Anda di halaman 1dari 25

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only.

Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

ASHRAE GreenGuide
The Design, Construction, and Operation of Sustainable Buildings

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

This publication was developed under the auspices of TC 2.8, Building Environmental Impacts and Sustainability. TC 2.8 is concerned with the impacts of buildings on the local, regional, and global environment; means for identifying and reducing these impacts; and enhancing ASHRAE member awareness of the impacts. John M. Swift, Jr., RE, CEM, LEED, is coeditor of the ASHRAE GreenGuide, Third Edition, and is a principal at Cannon Design in Boston. He serves as chair of the proposed ASHRAE Standard for Water Efficiency in Buildings and is vice-chair of ASHRAE Technical Committee 2.8. Mr. Swift recently served on Massachusetts Governor Patrick's Zero Net Energy Buildings Task Force and was an original contributor to the development of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys Labs 21 Environmental Performance Criteria guidelines. Tom Lawrence, PhD, PE, LEED-AP, is also coeditor of the ASHRAE GreenGuide, Third Edition, and is a public service associate with the University of Georgia with 30 years of experience in engineering and related fields. He is chair of ASHRAE Technical Committee 2.8 and is a member of the committee that wrote ANSI/ASHRAE/USGBC/IES Standard 189.1-2009, Standard for the Design of High-Performance Green Buildings. Dr. Lawrence is also a member of ASHRAE's Handbook and Technical Activities Committees. As an ASHRAE Distinguished Lecturer, he gives seminars on green building design at venues around the world. Amelia Pavlik, assistant editor in ASHRAE Special Publications, served as staff editor for the ASHRAE GreenGuide, Third Edition.

ASHRAE STAFF
SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS
Mark S. Owen Editor/Group Manager of Handbook and Special Publications Cindy Sheffield Michaels Managing Editor James Madison Walker Associate Editor Amelia Pavlik Assistant Editor Elisabeth Parrish Assistant Editor Michshell Phillips Editorial Coordinator

PUBLISHING SERVICES
David Soltis Group Manager of Publishing Services and Electronic Communications Tracy Becker Graphic Applications Specialist Jayne Jackson Publication Traffic Administrator PUBLISHER W. Stephen Comstock

Updates/errata for this publication will be posted on the ASHRAE Web site at www.ashrae.org/publicationupdates.

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

ASHRAE GreenGuide
The Design, Construction, and Operation of Sustainable Buildings Third Edition

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

ISBN 978-1-933742-85-4 2010 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. 1791 Tullie Circle, NE Atlanta, GA 30329 www.ashrae.org All rights reserved. First edition published 2003. Second edition published 2006. Third edition published 2010. Printed in the United States of America

Cover design by Tracy Becker ASHRAE has compiled this publication with care, but ASHRAE has not investigated, and ASHRAE expressly disclaims any duty to investigate, any product, service, process, procedure, design, or the like that may be described herein. The appearance of any technical data or editorial material in this publication does not constitute endorsement, warranty, or guaranty by ASHRAE of any product, service, process, procedure, design, or the like. ASHRAE does not warrant that the information in the publication is free of errors, and ASHRAE does not necessarily agree with any statement or opinion in this publication. The entire risk of the use of any information in this publication is assumed by the user. No part of this book may be reproduced without permission in writing from ASHRAE, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages or reproduce illustrations in a review with appropriate credit; nor may any part of this book be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any way or by any meanselectronic, photocopying, recording, or otherwithout permission in writing from ASHRAE. Requests for permission should be submitted at www.ashrae.org/permissions. ____________________________________________ Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data ASHRAE greenguide : the design, construction, and operation of sustainable buildings. -- 3rd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. Summary: "The third edition of the ASHRAE GreenGuide features information for anyone charged with designing a sustainable building on a variety of green-design issues that should be considered when tasked with this type of project"-- Provided by publisher. ISBN 978-1-933742-85-4 (hardcover) 1. Sustainable buildings--Design and construction. 2. Sustainable architecture. 3. Buildings--Environmental engineering. 4. Sustainable construction. I. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. TH880.A83 2010 720'.47--dc22 2010038430

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

Tomorrows Child Without a name, an unseen face, And knowing not the time or place, Tomorrows Child, though yet unborn, I saw you first last Tuesday morn. A wise friend introduced us two, And through his shining point of view I saw a day, which you would see, A day for you, and not for me. Knowing you has changed my thinking, Never having had an inkling That perhaps the things I do Might someday threaten you. Tomorrows Child, my daughter-son, Im afraid Ive just begun To think of you and of your good, Though always having known I should. Begin I will to weigh the cost Of what I squander, what is lost, If ever I forget that you Will someday come to live here too.

by Glenn Thomas, 1996


Reprinted from Mid-Course Correction: Toward a Sustainable Enterprise: The Interface Model by Ray Anderson. Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 1999.

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

CONTENTS
Foreword Preface
Who Should Use the ASHRAE GreenGuide The Purpose of the ASHRAE GreenGuide How to Use the ASHRAE GreenGuide Background on the ASHRAE GreenGuide

xv xvii
xvii xviii xviii xix

Acknowledgments

xxi

SECTION I: BASICS
Chapter One: Green/Sustainable High-Performance Design 3
Introduction Relationship to Sustainability Good Design Commitment to Green/Sustainable High-Performance Projects What Drives Green Projects The Impact of Carbon Considerations The Engineering/Energy Conservation Ethic References and Resources 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 15

Chapter Two: Background and Fundamentals


Sustainability in Architecture Fundamentals of Related Engineering Topics Applications to HVAC Systems and Processes Summary of Engineering Application Fundamentals References and Resources
vii

17
17 25 32 42 42

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

SECTION 2: THE DESIGN PROCESS


Chapter Three: Project Strategies
Ingredients of a Successful Green Project Endeavor Incentives for Green Design Building Team Spirit Successful Approaches to Design References and Resources

47
47 48 52 52 57

Chapter Four: The Design ProcessEarly Stages


Overview The Owners Role The Design Team The Engineers Role Project Delivery Methods and Contractor Selection Concept Development Expressing and Testing Concepts Building Information Modeling (BIM) References and Resources

59
59 62 63 68 69 74 77 79 87

Chapter Five: Architectural Design and Planning Impacts


Sustainability and Energy Master Planning Site Location Site Orientation Building Form/Geometry Building Envelope Green-Roof and Cool-Roof Technologies Building Materials Arrangement/Grouping of Spaces Climatic Impacts Existing Buildings Interdependency Building-Type GreenTips References and Resources

89
89 92 93 93 94 97 100 101 101 102 102 102 120

Chapter Six: Commissioning


CxAs Role and the OPR Document Commissioning Phases Selection of a CxA Selection of Systems to Commission Commissioning Models References and Resources
viii

121
124 125 132 133 134 136

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

Chapter Seven: Green Rating Systems, Standards, and Other Guidance


The LEED Programs Green Rating Systems, Standards, and Other Guidance ASHRAE/USGBC/IES Standard 189.1 Guidelines ASHRAE Building Energy Quotient (Building eQ) Program References and Resources

137
137 146 150 154 155 156

Chapter Eight: Conceptual Engineering Design Load Determination


The Role of Energy Modeling During Conceptual Design Determining the Load Drivers with Parametric Simulations Energy Impacts of Architectural Features Thermal/Mass Transfer of Envelope Engineering Load-Determining Factors Lighting System/Equipment Efficiencies Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) References and Resources

159
161 162 163 164 165 166 168 169 179

Chapter Nine: Indoor Environmental Quality


Why a Chapter on This? Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Designing Healthy Buildings HVAC, Building Envelope and Materials, and IAQ Interaction References and Resources

181
181 181 190 194 195

Chapter Ten: Energy Distribution Systems


Energy Exchange Energy Delivery Methods Steam Hydronics Air Electric References and Resources

197
197 198 202 204 209 210 219

Chapter Eleven: Energy Conversion Systems


Heat Generators (Heating Plants)
ix

221
221

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

Cooling Generators (Chilled-Water Plants) Cooling System Heat Sinks Cooling Tower Systems District Energy Systms Cooling System Heat Sinks Distributed Electricity Generation Water Consumption Due to Cooling System Operation References and Resources

221 224 224 228 231 231 237 278

Chapter Twelve: Energy/Water Sources


Renewable/Nonrenewable Energy Sources Solar Wind Hydro Biomass Water References and Resources

279
279 281 290 292 293 293 309

Chapter Thirteen: Lighting Systems


Electric Lighting Daylight Harvesting The Light Conveyor Lighting Controls Cost Considerations References and Resources

313
313 325 328 328 332 336

Chapter Fourteen: Water Efficiency


The Energy-Water Balance Water Supply Cooling Tower Systems Domestic Water Heating Sanitary Waste Storm Drainage Fire Suppression Systems Water Recovery and Reuse References and Resources

337
338 338 340 346 347 347 347 347 373

Chapter Fifteen: Building Automation Systems


Control System Role in Delivering Energy Efficiency Control System Role in Delivering Water Efficiency Control System Role in Delivering IEQ Control System Commissioning Process
x

375
376 377 378 380

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

Control System Role in Attaining LEED Certification Designing for Sustained Efficiency References and Resources

384 394 401

Chapter Sixteen: Completing Design and Documentation for Construction


Drawings/Documents Stage Specifying Materials/Equipment Cost Estimating and Budget Reconciliation Bidding Managing Risk References and Resources

403
403 403 404 404 405 408

SECTION 3: POSTDESIGN CONSTRUCTION AND BEYOND


Chapter Seventeen: Construction
Construction Practices and Methods The Engineers Role in Construction Quality References and Resources

411
411 412 415

Chapter Eighteen: Operation/Maintenance/ Performance Evaluation


Commissioning for Building Occupancy Energy Efficiency in Existing Buildings Retrofit Strategies for Existing Buildings Retrocommissioning (SM) Measurement and Verification (M&V) International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Guidelines Version 2.2 FEMP M&V Option A Detailed Guidelines ASHRAE Guideline 14-2002 Building Labeling Occupant Surveys References and Resources

417
417 419 420 420 421 421 422 422 422 422 423 426

References and Resources Terms, Definitions, and Acronyms Index


xi

429 453 459

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

GREENTIPS ASHRAE Building-Type GreenTip #1: Performing Arts Spaces ASHRAE Building-Type GreenTip #2: Health Care Facilities ASHRAE Building-Type GreenTip #3: Laboratory Facilities ASHRAE Building-Type GreenTip #4: Student Residence Halls ASHRAE Building-Type GreenTip #5: Athletic and Recreation Facilities ASHRAE Building-Type GreenTip #6: Commercial Office Buildings ASHRAE Building-Type GreenTip #7: K-12 School Buildings ASHRAE Building-Type GreenTip #8: Existing Buildings ASHRAE GreenTip #9: Night Precooling ASHRAE GreenTip #10: Plug Loads ASHRAE GreenTip #11: Variable-Flow/Variable-Speed Pumping Systems ASHRAE GreenTip #12: Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Systems ASHRAE GreenTip #13: Pulse-Powered, Chemical-Free Water Treatment ASHRAE GreenTip #14: CHP Systems ASHRAE GreenTip #15: Low-NOx Burners ASHRAE GreenTip #16: Combustion Air Preheating ASHRAE GreenTip #17: Combination Space/Water Heaters ASHRAE GreenTip #18: Ground-Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs) ASHRAE GreenTip #19: Water-Loop Heat Pump Systems ASHRAE GreenTip #20: TES for Cooling ASHRAE GreenTip #21: Double-Effect Absorption Chillers ASHRAE GreenTip #22: Gas Engine-Driven Chillers ASHRAE GreenTip #23: Gas-Fired Chillers/Heaters ASHRAE GreenTip #24: Desiccant Cooling and Dehumidification ASHRAE GreenTip #25: Indirect Evaporative Cooling ASHRAE GreenTip #26: Passive Solar Thermal Energy Systems ASHRAE GreenTip #27: Active Solar Thermal Energy Systems ASHRAE GreenTip #28: Solar Energy SystemPV ASHRAE GreenTip #29: Solar Protection ASHRAE GreenTip #30: Light Conveyors ASHRAE GreenTip #31: Water-Conserving Plumbing Fixtures ASHRAE GreenTip #32: Graywater Systems
xii

103 105 107 109 111 113 115 117 172 177 211 215 238 241 246 248 250 252 256 259 264 267 269 272 275 295 298 301 305 334 351 356

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

ASHRAE GreenTip #33: Point-of-Use Domestic Hot-Water Heaters ASHRAE GreenTip #34: Direct-Contact Water Heaters ASHRAE GreenTip #35: Rainwater Harvesting ASHRAE GreenTip #36: Air-Handling Unit (AHU) Condensate Capture and Reuse ASHRAE GreenTip #37: Mixed-Air Temperature (MAT) Reset ASHRAE GreenTip #38: Cold-Deck Temperature Reset with Humidity Override Building-Type GreenTips ASHRAE Building-Type GreenTip #1: Performing Arts Spaces ASHRAE Building-Type GreenTip #2: Health Care Facilities ASHRAE Building-Type GreenTip #3: Laboratory Facilities ASHRAE Building-Type GreenTip #4: Student Residence Halls ASHRAE Building-Type GreenTip #5: Athletic and Recreation Facilities ASHRAE Building-Type GreenTip #6: Commercial Office Buildings ASHRAE Building-Type GreenTip #7: K-12 School Buildings ASHRAE Building-Type GreenTip #8: Existing Buildings DIGGING DEEPER SIDEBARS International Perspective: Regulations and Commentary Some Definitions and Views of Sustainability from Other Sources Justifications for Green Design National Renewable Energy Laboratorys Nine-Step Process for Low-Energy Building Design One Firms Green Building Design Process Checklist Canadas C-2000 Program One Firms Commissioning Checklist Key Considerations in the HVAC Design Process How Much Water Will Collect at Design Conditions? One Design Firms Materials Specification Checklist Construction Factors to Consider in a Green Design One Design Firms Operations, Maintenance, and Performance Evaluation Checklist

359 362 365 369 395 398 103 105 107 109 111 113 115 117 8 14 55 83 84 85 135 170 348 406 414 425

xiii

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

FOREWORD
by William Coad

Mechanical engineering has been defined as the applied science of energy conversion. ASHRAE is the preeminent technical society that represents engineers practicing in the fields of heating, refrigeration, and air conditioningthe technology that utilizes approximately one-third of the global nonrenewable energy consumed annually. ASHRAE membership has actively pursued more effective means of utilizing these precious nonrenewable resources for many decades from the standpoints of source availability, efficiency of utilization, and technology of substituting with renewable sources. One significant publication in ASHRAE Transactions is a paper authored in 1951 by G.W. Gleason, Dean of Engineering at Oregon State University, titled EnergyChoose it Wisely Today for Safety Tomorrow. The flip side of the energy coin is the environment and, again, ASHRAE has historically dealt with the impact that the practice of the HVAC&R sciences have had upon both the indoor and the global environment. However, the engineering community, to a great extent, serves the needs and desires of accepted economic norms and the consuming public, a large majority of whom have not embraced the energy/environmental ethic. As a result, much of the technology in energy effectiveness and environmental sensitivity that ASHRAE members have developed over this past century has had limited impact upon society. In 1975, when ASHRAE published ASHRAE Standard 90-75, Energy Conservation in New Building Design (ASHRAE 1975), that standard served as our initial outreach effort to develop an awareness of the energy ethic and to extend our capabilities throughout society as a whole. Since that time, updated revisions of Standard 90 have moved the science ahead. In 1993, the chapter on Energy Resources was added to the 1993 ASHRAE HandbookFundamentals. In 2002, ASHRAE entered into a partnering agreement with the U.S. Green Building Council, and it is intended that this and future editions of this design guide will continue to assist ASHRAE in its efforts at promoting sustainable design, as well as the many other organizations that have advocated for high-performance building design.
xv

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

The consuming public and other representative groups of building professionals continue to become more and more aware of the societal need to provide buildings that are more energy resource effective and environmentally compatible. This publication, authored and edited by ASHRAE volunteers, is intended to complement those efforts. ASHRAE will continue to advance its leadership through initiatives such as The Sustainability Roadmap. Information on this effort can be found on ASHRAEs Engineering for Sustainability Web site, www.engineeringfor sustainability.org/.

xvi

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

PREFACE
by John Swift and David Grumman

When the ASHRAE GreenGuide was first developed in 2003, it was intended that the Guide would be a continuous work in progress. The second and now this third edition fulfill that intent and represent ASHRAEs continued commitment to leadership in the areas of high-performance building design and operation. The third edition features new information on guidelines on sustainable energy master planning, updates on teaming strategies, information on how issues related to carbon emissions affect building design and operational decisions, building information modeling, strategies for greening existing buildings, updates on newly developed green building rating systems and standards, additional information on building energy modeling and follow-up measurement and verification, compliance strategies for key ASHRAE standards. This edition also includes new chapters on water efficiency and indoor environmental quality, and new GreenTips including those with green strategies for chilled-water plant and boiler plant design.

WHO SHOULD USE THE ASHRAE GREENGUIDE


The ASHRAE GreenGuide is primarily for HVAC&R designers, but it is also a useful reference for architects, owners, building managers, operators, contractors, and others in the building industry who want to understand some of the technical issues regarding high-performance design from an integrated, building systems perspective. Considerable emphasis is placed on teamwork and close coordination between parties. This is intended to be a publication that a design engineer, about to embark on a green building design project as part of a team, could read for immediate ideas and guidance on what to do, where to turn, what to advise, and how to interact with other team members in a productive way. This Guide is intended to be a key reference for engineers to find information about any green-design subject that may arise. A comprehensive index is provided to facilitate rapid access to reference material on a given subject.
xvii

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

THE PURPOSE OF THE ASHRAE GREENGUIDE


When the original subcommittee first started its work, it set forth some characteristics of what the guide was to be. One was that it have a well-defined purpose. That purpose was to provide guidance on how to apply green design techniques, not necessarily to motivate the use of them. Much has been written on the need for green building design, and this aspect is covered herein. The reader should assume that when the HVAC&R designer finds himself or herself in a situation where a green design is to be done, this Guide will help answer the following question: What do I do now? Other characteristics sought were that it be relevant to the target audience, useful and practical, concise and succinct, well organized and logical. Furthermore, the Guide is intended to be used as a tool to encourage team effort and to stimulate innovative ideas and independent thought. Finally, we wanted the reader to be able to find information easily.

HOW TO USE THE ASHRAE GREENGUIDE


This document is intended to be used more as a reference than as something one would read in sequence from beginning to end. The table of contents is the best place for any reader to get an overall view of what is covered in this publication. Throughout the Guide, numerous techniques, processes, measures, or special systems are described succinctly in a modified outline or bullet form. These are called ASHRAE GreenTips. Each GreenTip concludes with a listing of other sources that may be referenced for greater detail. (A list of GreenTips and Digging Deeper sidebars can be found in the Table of Contents.) All readers should take the time to read Chapter 1, Green/Sustainable HighPerformance Design, which provides some essential definitions and meanings of key terms. Chapter 2, Background and Fundamentals, might well be skipped by the more experienced readers. This chapter covers the background of the green design movement and what other organizations have done, and it reviews some engineering fundamentals that govern the technical aspects of green design. Chapter 3 provides an overview of project strategies. Chapter 4 covers the early stages of the design process, and Chapter 5 highlights architectural design and planning impacts. These chapters are essential reading for all who are interested in how the green design process works. Building-Type GreenTips are included at the end of Chapter 5. Chapter 6 provides an overview of the commissioning process, a critical component that needs to be addressed from the beginning on all truly successful high-performance building projects. Chapter 7 describes green rating systems and the relevant standards and paths to compliance, as they relate to the work of the mechanical engineers. GreenTips focused on compliance with ASHRAE Standards are provided at the end of Chapter 7.
xviii

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

The next nine chapters deal with virtually all of the practical suggestions for possible strategies and concepts to be appropriately incorporated into a green building design. Chapters 1718 cover what happens after the design documents for the project have been completedthat is, during construction, final commissioning, and the post occupancy phases of a building project. There is some sound advice and helpful tips in these chapters. So, even though they cover a postdesign time frame, reading them should not be put off until construction begins. At the end of the Guide there is a comprehensive References and Resources section, which compiles all the sources mentioned throughout the guide, and an index for rapid location of a particular subject of interest.

BACKGROUND ON THE ASHRAE GREENGUIDE


The GreenGuide Subcommittee of ASHRAE Technical Committee (TC) 1.10, Energy Resources, was responsible for creating this guide. (Just prior to completion of the first edition, TC 1.10 merged with Task Group [TG] Buildings Impact on the Environment [BIE] to form TC 2.8, Building Environmental Impact and Sustainability.) Members of that first subcommittee were David L. Grumman, Fellow ASHRAE, chair and editor; Jordan L. Heiman, Fellow ASHRAE; and Sheila Hayter, chair of TC 1.10. The idea for the publication was initiated by 19992000 ASHRAE President Jim Wolf and carried forward by then President Elect (and subsequently President) William J. Coad. The GreenGuide Subcommittee responsible for the second and third editions consisted of John Swift, Tom Lawrence, and the people noted in the Acknowledgments section. All work performedby the authors, editors, developing subcommittees, other reviewers, and TC participantswas voluntary.

xix

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The following individuals served as coeditors on this edition of the ASHRAE GreenGuide, provided written materials and editorial content, and formed the Senior Editorial Group of the ASHRAE TC 2.8 GreenGuide Subcommittee for the second and third editions: John M. Swift, Jr. Cannon Design, Boston, MA Thomas Lawrence University of Georgia, Athens, GA

The following individuals contributed written materials on various topics for one or all of the first three editions of the ASHRAE GreenGuide. All or portions of these contributions were incorporated, with editing. David L. Grumman Editor of the first edition of the GreenGuide Grumman/Butkus Associates, Evanston, IL H. Jay Enck Senior Editor of the second edition Commissioning & Green Building Solutions, Buford, GA Malcolm Lewis Senior Editor of the second edition CTG Energetics, Irvine, CA Rand Ekman, Stu Brodsky OWP/P- Cannon Design, Chicago, IL Mark Loeffler Altier Ten, New Haven, CT B. Andrew Price Stanley Consultants, Inc. Muscatine, IA
xxi

Steven Baumgartner Buro Happold Consulting Engineers, PC New York, NY Dimitri Contoyannis Integrated Environmental Solutions Limited San Francisco, CA Dunstan Macauley Encon Group, Inc., Kensington, MD Kevin Cross Honeywell, Ft. Collins, CO Jason Perry University of Georgia, Athens, GA Neil Moiseev Shen Milsom & Wilke, Inc., New York, NY John Lane and Daryn Cline Evapco, Inc., Taneytown, MD

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

John Andrepont The Cool Solutions Company, Lisle, IL Paul Torcellini and Michael Deru National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO Wladyslaw Jan Kowalski Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA Steven Rosen Autodesk, Boston, MA Jerry Ackerman Clearwater Systems Corporation, Essex, CT Jordan L. Heiman St. Louis, MO Mark Mendell, Sara Schonour, Michael Forth, and James Bones Cannon Design, Boston, MA Len Damiano Green Building Controls Subcommittee Chair, ASHRAE TC 1.4, and Ebtron Kimberly Barker ASHRAE TC 1.4, and Siemens Bill Becker Chicago ITT and Urban Wind Design, Chicago, IL Bion Howard Building Environmental Science and Technology, Hilton Head, SC Mark Hertel ASHRAE TC 6.7, and SunEarth, Inc. Constantinos A. Balaras Institute for Environmental Research & Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens (NOA) E. Mitchell Swann MDC Systems Corp., LLC Ainul Abedin Past President, ASHRAE Pakistan Chapter
xxii

Brian A. Rock School of Architecture and Urban Design, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS Amy Butterfield Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA Michael Gallivan Turner Construction Co., Inc. Mark Hydemann and Glenn Friedman Taylor Engineering, Alameda, CA Ron Perkins Supersymmetry USA, Navasota, TX Vikas Patnaik and Mick Schwedler Trane, Co., LaCrosse, WI Hal Levin Building Ecology Research Group, Santa Cruz, CA Krishnan Gowri Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA Gail S. Brager University of California, Berkely, CA Dean Borges University of Nevada, Reno, NV Paul McGregor McGregor & Associates, Lake Cove, Australia Brad Jones Sebesta Blomberg, Boston, MA David Bearg Life Energy Associates, Newton, MA Karl Stum Summit Building Engineering, LLC, Vancouver, WA Guy S. Frankenfield Natgun Corporation

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

James Benya Benya Lighting Design, West Linn, OR Stephen Carpenter Enermodal Engineering, Ltd., Kitchener, ON CAN Michael Deru National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO Kevin Dickens Jacobs Facilities, Inc., St. Louis, MO Michael Haggans and Garrick Maine Flad & Associates, Madison, WI Jordan L. Heiman St. Louis, MO Mark Hydemann Taylor Engineering, Alameda, CA James Keller Gausman & Moore, St. Paul, MN John Kokko Enermodal Engineering, Ltd., Kitchener, ON CAN Nils L. Larsson CETC, National Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON CAN

Blair McCarry Keen Engineering Co., Ltd., North Vancouver, BC, CAN Ron Perkins Supersymmetry USA, Navasota, TX Douglas T. Reindl University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI Wayne Robertson Energy Ace, Inc., Decatur, GA Marc Rosenbaum Energysmiths, Meriden, NH Mick Schwedler Trane, La Crosse, WI Eddie Leonardi School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia Eugene Stamper New Jersey Institute of Technology (retired), Newark, NJ Stephen Turner Stephen Turner, Inc., Providence, RI Charles Wilkin Hanson Professional Services, Inc., Springfield, IL

Lastly, we want to express our thanks to Megan Firko, a mechanical engineer at Cannon Design, Boston, Massachusetts, for her help with organizing the graphics that were used in the third edition and obtaining the necessary permissions to use them.

xxiii

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

2010, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

Section 1: Basics