 to 1.4. The resonant responses of the marine risers to the fundamental mode of vibration are given in Fig. 10. It is found that the drag forces play a significant role in reducing the maximum amplitudes of dynamic responses over a time, converging onto a steady state as depicted in Fig. 11.

Fig. 8 Resonant responses of marine risers/pipes in time domain: a) V = 0 m/s; b) V = 5 m/s; c) V = 10 m/s; d) V = 15 m/s; e) V = 20 m/s; f) V = 25 m/s; g) V = 30 m/s; h) V = 35 m/s Table 3 Convergence time onto the steady states of the marine risers Internal flow speed (m/s) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Time(sec), Time(sec),

FR = 0.8

> 2000 1340 1030 730 555 421 285

Using the main data in Table 1, the elastic moduli are varied from 2.07E8 to 2.01E12 while the top tensions are considered in the range from 450 to 2050 kN. The dynamic responses of the marine risers transporting the internal fluids are used for the determination of the resonant frequencies. Fig. 9 shows that the resonant frequencies vary significantly with the elastic modulus and the top tension.

Fig. 10 Resonant responses of marine risers/pipes in time domain: a) C Dn = 0; b) C Dn = 0.1; c) C Dn = 0.4; d) C Dn = 0.7; e) C Dn = 1.1; f)

C Dn = 1.2; g) C Dn = 1.3; h) C Dn = 1.4

111

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6

Fig. 11 Relation between maximum dynamic responses of marine risers/pipes and drag force coefficients

CONCLUSIONS

The dynamic responses of marine risers/pipes transporting fluid subjected to harmonic excitation at top end are presented in this paper. The dynamic analyses focus on both elastic and bending effects. Based on the virtual work-energy functional of the marine risers/pipes, the structural model developed consists of the strain energy die to axial and bending deformations. Virtual work created by effective tension, and inertial and hydrodynamic drag forces is presented as well as the kinetic energy due to both the riser and internal fluid motions. Nonlinear equations of motion due to the effect of a nonlinear Morison type term coupled in axial and transverse displacements are derived through the Hamiltons principle. To determine the dynamic responses of the marine risers, the finite element method is implemented for which the Newmark Average Acceleration method is used for direct numerical integration. Beating and resonant phenomena are observed via the dynamic responses of the risers. The effects of internal flow, top tensions, hydrodynamic forces, and modulus of elasticity are investigated and found to influence marine riser dynamic behaviours. The internal flow rate and the hydrodynamic drag force have a major impact on the amplitude of dynamic displacements as to remain in the steady state condition. The top tension and modulus of elasticity play a key role in the increment of natural frequencies of the marine risers.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors are grateful to acknowledge the financial support by Thailand Research Fund under the Grant No RTA/03/2543.

REFERENCES

Atadan, AS, Calisal, SM, Modi, VJ, and Guo, Y (1997).Analytical and numerical analysis of the dynamics of a marine riser connected to a floating platform, Ocean Eng, Vol 24, No 2, pp 111-131. Athisakul, C, Huang, T, and Chucheepsakul, S (2002). Large-strain static analysis of marine risers with a variational approach, Proc 12th Int Offshore and Polar Eng Conference, Vol 2, pp 164-170. Bar-Avi, P (2000). Dynamic responses of risers conveying fluid, J of Offshore Mech and Arctic Eng, Vol 122, pp. 188-193. Bathe, KJ (1996). Finite Element Procedures, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Bhatt, P (2002). Programming the Dynamic Analysis of Structures, Spon Press, New York. Chatjigeorgiou, IK (2004). On the parametric excitation of vertical elastic slender structures and the effect of damping in marine applications, Applied Ocean Res, Vol 26, No 1-2, pp 23-33. Chatjigeorgiou, IK and Marrakos, SA (2005). Nonlinear resonances of parametrically excited risers Numerical and analytical investigation for = 21 , Computers & Struct, Vol 83, No 8-9, pp 560-573. Chen, YH and Lin FM (1989). General drag-force linearization for nonlinear analysis of marine risers, Ocean Eng, Vol 16, No 3, pp 265-280.

Chucheepsakul, S, Huang, T, and Monprapussorn, T (1999). Influence of transported fluid on behaviour of an extensible flexible riser/pipe, Proc 9th Int Offshore and Polar Eng Conference, Vol 2, pp. 286-293. Chucheepsakul, S, Huang, T, and Monprapussorn, T (2003). Large strain formulations of extensible flexible riser/pipe, J Fluid and Structures, Vol 17, No 2, pp. 185-224. Chung, J.S., Cheng, B-S, Hullemaier, H-P. (1997a). Threedimensional coupled responses of a vertical deep-ocean pipe: Part 1 Excitation at pipe ends and external torsion, Int J Offshore and Polar Eng, Vol 4, No 4, pp. 320-330. Chung, J.S., Cheng, B-S, Hullemaier, H-P. (1997b). Threedimensional coupled responses of a vertical deep-ocean pipe: Part 2 Excitation at pipe top and external torsion, Int J Offshore and Polar Eng, Vol 4, No 4, pp. 331-339. Irani, MB, Modi, VJ, Welf, F (1987). Riser dynamics with internal flow and nutation damping, Proc 6th Int Offshore Mech and Arctic Eng Conference, Vol 3, pp 119-125. Kaewunruen, S and Chucheepsakul, S (2004). Free vibrations of marine risers/pipes conveying fluid, Proc National Convention on Civil Engineering, Vol 1, pp 1828. Kaewunruen, S, Chirawatcharadej, J, and Chucheepsakul, S (2005). Nonlinear free vibrations of marine risers/pipes transporting fluid, Ocean Eng, Vol 32, No 1-2, pp 417440. Langhaar, HL (1962). Energy Methods in Applied Mechanics, John Wiley and Sons, New York. Moe, G and Chucheepsakul, S (1988). The effect of internal flow on marine risers Proc 7th Int Offshore Mech and Arctic Eng Conference, Vol 1, pp 375-382. Morison, JR, OBerien, MP, Johnson, FW, and Schaaf, SA (1950). The force excerted by surface waves on piles, Transaction of Amer Inst of Mining Metal Eng, Vol 189, pp 149-154. Monprapussorn, T (2002). Influence of axial and radial deformations and fluid transportation on behaviours of marine risers with large displacements, PhD Dissertation, Department of Civil Engineering, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand, 193p. Park, HI and Jung, DH (2002). A finite element method for dynamic analysis of long slender marine structures under combined parametric and forcing excitation, Ocean Eng, Vol 29, No 11, pp 1313-1325. Sen, TK (2006). Probability of fatigue failure in steel catenary risers in deep water, J Eng Mech, ASCE, Vol 132, No 9, pp 10011006. Wu, MC and Lou, JYK (1991). Effects of rigidity and internal flow on marine riser dynamics, Applied Ocean Research, Vol 13, No 5, pp 235244. APPENDIXES To study riser statics, the time-independent functions are considered. By applying the stationary potential energy to the conservative systems, the first variation for the integration of the subtraction between total potential energy and work-done functionals approaches zero. Hence, the governing differential equations are evaluated from equation (4), (10), (12), and (13). The derivation for these equations yields the governing equilibrium equations in transverse direction and vertical direction as follows

(MU 2 )

4u u 2u & u q = 0 + EI 4 Te + MU 2 z z z z z

(32) (33)

The static solution can be generally found by using the finite element method (Chucheepsakul et al., 1999).

Te + We = 0 z

112

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