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Contents

Introduction Lined Drains Composite Drains Grassed Swale Pipe Drains Engineered Waterways

Introduction

Existing Drain

Rigid Boundary Channel

Rigid Boundary Channel (Dry Period)

Rigid Boundary Channel


Trunk Drain During Dry Period

Rigid Boundary Channel


Wet Period

Rigid Boundary Channel


Trunk Drain - Wet Period

Feasibility Study On Drainage Improvement in Prai Industrial Complex, Seberang Perai Tengah, Penang Study Area

Existing Primary Drains

Pump House A
Legend: Primary Drain Existing Pump Station Railway

Pump House B

Existing Primary Drains

Pump House A
Legend: Primary Drain Existing Pump Station Railway

Pump House B

Existing Trunk Drains

Pump House A
Legend: Primary Drain Existing Pump Station Railway

Pump House B

Existing Trunk Drains

L-6B

Rubber Pitching : Top Width = 30 - 46 Depth = 5 13 Rectangular : Width = 5 8 Depth = 16


Pump House B

B-2E

T-6E
Pump House A
Legend: Primary Drain Existing Pump Station Railway

J-2A

Feasibility Study and Detail Design of Flood Mitigation and Drainage Improvement in Taman Sentul, Taman Sentul Jaya, Taman Pinang & Taman Mangga, Juru, S.P.T, Penang
Uta ra Tol Juru Lebuhra ya UtaraSelatan Kawasan Perusaha an Parit No. 5 Ringan Taman Sentul Jaya Tama n Sentul Tam an Pina Tama n ng Mang ga Perkampu ngan Juru

Study Area

Precast Concrete Drain 900mm

Precast Concrete Drain 1200mm

Precast Concrete Covered Drain 1200mm

Precast Concrete Drain 3000mm

Feasibility Study of Flood Mitigation and Drainage Improvement in Kampung Tersusun, Juru, Seberang Perai Tengah, Penang Study Area

Secondary Drain

Primary Drain

Trunk Drain

Sungai Juru

Natural Waterway

Parit No. 5

Feasibility Study of Flood Mitigation and Drainage Improvement in Kampung Tersusun, Juru, Seberang Perai Tengah, Penang

Existing Problems

Flooding occurs along the roads of the study areas due to improper drainage design, where roadside drains are not provided.
Normal condition Flood condition on th October 2003 6th

Flooding occurs along the roads of the study areas due to improper drainage design, where roadside drains are not provided.
Normal condition Flood condition on th October 2003 6th

Flooding caused by lack of maintenance and undersized secondary drain.

Normal condition

Flood condition on th October 2003 6th

Flooding caused by overflow of trunk drain.


Normal condition Flood condition on th October 2003 6th

Open Drains Volume 10 (Chapter 26)

Design Criteria

Reserve Width for Open Drain


Drainage Reserve 0.5 m min Design flow width + freeboard 0.5 m min

(a)

Grassed Swale

Drainage Reserve 1.5 m minimum 1.0 m

(b)

Lined Open Drain

Mannings Equation
Q = A .1 R S n
2 3 1 2

Q .n
1

v.s

Y B

Mannings Roughness Coefficient, n (Design Chart 26.1)


Surface Cover or Finish Concrete Trowelled finish Off form finish Stone Pitching Dressed stone in mortar Random stones in mortar or rubble masonry Rock Riprap Brickwork Precast Masonry Blockwork 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.012 0.012 0.017 0.035 0.030 0.018 0.015 0.011 0.013 0.015 0.018 Suggested n values Minimum Maximum

Solution to Manning Equation for Lined Open Drains

10 9
0. 9

Swale reserve width, R (m) ( including required freeboard ) 1 4

y
1 50 50 1 Base width, B (m)

0.8

6
0.7

5 Flow depth, y (m)


0.6

3 Swale reserve width, R (m) ( including required freeboard ) 1

4 Design Flow, QD (m3/s)

y z
'Vee' shaped Section

Base width, B (m)


1

0.5

0.5

3
2

Use 'vee' shaped section

Qn S01/2

Z=6 Z = 5.5 Z=5 Z = 4.5 Z=4


0.1

0.4

1.5

Value of 0.05

0.3

1 1 1.5 2 Longitudinal Grade, S0 (%) 3 4 5

0.01

0.005 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.3 Flow Depth, y (m) 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Lined Drains Volume 10 (Chapter 26.3)

Design Criteria

Uncovered Open Lined Drain


(Minor System Chap. 26)

Drainage Reserve Width 1.0 m B = 0.5 1.0 m 1.5 m minimum

50 mm H max = 0.5 m

Covered Open Lined Drain


(Minor System Chap. 26)

Drainage Reserve Width 1.0 m B = 0.5 1.0 m 1.5 m minimum

Cover

50 mm
H = 0.5 m 1.0 m

Velocity Limitation
(Minor System Chap. 26.3.6)
To prevent sedimentation and vegetative growth
Min Average Flow Velocity = 0.6 m/s

To prevent Channel Surface Erosion


Max Average Flow Velocity = 4.0 m/s Note: Average Flow Velocity > 2.0 m/s, drain provided with a handrail fence, or covered with solid or grated cover

Composite Drains Volume 10 (Chapter 26.4)

Recommended Composite Drain


Grassed Section C 50 mm freeboard 1 4 min

Qminor
1 4 min

Lined drain Design flow width + freeboard


Provided in locations subject to dry-weather base flows which would otherwise damage the invert of a grassed swale, or in areas with highly erodible soils. The lined drain section is provided at the drain invert to carry dry-weather base flows and minor flows up to a recommended limit of 50% of the 1 month ARI.

Grassed Swale Volume 10 (Chapter 26.2)

Constructed Swale

Bio-Ecological Drainage System USM, Engineering Campus


Type A Perimeter Swale Type B

Type C

Design Criteria

C Qminor 1 4 min 300mm freeboard 1 4 min

Design flow width + freeboard

(a) ' Vee' Shaped


C Qminor 1 4 min 1 300mm freeboard 1 4 min

50 Base

50

Batter

Batter

Design flow width + freeboard (b) Trapezoidal Shaped

Freeboard (Minor System Chap. 26.2.4)


Min freeboard of 50 mm above the design stormwater level

Velocity Limitation (Minor System Chap. 26.2.5)


Max Average Flow Velocity < 2.0 m/s

Mannings Roughness Coefficient, n Design Chart 26.1


Surface Cover or Finish Suggested n values Minimum Maximum

Grassed Swales
Short grass cover Tall grass cover 0.030 0.035 0.035 0.050

Worked Example
(Application of Bio-Ecological Drainage System (BIOECODS) in Malaysia)

Study Area BIOECODS, USM Engineering Campus

Perimeter Swale

3.60m

2.40m

3.60m

Reference
26.2.2

Design Criteria
In new development areas, the edge of a grassed swale should generally be located 0.5 m from the road reserve or property boundary. The depth of a grassed swale shall include a minimum freeboard of 50 mm above the design storm water level in the swale. The average flow velocity in a grassed swale shall not exceed 2 m/s. Recommended Grassed Swale Cross-Sections: Side slope = 1:4 min (batter); 1:50 (base)

26.2.4

26.2.5 Figure 26.2

a) Overland flow time: Overland sheet flow path length = 35m Slope of overland surface = (3.60-2.40)/35 = 3.5% Design Chart 14.1, overland flow time, to = 12 minute

b) Flow time in channel: - Reach length of perimeter swale = 130m - The estimated average velocity = 0.25m/s - Flow time in ecological swale , td = (130/0.25)/60 = 8.7 minutes

c) Time of concentration Time of concentration, tc = to + td = 12 + 8.7 = 20.7 minutes Assume : tc = 20 minit

d) Design Storm
Minor Storm : 10 year ARI Major Storm : 50 year ARI
Table 13.A1 Lacation : Pulau Pinang and equation 13.2 for tc = 20 minute,
Table 13.A1 Coefficients for the IDF Equations for the Different Major Cities and Towns in Malaysia (30 t 1000 min) Data Period 19511990 ARI (year) 2 5 10 20 50 100 Coefficients of the IDF Polynomial Equations a 4.5140 3.9599 3.7277 3.3255 2.8429 2.7512 b 0.6729 1.1284 1.4393 1.7689 2.1456 2.2417 c -0.2311 -0.3240 -0.4023 -0.4703 -0.5469 -0.5610 d 0.0118 0.0180 0.0241 0.0286 0.0335 0.0341

State Pulau Pinang

Location Penang

Table 13.3 Values of FD for Equation 13.3


Duration
2P

24h

(mm) East Coast

West Coast (minutes) 5 10 15 20 30 100 2.08 1.28 0.80 0.47 0.00 120 1.85 1.13 0.72 0.42 0.00 150 1.62 0.99 0.62 0.36 0.00 180 1.40 0.86 0.54 0.32 0.00

All 1.39 1.03 0.74 0.48 0.00

Minor Storm: 10 year ARI:


ln( RI t ) = a + b ln( t ) + c (ln( t )) 2 + d (ln( t )) 3

(13.2)

Where, 10I30 = 3.7277 + (1.4393) [In(30)] + (-0.4023) [In(30)]2 + (0.0241) [In(30)]3 10I = 136.65 mm/hr 30 P30 = 136.65/2 = 68.32 mm And,
10I 60 10I 60

= 3.7277 + (1.4393) [In(60)] + (-0.4023) [In(60)]2 + (0.0241) [In(60)]3 = 92.83 mm/hr P60 = 92.83/1 = 92.83 mm

Pd = P30 FD ( P60 P30 )


Thus,

(13.3)

I=

Pd d

(13.4)

P20 = 68.32 (0.42) (92.83 - 68.32) = 56.80 mm


10I 20

= 56.80 (60) / 20 = 170.41 mm/hr

Major Storm: 100 year ARI:


ln( RI t ) = a + b ln( t ) + c (ln( t )) 2 + d (ln( t )) 3

(13.2)

Where, 100I30 = 2.7512 + (2.2417) [In(30)] + (-0.5610) [In(30)]2 + (0.0341) [In(30)]3 100I = 186.35 mm/hr 30 P30 = 186.35/2 = 93.17 And,
100I 60 100I 60

= 2.7512 + (2.2417) [In(60)] + (-0.5610) [In(60)]2 + (0.0341) [In(60)]3 = 129.75 mm/hr P60 = 129.75 /1 = 129.75

Pd = P30 FD ( P60 P30 )


Thus,

(13.3)

I=

Pd d

(13.4)

P20 = 93.17 0.47 (129.75 - 93.17) = 75.99


100I 20

= 75.99 (60) / 20 = 220.96 mm/hr

1.0

e) Runoff Coefficient
0.9 1

Design Chart 14.3 (Landscape: Category 7), C for minor storm = 0.58
Runoff Coefficient, C

2 0.8

0.7 4

I= 170.41 mm/hr

0.6

C for major storm = 0.67


I= 220.96 mm/hr *I = 200mm/hr, C = 0.63 I = 400mm/hr, C = 0.90

0.5

0.4 7

0.3 8 1 2 0.2 3 4 5 0.1 6 7 8 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Impervious Roofs, Concrete City Areas Full and Solidly Built Up Surface Clay, Poor Paving, Sandstone Rock Commercial & City Areas Closely Built Up Semi Detached Houses on Bare Earth Bare Earth, Earth with Sandstone Outcrops Urban Residential Fully Built Up with Limited Gardens Bare Loam, Suburban Residential with Gardens Widely Detached Houses on Ordinary Loam Suburban Fully Built Upon Sand Strata Park Lawns and Meadows Cultivated Fields with Good Growth Sand Strata

(Pavement: Category 1), C for minor & major storm = 0.91

Rainfall Intensity, I (mm/hr)

f) Average Runoff Coefficient Minor storm, Cavg = [(0.58x4600) + (0.91x1900)] / 6500 = 0.68 Major storm, Cavg = [(0.67x4600) + (0.91x1900)] / 6500 = 0.74 g) Peak flow By using Rational formula (equation 14.7)
C R I t A Q = 3600,000
C avg =


i =1 m i =1

C i Ai Ai

Qminor /2* = C.I.A/ (3600,000) (2) = 0.68 (170.41) (6500) / (3600,000) (2) = 0.10m3/s Qmajor /2* = C.I.A/( 3600,000) (2) = 0.74 (220.96) (6500) / (3600,000) (2) = 0.15m3/s * There are two perimeter swale in the catchment area to cater the peak flow.

g) Perimeter Swale Sizing


Longitudinal slope = 1:1000; Side slope 1:6 (batter), 1:50 (base); Bottom width, B = 1.8m; Depth, D = 175mm; Mannings, n = 0.035; Area, A = 0.50 m2,; Wetted Perimeter, P = 3.93m; Hydraulic radius, R = A/P = 0.13m;

Average velocity, V = 0.23m/s (<2.0 m/s) OK Q = 0.11m3/s (> Q10) ... OK


SLOPE BW (m) 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 Side Slope, Z (m) 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 Depth, D (m) 0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200 TW (m) 1.80 2.10 2.40 2.70 3.00 3.30 3.60 3.90 4.20 A (sq.m) 0.00 0.05 0.11 0.17 0.24 0.32 0.41 0.50 0.60 P (m) 1.80 2.10 2.41 2.71 3.02 3.32 3.62 3.93 4.23 R (m) 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.11 0.13 0.14 V (m/s) 0.00 0.07 0.11 0.14 0.17 0.19 0.21 0.23 0.24 Q (cumec) 0.000 0.004 0.012 0.024 0.040 0.060 0.084 0.113 0.146

Freeboard = 300mm; Depth, D = 1200mm; Area, A = 11.64 m2; Wetted Perimeter, P = 17.10m; Hydraulic radius, R = A/P = 0.68m;

Average velocity, V = 0.27m/s (<2.0 m/s) OK Q = 0.19m3/s (> Q100) ... OK

SLOPE

BW (m)

Side Slope, Z (m) 6 6 6 6 6

Depth, D (m) 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225 0.275

TW (m) 3.60 3.90 4.20 4.50 5.10

A (sq.m) 0.41 0.50 0.60 0.71 0.95

P (m) 3.62 3.93 4.23 4.54 5.15

R (m) 0.11 0.13 0.14 0.16 0.18

V (m/s) 0.21 0.23 0.24 0.27 0.29

Q (cumec) 0.084 0.113 0.146 0.191 0.276

0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001

1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8

Pipe Drains Volume 10 (Chapter 25)

Design Criteria

Minimum Design Service Life


Stormwater pipelines shall be designed for a minimum effective service life of 50 years.

Diameter
Table 25.5 Minimum Pipe Diameters
Diameter (mm) 300 375 450 Application Pipe draining a stormwater inlet and crossing a footpath alignment * Any other pipe For a non-self draining underpass, the pipe shall be sized for 10 year ARI and shall not be less than

Note: * 300 mm diameter pipes are permitted in this situation only, in order to provide more space in the footpath alignment for other utility services.

Pipe Grades
(a) Maximum Grade Pipeline grades shall be chosen to limit the pipe full flow velocity to a value less than or equal to 6.0 m/s. (b) Minimum Grades

Stormwater pipelines shall be designed and constructed to be self cleansing. The desirable minimum grade for pipelines shall be 1.0%. An absolute minimum grade of 0.5% may be acceptable where steeper grades are not practical.

Pipe Roughness Values


Table 25.7 Pipe Roughness Values (average condition)
n
0.013 0.013 0.011 Pipe Material Spun Precast Concrete Fibre Reinforced Cement UPVC

k (mm)
0.3 0.15 0.06

n = Manning roughness coefficient k = Pipe roughness height for Colebrook-White equation

Worked Example
(Proposed Tuanku Heights Mixed Development of Daerah Seremban, Negeri Sembilan)

System Layout

Engineered Waterway

Lot Pipe Drain Engineered Waterway Ecological Drain

Forebay

SCHEMATIC LAYOUT OF NEW DRAINAGE SYSTEM, TUANKU HEIGHT


Community Detention Pond

Mini Wetland

Rock Baffle Natural Waterway

Calculation for Underground Drain Pipes Sizing


Subcatchment : 1 Area = 6770m2 Qp1 = 144.39 l/s
Reference
Table 25.5 Sec. 25.3.3 (a) Sec. 25.3.3 (b) Table 25.7 Table 25.7 min = 375mm Maximum Grade : Velocity < 6 m/s. Minimum grade = 1.0% k = 0.3 mm n = 0.013

Design Criteria

From Design Chart 25.B3 (k = 0.3 mm),


With D = 375 mm Hydraulic gradient 1 %

Q = 230 l/s (> Qp1 OK) V = 2 m/s (< 6m/sOK)

Engineered Waterways Volume 11 (Chapter 28)


(Major System)

Engineered Waterways

Drainage Reserve Width Varies W Varies

300 mm H

Recommended Waterway Reserve for Maintenance Access

Minimum Longitudinal Slope 0.2 % - Lined Channel 0.5 % - Grassed floodways and natural waterway To prevent sedimentation and vegetative growth Min Velocity = 0.8 m/s

To prevent Channel Surface Lining Erosion Max Velocity = 4.0 m/s (Lined Channel / Low flow invert) = 2.0 m/s (Floodways and Natural Waterway)

Suggested Values of Mannings Roughness Coefficient, n


Surface Cover Suggested n values Minimum Maximum

Grassed Floodways
Grass cover only Short grass Tall grass Shrub cover Scattered Medium to dense Tree cover Scattered Medium to dense 0.040 0.100 0.050 0.120 0.050 0.100 0.070 0.160 0.030 0.035 0.035 0.050

Suggested Values of Mannings Roughness Coefficient, n


Surface Cover Suggested n values Minimum Maximum

Natural Channels
Small streams Straight, uniform and clean Clean, winding with some pools and shoals Sluggish weedy reaches with deep pools Steep mountain streams with gravel, cobbles, and boulders Large streams Regular cross-section with no boulders or brush Irregular and rough cross-section Overbank flow areas Short pasture grass, no brush Long pasture grass, no brush Light brush and trees Medium to dense brush Dense growth of trees 0.025 0.030 0.040 0.070 0.110 0.035 0.050 0.080 0.160 0.200 0.025 0.035 0.060 0.100 0.025 0.035 0.050 0.030 0.033 0.045 0.080 0.070

Suggested Values of Mannings Roughness Coefficient, n


Surface Cover Suggested n values Minimum Maximum

Lined Channels and Low Flow Inverts


Concrete Trowelled finish Off form finish Shotcrete Trowelled, not wavy Trowelled, wavy Unfinished Stone Pitching Dressed stone in mortar Random stones in mortar or rubble masonry Rock Riprap 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.017 0.035 0.030 0.016 0.018 0.020 0.023 0.025 0.025 0.011 0.013 0.015 0.018

Suggested Values of Mannings Roughness Coefficient, n


Surface Cover Suggested n values Minimum 0.011 0.012 0.015 0.017 0.020 Maximum 0.015 0.014 0.017 0.019 0.024

Roadways
Kerb & Gutter Hotmix Pavement Smooth Rough Flush Seal Pavement 7 mm stone 14 mm stone

I. Composite Waterways
(With Increased Capacity - Chap 28)

Estimate the Overall Roughness Coefficient


n =
*

P
i =1 m i =1

ni A i5 / 3 A i5 / 3
i
2/3

2/3

(28.1)

where, n* ni Ai P m

= = = = =

equivalent Mannings roughness coefficient for the whole cross-section Manning's roughness coefficient for segment i flow area of segment i (m2) wetted perimeter of segment i (m) total number of segments

II. Natural Waterways


Minimum Longitudinal Slope
0.5 %

To prevent Channel Erosion


Max Velocity = 2.0 m/s or Critical Velocity

Velocity Limitation
(Major System - Chap 28)
Minimum Longitudinal Slope
0.5 %

To prevent Channel Erosion


Max Velocity = 2.0 m/s or Critical Velocity

Critical Velocities, (m/s) for various conduit materials

III. Grassed Floodways


C 1 6 1 50 Base Low Flow Provision 1 6 1 50

Batter

Batter

Figure 28.3

Typical Grassed Floodway Cross-Section


C Terracing 1

Qmajor Qminor
50 Terrace Base 1 6

Batter

Figure 28.4

Typical Grassed Floodway Terracing

Low Flow Provision:


Minimum capacity of 50% of the 1 month ARI flow.

1.

3
2 1.

1. 1

Design Chart 28.2


Floodway Base Width Preliminary Estimate (Manning's n = 0.035, Average Velocity = 2 m/s)
(m3/s)
1.6 1.5

1. 0

0. 9

0. 8

Design Flow,

0. 7 60 55 50 45
1.4

40 35 30
25 20
15
10 5

Worked Example
(Application of Bio-Ecological Drainage System (BIOECODS) in Malaysia)

Study Area BIOECODS, USM Engineering Campus

Ecological Swale

Reference Table 28.1

Design Criteria Minimum requirements for maintenance access = 3.7m (One side) and 1.0m (Other Side) for top width of waterway 6m or Both sides = 3.7m for top width of waterway > 6m The freeboard above the design storm water level shall be a minimum of 300 mm. The minimum longitudinal grade for engineered waterways = 0.5% for grassed floodways and natural channels; Longitudinal grades shall not produce velocities less than 0.8 m/s if low flow inverts flowing full Longitudinal grades shall be chosen such that the design storm average flow velocity will not exceed 2 m/s in grassed floodways and natural waterways Side slopes = 1:6 min (batter); 1:50 (base) Side slopes = 1:4 may be provided in special circumstance Low flow inverts and pipes shall be sized for a minimum capacity of 50% of the 1 month ARI flow

28.6 28.7.1

28.7.2

28.10.2 28.10.4

a) Overland flow time: Overland sheet flow path length = 35m Slope of overland surface = (3.60-2.40)/35 = 3.5% Design Chart 14.1, overland flow time, to = 12 minute

b) Flow time in channel: -Reach length of ecological swale = 920m - Average velocity for ecological swale is given by Manning equation. The estimated average velocity = 0.35m/s -Flow time in ecological swale , td = (920/0.35)/60 = 43.8 minutes c) Time of concentration Time of concentration, tc = to + td = 12 + 43.8 = 55.8 minutes Assume : tc = 56 minit

d) Design Storm
Minor Storm : 10 year ARI Major Storm : 100 year ARI
Table 13.A1 Lacation : Pulau Pinang and equation 13.2 for tc = 56 minute,
Table 13.A1 Coefficients for the IDF Equations for the Different Major Cities and Towns in Malaysia (30 t 1000 min) Data Period 19511990 ARI (year) 2 5 10 20 50 100 Coefficients of the IDF Polynomial Equations a 4.5140 3.9599 3.7277 3.3255 2.8429 2.7512 b 0.6729 1.1284 1.4393 1.7689 2.1456 2.2417 c -0.2311 -0.3240 -0.4023 -0.4703 -0.5469 -0.5610 d 0.0118 0.0180 0.0241 0.0286 0.0335 0.0341

State Pulau Pinang

Location Penang

ln( RI t ) = a + b ln( t ) + c (ln( t )) 2 + d (ln( t )) 3


Minor Storm: 10 year ARI:
10I

(13.2)

= 3.7277 + (1.4393) [In(56)] + (-0.4023) [In(56)]2 + (0.0241) [In(56)]3 10I = 96.99 mm/hr 56
56

Major Storm: 100 year ARI:


100I

= 2.7512 + (2.2417) [In(56)] + (-0.4023) [In(56)]2 + (0.0241) [In(56)]3 100I = 135.48 mm/hr 56
56

1.0

e) Runoff Coefficient Design Chart 14.3 (category 5), Minor storm:


Runoff Coefficient, C

0.9

2 0.8

0.7 4

(I=96.99mm/hr,)

0.6

C for = 0.61 Minor storm:


(I=135.48mm/hr,)

0.5

0.4 7

C for = 0.70

0.3 8 1 2 0.2 3 4 5 0.1 6 7 8 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Impervious Roofs, Concrete City Areas Full and Solidly Built Up Surface Clay, Poor Paving, Sandstone Rock Commercial & City Areas Closely Built Up Semi Detached Houses on Bare Earth Bare Earth, Earth with Sandstone Outcrops Urban Residential Fully Built Up with Limited Gardens Bare Loam, Suburban Residential with Gardens Widely Detached Houses on Ordinary Loam Suburban Fully Built Upon Sand Strata Park Lawns and Meadows Cultivated Fields with Good Growth Sand Strata

Rainfall Intensity, I (mm/hr)

f) Peak flow By using Rational formula (equation 14.7), peak flow for minor storm = 4.21 m3/s and peak flow for major storm = 6.75 m3/s

C I t A Q = 3600,000
R
Qminor = C.I.A/3600,000 = 0.61 (96.99) (256,000) / (3600,000) = 4.21m3/s Qmajor = C.I.A/3600,000 = 0.70 (135.48) (256,000) / (3600,000) = 6.75m3/s

g) Ecological Swale Sizing


Longitudinal slope = 1:1000; Side slope 1:6 (batter), 1:50 (base); Bottom width, B = 2.5m; Depth, D = 900mm; Mannings, n = 0.035; Area, A = 7.12 m2,; Wetted Perimeter, P = 13.46m; Hydraulic radius, R = A/P = 0.53m;

Average velocity, V = 0.59m/s (<2.0 m/s) OK Q = 4.21m3/s (= Q10) ... OK


SLOPE 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 BW (m) 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 Side Slope, Z (m) 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 Depth, D (m) 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 TW (m) 2.50 3.70 4.90 6.10 7.30 8.50 9.70 10.90 12.10 13.30 14.50 A (sq.m) 0.00 0.31 0.74 1.29 1.96 2.75 3.66 4.69 5.84 7.11 8.50 P (m) 2.50 3.72 4.93 6.15 7.37 8.58 9.80 11.02 12.23 13.45 14.67 R (m) 0.00 0.08 0.15 0.21 0.27 0.32 0.37 0.43 0.48 0.53 0.58 V (m/s) 0.00 0.17 0.25 0.32 0.37 0.42 0.47 0.51 0.55 0.59 0.63 Q (cumec) 0.000 0.053 0.188 0.409 0.729 1.159 1.709 2.391 3.215 4.191 5.329

Freeboard = 300mm; Depth, D = 1200mm; Area, A = 11.64 m2; Wetted Perimeter, P = 17.10m; Hydraulic radius, R = A/P = 0.68m;

Average velocity, V = 0.70m/s (<2.0 m/s) OK Q = 8.13m3/s (> Q100) ... OK


SLOPE 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 BW (m) 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 Side Slope, Z (m) 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 Depth, D (m) 0.00 0.10 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.90 1.00 1.20 TW (m) 2.50 3.70 6.10 7.30 8.50 9.70 10.90 13.30 14.50 16.90 A (sq.m) 0.00 0.31 1.29 1.96 2.75 3.66 4.69 7.11 8.50 11.64 P (m) 2.50 3.72 6.15 7.37 8.58 9.80 11.02 13.45 14.67 17.10 R (m) 0.00 0.08 0.21 0.27 0.32 0.37 0.43 0.53 0.58 0.68 V (m/s) 0.00 0.17 0.32 0.37 0.42 0.47 0.51 0.59 0.63 0.70 Q (cumec) 0.000 0.053 0.409 0.729 1.159 1.709 2.391 4.191 5.329 8.128

Low Flow Provision: Design Capasity for 1 Month ARI


Design Storm : 2 year ARI
Table 13.A1 Lacation : Pulau Pinang and equation 13.2 for tc = 56 minute,

ln( RI t ) = a + b ln( t ) + c (ln( t )) 2 + d (ln( t )) 3


2I 56

= 4.5140 + (0.6729) [In(54)] + (-0.2311) [In(54)]2 + (0.0118) [In(54)]3

2I 56

= 69.94 mm/hr
2

0.083

I D = 0.4 I D

13.5a

1 month ARI rainfall intensity = 0.4x69.94 = 27.98 mm/hr

1.0

e) Runoff Coefficient Design Chart 14.3 (category 5), C for 1 month ARI = 0.30
C I t A Q = 360
R

0.9

2 0.8

0.7 4

0.6

Runoff Coefficient, C

0.5

f) Peak flow By using Rational formula (equation 14.7), peak flow = 0.60 m3/s
Qlow flow = C.I.A/3600,000 = 0.30 (69.94) (256,000) / (3600,000) = 0.60m3/s

0.4 7

0.3 8 1 2 0.2 3 4 5 0.1 6 7 8 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Impervious Roofs, Concrete City Areas Full and Solidly Built Up Surface Clay, Poor Paving, Sandstone Rock Commercial & City Areas Closely Built Up Semi Detached Houses on Bare Earth Bare Earth, Earth with Sandstone Outcrops Urban Residential Fully Built Up with Limited Gardens Bare Loam, Suburban Residential with Gardens Widely Detached Houses on Ordinary Loam Suburban Fully Built Upon Sand Strata Park Lawns and Meadows Cultivated Fields with Good Growth Sand Strata

Rainfall Intensity, I (mm/hr)

Ecological Swale
Drainage capacity for low flow = 0.30 m3/s. Thus, no. of module needed = (0.60-0.30) / 0.038 = 8