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LECTURE-05 SHAPING & RELATED OPERATIONS

NIKHIL R. DHAR, Ph. D.


DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL & PRODUCTION ENGINEERING BUET BANGLADESH

Shap%n( an" P&an%n(


Shaping and Planing among th old !t t "hni#$ !

Shaping i! %h & th %o&'pi " i! ( d at &ight angl ! to th "$tting motion ) t% n !$"" !!i* !t&o' ! o( th tool+ Planing th %o&'pi " i! & "ip&o"at d and th tool i! ( d at &ight angl ! to th "$tting motion+ mo!t pa&t

Th ! p&o" !! & #$i& !'ill d op &ato&! and (o& th ha* ) n & pla" d ), oth & p&o" !! !

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C&a$$%!%'at% n

! Shaper$

Ho&i-ontal.p$!h "$t Plain /P&od$"tion %o&'0 Uni* &!al /Tool &oom %o&'0 Ho&i-ontal.d&a% "$t 1 &ti"al Slott & 2 , ! at & Sp "ial p$&po! .a! (o& g a& "$tting

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! In"#$tr%a& & Pr "#'t% n En(%neer%n(

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H r%. nta& P#$h C#t Shaper


Th !hap & i! a & lati* l, !impl ma"hin + It i! $! d (ai&l, o(t n in th tool&oom o& (o& ma"hining on o& t%o pi " ! (o& p&otot,p %o&'+ Tooling i! !impl 3 and !hap &! do not al%a,! & #$i& op &ato& att ntion %hil "$tting+ Th ho&i-ontal !hap & i! th mo!t "ommon t,p 3 and it! p&in"ipal "ompon nt! a& !ho%n ) lo%3 and d !"&i) d a! (ollo%!4

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! In"#$tr%a& & Pr "#'t% n En(%neer%n(

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Ram4 Th &am !lid ! )a"' and (o&th in do* tail o& !#$a& %a,! to t&an!mit po% & to th "$tt &+ Th !ta&ting point and th l ngth o( th !t&o' "an ) ad5$!t d+ T &hea"4 Th toolh ad i! (a!t n d to th &am on a "i&"$la& plat !o that it "an ) &otat d (o& ma'ing ang$la& "$t!+ Th toolh ad "an al!o ) mo* d $p o& do%n ), it! hand "&an' (o& p& "i! d pth ad5$!tm nt!+

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C&apper / 04 Th "lapp & )o6 i! n d d ) "a$! th "$tt & d&ag! o* & th %o&' on th & t$&n !t&o' + Th "lapp & )o6 i! hing d !o that th "$tting too7 %ill not dig in+ O(t n thi! "lapp & )o6 i! a$tomati"all, &ai! d ), m "hani"al3 ai&3 o& h,d&a$li" a"tion+ Ta1&e4 Th ta)l i! mo* d l (t and &ight3 $!$all, ), hand3 to po!ition th %o&' $nd & th "$tt & %h n ! tting $p+ Th n3 ith & ), hand o& mo& o(t n a$tomati"all,3 th ta)l i! mo* d !id %a,! to ( d th %o&' $nd & th "$tt & at th nd o& ) ginning o( a"h !t&o' +

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! In"#$tr%a& & Pr "#'t% n En(%neer%n(

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Sa""&e3 Th !addl mo* ! $p and do%n /8 a6i!03 $!$all, man$all,3 to ! t th &o$gh po!ition o( th d pth o( "$t+ Final d pth "an ) ! t ), th hand "&an' on th tool h ad+ C &#mn4 Th "ol$mn !$ppo&t! th &am and th &ail! (o& th !addl + Th m "hani!m (o& mo*ing th &am and ta)l i! ho$! d in!id th "ol$mn+

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T & h &"er$4 Tool hold &! a& th !am a! th on ! $! d on at ngin lath 3 tho$gh o(t n la&g & in !i- + Th "$tt & i! !ha&p && d %ith &a' and "l a&an" angl ! !imila& to lath tool! tho$gh th angl ! a& !mall & ) "a$! th %o&' !$&(a" i! $!$all, (lat+ Th ! "$tt &! a& (a!t n d into th tool hold &+ 5$!t a! in th lath 3 )$t in a * &ti"al plan + 5 r6h &"%n(4 9o&'holding i! (& #$ ntl, don in a *i! + Th *i! i! !p "iall, d !ign d (o& $! in !hap &! and ha! long %a,! %hi"h allo% th 5a%! to op n $p to :;< o& mo& 3 th & (o& #$it la&g %o&'pi " ! "an ) h ld+ Th *i! ma, al!o ha* a !%i* l )a! !o that "$t! ma, ) mad at an angl + 9o&' that "annot ) h ld in th *i! /d$ to !i- o& !hap 0 i! "lamp d di& "tl, to th !hap & ta)l in m$"h th !am %a, a! pa&t! a& ! "$& d on milling ma"hin ta)l !+ Shaper S%.e4 Th !i- o( a !hap & i! th ma6im$m l ngth o( !t&o' %hi"h it "an ta' + Ho&i-ontal !hap &! a& mo!t o(t n mad %ith !t&o' ! (&om :=. to >;< long3 tho$gh !om !mall & and la&g & !i- ! a& a*aila)l + Th ! !hap &! $! (&om >. to ?.hp moto&! to d&i* th h ad and th a$tomati" ( d+ Shaper 5%"th4 Th ma6im$m %idth %hi"h "an ) "$t d p nd! on th a*aila)l mo* m nt o( th ta)l + Mo!t !hap &! ha* a %idth "apa"it, #$al to o& g& at & than th l ngth o( th !t&o' + Th ma6im$m * &ti"al h ight a*aila)l i! a)o$t :>< to :?<+

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T8pe$

! 5 r6
n ) lo%+ Thi! allo%!

Th tool po!t and th tool !lid "an ) angl d a! ! th !hap & to ) $! d (o& di(( & nt t,p ! o( %o&'

Th tool po!t ha! ) n t$&n d at an angl !o that !id o( th mat &ial "an ) ma"hin d
Department

Th tool po!t i! not angl d !o that th tool "an ) $! d to l * l a !$&(a" +

Th top !lid i! !lo%l, ( d into th mat &ial !o that a @&a"'A "an ) ma"hin d (o& a &a"' and pinion g a& !,!t m+
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! In"#$tr%a& & Pr "#'t% n En(%neer%n(

:#%'6 Ret#rn ;e'han%$m


Th !haping ma"hin i! $! d to ma"hin (lat m tal !$&(a" ! !p "iall, %h & a la&g amo$nt o( m tal ha! to ) & mo* d+ Oth & ma"hin ! !$"h a! milling ma"hin ! a& m$"h mo& 6p n!i* and a& mo& !$it d to & mo*ing !mall & amo$nt! o( m tal3 * &, a""$&at l,+ Th & "ip&o"ating motion o( th m "hani!m in!id th !haping ma"hin "an ) ! n in th diag&am+ A! th di!" &otat ! th top o( th ma"hin mo* ! (o&%a&d! and )a"'%a&d!3 p$!hing a "$tting tool+ Th "$tting tool & mo* ! th m tal (&om %o&' %hi"h i! "a& ($ll, )olt d do%n+

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P&an%n( ;a'h%ne$
Planing i! $! d (o& la&g %o&'pi " ! too )ig (o& !hap &! Planing ma"hin ! ha* la&g l, ) n & pla" d ), planing mill! In planing3 la&g %o&'pi " ! and th i& !$ppo&t ta)l ! a& !lo%l, mo* d again!t th tool h ad+

Figure: Schematic of planers. (a) Doublehousing planer with multiple tool heads and a large reciprocating table; (b) single-housing or open-sided planer.

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! In"#$tr%a& & Pr "#'t% n En(%neer%n(

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C mm n Shap%n( an" P&an%n( Ge metr8

Figure: Types of surfaces commonly machined by shaping and planing.


Department ! In"#$tr%a& & Pr "#'t% n En(%neer%n( )*+9)

LECTURE-0* GRINDING & RELATED OPERATIONS

NIKHIL R. DHAR, Ph. D.


DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL & PRODUCTION ENGINEERING BUET

Gr%n"%n(
Th (r%n"%n( pr 'e$$ "on!i!t! o( & mo*ing mat &ial (&om th %o&'pi " ), th $! o( a &otating %h l that ha! a !$&(a" "ompo! d o( a)&a!i* g&ain!+ G&inding i! "on!id & d to ) th mo!t a""$&at o( th 6i!ting ma"hining p&o" !! !+ G&inding p&o" !! ! a& $! d %h n high a""$&a"i !3 "lo! dim n!ional tol &an" !3 and a (in !$&(a" (ini!h ! a& & #$i& d+ G&inding p&o" !! ! al!o allo% (o& high p&od$"tion &at !+ Thi! allo%! (o& a lo% & d "o!t o( p&od$"tion+ Ha&d mat &ial! "an al!o ) ma"hin d+ G&inding ma, ) "la!!i(i d a! non.p& "i!ion o& p& "i!ion3 a""o&ding to p$&po! and p&o" d$& + N n-pre'%$% n (r%n"%n(3 Th "ommon (o&m! a& "all d3 !nagging and o((. hand g&inding+ Both a& don p&ima&il, to & mo* !to"' that "an not ) ta' n o(( a! "on* ni ntl, ), oth & m thod!+ Th %o&' i! p& !! d ha&d again!t th %h l o& *i" * &!a+ Th a""$&a", and !$&(a" (ini!h a& o( ! "onda&, impo&tan" + Pre'%$% n (r%n"%n(3 P& "i!ion g&inding i! "on" &n d %ith p&od$"ing good !$&(a" (ini!h ! and a""$&at dim n!ion!+ Th& t,p ! o( p& "i!ion g&inding 6i!t!
E0terna& '8&%n"r%'a& (r%n"%n( Interna& '8&%n"r%'a& (r%n"%n( S#r!a'e (r%n"%n(
Department ! In"#$tr%a& & Pr "#'t% n En(%neer%n( )*+9-

Gr%n"%n( Operat% n$
S#r!a'e (r%n"%n( i! mo!t "ommon o( th g&inding op &ation!+ A &otating %h l i! $! d in th g&inding o( (lat !$&(a" !+ T,p ! o( !$&(a" g&inding a& * &ti"al !pindl and &ota&, ta)l !+

<%(#re4 S"h mati" ill$!t&ation o( !$&(a" .g&inding op &ation!+ /a0 T&a* &! g&inding %ith a ho&i-ontal.!pindl !$&(a" g&ind &+ /)0 Pl$ng g&inding %ith a ho&i-ontal.!pindl !$&(a" g&ind &3 p&od$"ing a g&oo* in th %o&'pi " + /"0 1 &ti"al.!pindl &ota&,.ta)l g&ind & /al!o 'no%n a! th Blan"ha&d.t,p g&ind &0+

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C8&%n"r%'a& (r%n"%n( i! al!o th & mo*ing th ",lind&i"al Both th tool and th %o&'pi di(( & nt !p d!+ Th a6 ! o( *a&i t, o( !hap !+

"all d " nt &.t,p g&inding and i! $! d in !$&(a" ! and !ho$ld &! o( th %o&'pi " + " a& &otat d ), ! pa&at moto&! and at &otation tool "an ) ad5$!t d to p&od$" a

<%(#re4 E6ampl ! o( *a&io$! ",lind&i"al g&inding op &ation!+ /a0 T&a* &! g&inding3 /)0 pl$ng g&inding3 and /"0 p&o(il g&inding+

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Interna& (r%n"%n( i! $! d to g&ind th in!id diam t & o( th %o&'pi " + Tap & d hol ! "an ) g&o$nd %ith th $! o( int &nal g&ind &! that "an !%i* l on th ho&i-ontal+

<%(#re4 S"h mati" ill$!t&ation! o( int &nal.g&inding op &ation!+


Department ! In"#$tr%a& & Pr "#'t% n En(%neer%n( )*+92

Center&e$$ (r%n"%n( i! %h n th %o&'pi " i! !$ppo&t d ), a )lad in!t ad o( ), " nt &! o& "h$"'!+ T%o %h l! a& $! d+ Th la&g & on i! $! d to g&ind th !$&(a" o( th %o&'pi " and th !mall & %h l i! $! d to & g$lat th a6ial mo* m nt o( th %o&'pi " + T,p ! o( " nt &l !! g&inding in"l$d th&o$gh.( d g&inding3 in.( dBpl$ng g&inding3 and int &nal " nt &l !! g&inding+

<%(#re4 S"h mati" ill$!t&ation o( " nt &l !!.g&inding op &ation!+ Department ! In"#$tr%a& & Pr "#'t% n En(%neer%n( )*+94

Creep-!ee" (r%n"%n( i! $! d (o& high &at ! o( mat &ial & mo*al+ D pth! o( "$t o( $p to = mm a& $! d along %ith lo% %o&'pi " !p d+ S$&(a" ! %ith a !o(t &.g&ad & !in )ond a& $! d to ' p %o&'pi " t mp &at$& lo% and an imp&o* d !$&(a" (ini!h+

<%(#re4 /a0 S"h mati" ill$!t&ation o( th "& p.( d g&inding p&o" !!+ Not th la&g %h l d pth o( "$t+ /)0 A !hap d g&oo* p&od$" d on a (lat !$&(a" in on pa!! ), "& p.( d g&inding+ G&oo* d pth "an ) on th o&d & o( a ( % mm+ /"0 An 6ampl o( "& p.( d g&inding %ith a !hap d %h l+

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! In"#$tr%a& & Pr "#'t% n En(%neer%n(

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Gr%n"%n( ;a'h%ne$

Figure: Schematic illustration of a horizontal-spindle surface grinder


Department ! In"#$tr%a& & Pr "#'t% n En(%neer%n( )*+)0

C mm n Gr%n"%n( 5hee&$
A g&inding %h l i! mad o( a)&a!i* g&ain! h ld tog th & ), a )ond+ Th ! g&ain! "$t li' t th %h n th %h l i! & *ol* d at high !p d and i! )&o$ght to ) a& again!t a %o&' pi " + Th p&op &ti ! o( a %h l that d t &min ho% it a"t! a& th 'ind and !i- o( a)&a!i* 3 ho% "lo! l, th g&ain! a& pa"' d tog th & and amo$nt o( th )onding mat &ial+

<%(#re4 Common t,p ! o( g&inding %h "on* ntional a)&a!i* !

l! mad %ith

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I"ent%!8%n( Gr%n"%n( 5hee&$


Standa&d Ma&'ing S,!t m (o& A&#m%n#m-O0%"e an" S%&%' n-Car1%"e / n"e" A1ra$%=e$

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Standa&d Ma&'ing S,!t m (o& C#1%'-/ r n-N%tr%"e an" D%am n" / n"e" A1ra$%=e$

Department

! In"#$tr%a& & Pr "#'t% n En(%neer%n(

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Ch%p < rmat% n

Chip (o&mation and plo%ing o( th %o&'pi " !$&(a" ), an a)&a!i* g&ain+

S"h mati" ill$!t&ation o( "hip (o&mation ), an a)&a!i* g&ain+ Not th n gati* &a' angl 3 th !mall !h a& angl 3 and th % a& (lat on th g&ain+

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;e'han%'$

! Gr%n"%n(

G&inding i! )a!i"all, a "hip & mo*al p&o" !! in %hi"h th "$tting tool i! an indi*id$al a)&a!i* g&ain+ Th m "hani"! o( g&inding and th *a&ia)l ! in*ol* d "an ) !t$di d ), anal,-ing th !$&(a" g&inding op &ation a! !ho%n in th (ollo%ing <%(#re+
Undeformed chip length, l = Dd 4v d Undeformed chip thickness, t = VCr D v Grain force VC
1/ 4

d D
1/ 2 3/ 4

DCG&inding %h l diam t & dC 9h l d pth o( "$t 1C Tang ntial * lo"it, *C 9o&'pi " * lo"it, tCUnd (o&m thi"'n !! /g&ain d pth o( "$t0
Department ! In"#$tr%a& & Pr "#'t% n En(%neer%n(

VC Temperature rise D d v Volume of material removed Grinding ratio, G = Volume of wheel wear
CCD+: p & mm> to :D p & mm> &C :D to >D (o& mo!t g&inding op &ation
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THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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! In"#$tr%a& & Pr "#'t% n En(%neer%n(

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