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REVALUING SCIENCE EDUCATION

I. Introduction. Science education is the field concerned with sharing science content and process with individuals not traditionally considered part of the scientific community. The target individuals may be children, college students, or adults within the general public. The field of science education comprises science content, some social science, and some teaching pedagogy.The standards for science education provide expectations for the development of understanding for students through the entire course of their k-12 education. The traditional sub ects included in the standards are physical, life, and earth and space sciences. Science education is, however, a different matter. Science is basically doing things, not ust talking, and it is !uite a challenge to give some hands-on experiments to children through which they can find out the working of nature using very simple stuff that they may find around them. "or many developing countries, conducting scientific experiments with imported e!uipment may not be a sound economic proposition. #lso it may not be desirable to import e!uipment on all occasions. $n the early stages of science education, the key point for students is to find out how nature works. The emphasis, here, is not on achieving high levels of accuracy of scientific research as is the case in scientific laboratories. $t would be enough if only the laws of science are verified through easy means at a functional level.

1.1 GOAL / AIMS OF SCIENCE EDUCATION The aims of the primary schools science curriculum are to provide opportunities for pupils to learn about themselves and the environment through everyday experiences and scientific investigations, to ac!uire knowledge and skills in science and technology and to enable pupils to apply these knowledge and skills based on scientific attitudes and noble values to make decisions and solve problems in everyday life. The curriculum also aims to provide a strong foundation in science and technology to prepare pupils for the learning of science in secondary school. The %ational &hilosophy of Science 'ducation states that, ($n consonance with the %ational 'ducation &hilosophy, science education in )alaysia nurtures a science and technology culture by focusing on the development of individuals who are competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient and able to master scientific knowledge and technological competency*. +ith this philosophy, science education, therefore, is aimed at developing the potentials of individuals in an overall and integrated manner so as to produce )alaysian citi,ens who are scientifically and technologically literate, competent in scientific skills, practice good moral values, capable of coping with the changes of scientific and technological advances and be able to manage nature with wisdom and responsibility for the betterment of mankind.

OBJECTIVES The science curriculum for primary schools is developed with the ob ectives to1. stimulate pupils* curiosity and develop their interest about the world around them. 2. provide pupils with the opportunities to develop science process skills and thinking skills. .. develop pupils* creativity. /. provide pupils with basic science knowledge and concepts. 0. to provide learning opportunities for pupils to apply knowledge and skills in a creative and critical manner for problem solving and decision-making. 1. inculcate scientific attitudes and positive values.

2. foster the appreciation on the contributions of science and technology towards national development and well-being of mankind. 3. be aware the need to love and care for the environment.

SCIENTIFIC AND THIN ING S ILLS 4entral in the teaching-learning approach in the science curriculum at all levels is the

mastery of scientific skills, which comprise process skills, manipulative skills and thinking skills. Process skills are mental processes that encourage critical, creative, analytical and systematic thinking and include observing, making inferences, classifying, measuring and using numbers, predicting, communicating, using time and space relationships, interpreting, defining operationally, controlling variables, making hypotheses and experimenting. Manipulative skills are psychomotor skills used in scientific investigations such as proper handling of scientific e!uipment, substances, living and non-living things. Thinking skills comprise critical thinking and creative thinking, which when combined with reasoning lead to higher order thinking skills such as conceptuali,ing, decision-making and problem solving.

1.! CURRENT TRENDS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOG" EDUCATION 4ourse 5utline The course consists of eight lessons. 6etails of how you will be assessed during and after the course are given here. L#$$on L#$$on 1 $ntroductions and 5bservations Cont#nt Acti%it&

$ntroduction to the course and the way in which $ntroductions and it will be conducted using groups. observations "ormation of groups and introduction of group members. 5bservation of a classroom.

L#$$on ! 4urrent thinking L#$$on ' $nternational trends L#$$on (

:eadings and #n overview of some of the ma or trends in S)T education 78roups will have the option to comment specialise in one area.9 $nitiatives and directions in S)T education in :eadings and other countries. 78roups will have the option to comment specialise in one area.9 :eadings and comment

'xamples of how various international and local initiatives have been translated into $nternational and local practice.78roups will have the option to specialise in one area.9 curriculum pro ects L#$$on ) 4urriculum 2;;0 L#$$on * 4urriculum design L#$$on + 4urriculum assessment L#$$on , 6esign and implementation of a unit 1.' STANDARD OF THE SCIENCE EDUCATION The process of curriculum assessment as applied to this course #n overview of the goals of curriculum 2;;0 and of the specific outcomes for science, mathematics and technology The process of curriculum design as applied to this course

:eading and comment 8roup work

8roup work

The ideas and concepts of the course will be put 4ou into practice here.

St-nd-rd E. Sci#nc# -nd T#c/no0o1& #bilities to distinguish between natural ob ects and ob ects made by humans #bilities of technological design <nderstandings about science and technology 4ommunicate the process of technological design St-nd-rd$ 2or T#c/no0o1ic-0 Lit#r-c& Students will develop an understanding of= Standard 3. the attributes of design. Standard 1;. the role of troubleshooting, research and development, invention and innovation, and experimentation in problem solving. Students will develop= Standard 11. the abilities to apply the design process. Standard 2;. an understanding of and be able to select and use construction technologies.

1.( ASSESSMENT IN SCIENCE EDUCATION #ssessment for >earning

#ssessment for learning should

be embedded in the teaching and learning and not a separate task? involve sharing lesson ob ectives with pupils? aim to help pupils to know the standards they are aiming for? involve pupils in self assessment? provide feedback to pupils so that they recognise their next steps in learning and how to take them? involve pupils and teachers reviewing and reflecting on assessment data.

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#ssessment for learning can be effectively managed when we break it down into the following areas Sharing ob ectives and outcomes with pupils )aking assessment more effective >evel >adders for @4# Topics 6eveloping effective teacher !uestioning &roviding effective feedback to pupils

#ssessment &ractice $n Science 8ood assessment practice is an essential characteristic of effective teaching and

learning in science. This assessment may take different forms and be used at different stages.

i9 Di-1no$tic A$$#$$3#nt #ssessment that occurs early in the teaching-learning se!uence can reveal information about learners that can be used to guide the planning of teaching so that it takes account of studentsA existing conceptions and beliefs. #ssessment can play an important diagnostic function identifying alternative conceptions 7misconceptions9 that need to be challenged in the teaching and learning of science.

6iagnostic tasks in S'#: are mostly presented in a cartoon scenario. They address specific misconceptions commonly held by students. The tasks include a scientific explanation of the phenomenon, examples of student responses that illustrate the misconceptions, research findings and references. They also include suggestions for follow-up lessons for addressing the student misconceptions discovered. ii4 For3-ti%# A$$#$$3#nt "ormative assessment items 7!uestions9 in S'#: provide teachers with the opportunity to evaluate student responses across a range of scientific literacy levels in the progress map 7at least two levels9. These items are helpful in establishing the level at which students are working and for planning the next classroom activity to assist in further growth from that point towards the next level. $t is therefore particularly useful to administer formative items to students during the course of a teaching-learning se!uence and then provide students with feedback that will help them improve their learning and achievement. iii4 Su33-ti%# A$$#$$3#nt Summative assessment tasks are used towards the end of a teaching-learning se!uence to gather information that can be used to determine the extentBlevel to which students have achieved the learning outcomes. $nformation from summative assessments is used for grading, levelling and reporting.

The distinction between summative and formative assessment items is somewhat artificial 7due to re!uirements to find these in the database9, in that both can be used

during or at the end of a teaching-learning se!uence. $t is the use to which you put the information you glean about your studentsA learning from either type of task that is paramount. Cou will be best placed to exercise your professional udgement as to how and when to administer particular tasks to your students. "urthermore, many tasks contain both summative and formative items.

1.) DISCUSSION . MALA"SIA ISSUES IN TEACHING SCIENCE

1. L-n1u-1# i$$u#$ $n 2;;2, the government announced that from 2;;. onwards, the teaching of Science and )athematics would be done in 'nglish, in order to ensure that )alaysia will not be left behind in a world that was rapidly becoming globalised. This paved the way for the establishment of mixed-medium education. Dowever, the policy was heavily critici,ed especially by )alay linguists and activists, fearing that the policy might erode the usage of )alay language in science and mathematics, which led to a massive rally in Euala >umpur on 2 )arch 2;;F. 6ue to the lack of 4hinese students attending government schools, coupled with the number of non-4hinese students attending 4hinese vernacular schools, the government announced in #pril 2;;0 that all national schools will begin teaching 4hinese and Tamil, not as a mother tongue course but as an elective course.

!. 5oor Co33-nd o2 En10i$/ Geteran 'nglish teacher $brahim Hakaria put forward, even intelligent young graduates too have trouble getting ideas across in 'nglish languages, and even local lawyers are of poor !uality 'nglish. Some of these students with poor command of 'nglish could even score # or a strong credit in the S&) 'xamination. #lso pointed out that there is !uality in the 'nglish @uestion &apers but the passing mark has been manipulated in such a way that even the undeserving students manage to score an # for

'nglish, and this speaks volumes for the education system. <ntil today, various reasons have been given for the decline in the 'nglish standard but nobody has honestly pointed out that the root cause is the short-sightedness of the leaders and education ministers. <niversiti )alaya vice-chancellor 6atuk :afiah Salim claimed many students did not have a strong command of 'nglish and struggling in the )alaysian court. She also said )alaysian law is based on 4ommon >aw and local lawyers still look up 'nglish law and read up on 'nglish cases, therefore if the students have a better grasp of 'nglish, they would be able to practise advocacy better.

'. R-ci-0 6o0-ri$-tion in $c/oo0$ 6ue to the existence of vernacular schools, there exist worries that students are not interacting enough with those of other races. :acial polarisation is very prevalent in the )alaysian education system, with students grouping together according to their race. #lthough many measures have been taken to reduce this polarisation, the students of different races usually work together, but play with their own kind.

(. T/# tuition 6/#no3#non The prevalence of tuition centres in urban areas of )alaysia is also an issue of growing concern. Students in urban areas generally go to tuition centres, due to pressure by parents to do well or unable to cope up with the standard of the current education. The tuition industry is in itself extremely large, and was reported to be worth about :) / billion. There is also the problem where tuition centres offer Acrash coursesA for most of the central exams where they offer Aleaked !uestionsA. These leaked !uestions are usually obtained by unscrupulous means, but so far the control of leaked !uestions by the government has not been reasonable, with an average of one or two leak7s9 every year.

CONCLUSION "rom the findings Jurnal 1, the teaching efficacy beliefs* level of the )athematics and Science teachers in using 'nglish to teach the two sub ects is high. The two constructs, the &T' and 8T' are of mutual influence in determining the efficacy beliefs of the )athematics and Science teachers. )eanwhile, the efficacy beliefs of the )athematics and Science teachers are not affected by the 'nglish grade in the )4' or S&) examinations. The findings from the data gathered from the Jurnal 2 observations and !uestionnaire seemed to be parallel in most aspects. The sub ects were observed to be orally fluent enough in the 'nglish >anguage to use it as a medium of instruction to teach Science in the Cear 5ne &rimary classroom. They also perceived themselves as ade!uately proficient in the 'nglish >anguage to teach the sub ect. Dowever, although observations indicate that they were able to pronounce words correctly and to use the correct rhythm and intonation, the sub ects were less confident of their ability in these areas. 5ne possible reason could be the interference of their mother tongue 7which is Iahasa )elayu9 on the pronunciation of the Science terms in 'nglish. #nother could be they lack the confidence or knowledge to read the phonetic transcriptions of such terminology in dictionaries. The observations are also indicative of the sub ects* ability to use the 'nglish >anguage effectively as there seems to be a low occurrence of confusion among the pupils in the Science classroom. This could probably be due to the clear use of the language resulting in the pupils* understanding of what was imparted. Eesimpulan dari Jurnal 3. +alaupun telah diberi bimbingan tentang penggunaan peralatan &&S)$, penggunaannya daripada kalangan guru &&S)$ di sekolah saya masih kurang menggalakkan. Iengkel yang diadakan telah dapat menambahkan kemahiran guru dalam menggunakannya peralatan &&S)$. $ni menun ukkan bimbingan yang saya diberikan tidak dimanfaatkan sepenuhnya oleh guru &&S)$.

5leh itu, menggunakan peralatan &&S)$ dalam p J p bukanlah perkara mustahil yang sangat sukar untuk dilaksanakan kerana guru boleh memilih mod penyampaian yang dikehendaki. Eegagalan atau ke ayaan pendidikan era maklumat ini bergantung kepada peranan yang dimainkan oleh guru. +alaubagaimanapun, kebi aksanaan, kesungguhan dan semangat yang kuat amat perlu bagi seorang guru untuk merancang dan mengaplikasikan penggunaan bahan untuk memastikan ke ayaan pela ar dan penga aran selari dengan era globalisasi. 5leh itu, ke ayaan p J p ini terletak di atas se auh mana dasar, galakan, kemudahan prasarana yang dibekalkan digunakan sepenuh oleh guru itu sendiri yang berperanan KmembawaL penggunaan peralatan &&S)$ ke bilik dar ah. Sememangnya, kebi aksanaan, semangat kesungguhan dan ilti,am yang tinggi untuk menggunakannya terletak di bahu guru-guru.

1.* REFERENCE

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA, KAMPUS JALAN SEMARAK, 54100 KUALA LUMPUR.

KURIKULUM MATEMATIK DAN SAINS SPN 1012

TAJUK :

REVALUING SCIENCE EDUCATION

DISEDIAKAN OLEH : MOHD IZAR SHAZERY BIN SAHBUDIN SX081132PTJ04 UNTUK PERHATIAN : EN. MOHD ALI BIN IBRAHIM