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Introduction of shaper machine

 The metal working shaper was developed in

the year 1836 by James Nasmyth.  The shaper is a reciprocating type of machine tool used for producing flat surfaces  Sometimes irregular or curved shape also produce by shaper.  It is widely used in machine shop  It is easy to setup and operate.

Image of shaper machine

Working principle
 The job is held in the suitable device (vice)

clamped rigidly on the machine table.  The cutting tool is held in the tool post mounted on the ram of the shaper.  The ram move in reciprocate motion so it cut the material from work piece during the cutting stroke.  The job is given a feed motion perpendicular to the direction of tool movement.

 Generally cutting action take place in the forward

stroke, which is also known as cutting stroke.  No cutting material take place during the return stroke of the arm its called the idle stroke.  At the end of one cycle consisting of one to and fro motion of cutting tool.

Principle parts of shaper

 Base :

it consist of a heavy cast iron structure, which supports all the other parts of the machine.  Column: it act as a housing of eclectic circuits and operating mechanism of shaper.


it is box type construction with T-slots cut on it to hold vice and the job rigidly.  Ram: it is reciprocating part of shaper, semi circular in shape.  It gets it drive from quick return mechanism, which is inside the column

 Tool head:

The tool head of shaper is used for holding the tool rigidly. It is also provides vertical and angular feed movement of the tool and allow tool to lift automatically to provide relief during idle stroke.

Classification of shaper
According to the length of the stroke  30 cm shaper  45 cm shaper  60 cm shaper 2. According to the movement of the ram.  Horizontal type  Vertical type

3. According to the type of design of the table  Standard shaper  Universal shaper 4. According to the type of the drive  Geared type  Crank type


According to the type of the cutting stroke Push type shaper Draw type shaper

Horizontal shaper:  it is very popular type of shaper.  In this shaper ram is holding the tool head reciprocate in the horizontal axis. 2. Vertical shaper:  The ram holding the tool reciprocates in a vertical axis.

 In some of the vertical mechanism provision is

made to allow the adjustment of the ram to an angle of about 10 degree from the vertical position.  Vertical shaper may be crank drive or hydraulic drive.  It is for key way, groove or slots.

Crank shaper  This is the most common type of shaper in which crank and slotted mechanism is used to give the reciprocating motion to the ram. 4. Geared shaper  The reciprocating motion of the ram is given by means of a rack and pinion. This type of shaper in not very widely used

Push type shaper  This is the most general type of shaper.  Metal is removed in the forward stroke. 6. Draw type shaper  In this type shaper the metal will remove in the backward stroke

 7. STANDARD OF PLAIN SHAPER:  A shaper is termed as standard or plain when

the table has only two movements, vertical and horizontal, to give the feed.

Shaper size and specification

 Length of stroke  Maximum vertical travel

610mm 475mm 450mm 3 HP

of table  Maximum horizontal Travel of table  Power of the motor

 Approximate net weight  Floor space required

1750 kg 1981 x 1067 (mm)

Quick return mechanism

 In the standard type shaper metal is remove

by the forward stroke and return stroke goes idle.  During this operation period reduce the machining time it is necessary to reduce the time taken by the return stroke.  It required the forward stroke move slowly and backward stroke move fats to reduce machining time

This mechanism is known as quick return mechanism 1. Crank and slotted link mechanism 2. Hydraulic mechanism

Crank and slotted link mechanism

Slotted link mechanism

A - Clamping nut B - Ram C - Link D D - Crankpin A E - Slotted crank B F - Bull Wheel G - Slot

 Slotted link mechanism is very common in

mechanical shapers. The mechanism is simple and compact.  It converts the rotary motion of the electric motor and gearbox into the reciprocating motion of the ram  The slotted link mechanism gives the higher velocity during the return non cutting stroke than during its forward cutting stroke thereby reducing the time wasted during the return stroke

 The bull gear is driven by a pinion which is

connected to the motor shaft through a gearbox with four, eight or more speeds available.  The bull wheel has a slot. The crank pin A is secured into this slot; at the same time it can slide in the slotted crank B.

 When the bull wheel rotates, the crank pin A

also rotates and side by side slides through the slot in the slotted crank B. This makes the slotted crank to oscillate about its one end C.  This oscillating motion of slotted crank (through the link D) makes the ram to reciprocate. The intermediate link D is necessary to accommodate the rise and fall of the crank

 The position of the crank pin A in the slot in the bull

wheel decides the length of the stroke of the shaper.  The further it is away from the centre of bull wheel, the longer is the stroke.  The cutting stroke of the ram is completed while the slotted link goes from left to right.  Similarly, during return stroke crank pin changes its position from right to left.

Hydraulic Shaper Drive Mechanism

A - Return stroke

B - Shaper ram

C - Cutting Stroke

D - Base

E - 4- Way value

F - Pump G - Motor

 A hydraulic shaper has the same major parts

as the mechanical one. However, the ram is driven by a hydraulic cylinder.  The speeds of the shaper ram and the feeds of the work table are controlled by hydraulic mechanism.  A lever operates a valve that varies the quantity of oil delivered to the rain cylinder and thereby governs the ram speed.

 In these mechanism oil supply under pressure by the

pump to the left side of the cylinder where it is used to push the piston and with it ram of the shaper  Flow control valve is used the regulate the oil supply.  Oil from the other side of the cylinder is return to the sump via 4- way valves.  W hen the ram reaches far end of the stroke the position of the for way valves is changed by the action of pilot valves.

 Now oil enter from the right side and return

through the left side.  The cutting speed of the ram remain constant throughout most of the stroke.

 Advantages and disadvantages: The control of rate of flow and pressure is

quite easy.  The drive has built the protection against overload  Moving parts are less  Drive has self lubricating properties  Its smooth and jerk free.  Power consumption is low

 Disadvantages : Primary cost is high  Not suitable for difficult job  Oil leakage is major problem  Any change in the properties of the oil due to

temp. variation may lead to slight variation in the draive.

Shaper feed mechanism

 The feed of the shaper usually obtain by the

means of ratchet and pawl  Pawl and ratchet type mechanism is used to move the small distance of machine parts such as shaper table  The pawl is move back and forth with help of eccentricity pushes the ratchet through one or more teeth in each forward stroke while it just slide over the ratchet teeth in the backward stroke

 The angular displacement of the ratchet

screw is converted into linear movement of the sliding member.

Slotting Machine
 Introduction: 1. A Slotting machine or slotter may be

consider as a vertical shaper. 2. The slotter has the vertical ram and a hand or power operated rotary table. 3. In some slotter m/c the ram inclined at 100 to either side of the vertical position when cutting inclined surface. 4. Slotting machine is use for key way .

Principal parts of slotter

 Base: The base is rigidly built and is cast

integral with column. The top of the bed and the front face of the vertical column are accurately to provide guide ways for the saddle and ram.  Saddle: The saddle is mounted on the guideways and moved towards the column.  Cross-slide: the cross-slide is mounted on the guideways of the saddle.

 Rotary table: The rotary table is a circular

table mounted on the top of the cross-slide.Its rotate by hand or by automatic device.  Ram: Ram reciprocates vertically up and down. At its bottoms it carries the cutting tool. A slot is cut on the body of the ram for changing the position of the stroke.

Types of slotting Machines

 Puncher slotter  Production slotter  Tool room slotter  Puncher slotter: The puncher is the heavy

duty machine with power full motor. It is designed It is designed large amount of metal from large casting. The length of the stroke is also large.

 Production Slotter: This is the common type

of slotter used for general production work. The drive of the ram is by means of slotted disc and connecting ram.  Tool Room Slotter: This slotting machine is of precision type is used for very accurate machining. It is lighter machine and is operated at very high speed.

Specification of Slotter
 Maximum stroke  Diameter of rotary table  Longitudinal movement  H.P required

:457 mm :915 mm :762 mm :7.5 HP

Operation performed on a slotter

 Machining flat surface  Machining cylindrical surface  Machining irregular surface  Machining slots, keyways and grooves.


Planer machine
 A planer is a type of metalworking machine Tool  That is some what similar to a shaper, but

larger, and with the entire work piece moving beneath the cutter, instead of the cutter moving above a stationary work piece. The work table is moved back and forth on the bed beneath the cutting head either by mechanical means, such as a rack and pinion gear, or by a hydraulic cylinder.

 Planers and shapers were used generally for

two types of work:  generating accurate flat surfaces  and cutting slots

Principle parts of Planner machine

Double Housing Planer

 It is the most common type of planer.  It consists of mainly a massive bed on which the

worktable reciprocates, and two vertical columns or housing, one on each side of the bed.  Each column carries a tool head that can be slide up and down on the column. A cross rail fitted between the two columns may carry one or two tool heads that can slide horizontally on the cross rail.

 All the tool heads can be clamped in

position, and can be used collectively or individually depending on the requirements

Open Side Planer

 Open side planer consists of only one vertical

column or housing on which the cross rail is mounted. The column and the cross rail carry single and double tool heads respectively. This type of machine permits machining of wide work pieces.

Pit Type Planer

 Construction and Working of Pit Type of

Planer  A pit type planer differs from other planer in the sense that, the table and the work piece resting on it remain stationary and the tool reciprocates across the work surface. Pit type planer is preferred for very large work, where the weight of the work piece and the tool required table would make reciprocating movement difficult.

 The job is either mounted on a stationary

table, or on the floor inside a pit, and hence the name pit type planer. Once or two tool heads are mounted on the cross rail and two side tool posts the housings, if required. The entire unit travels along the horizontal ways and fro and, thus the tool moves past the work surface during operation.

Edge Type Planer

 This type of machine is used for  machining the edges of heavy

work pieces. The work piece is clamped on the bed and the side mounted carriage supporting the cutting tool is reciprocated along the edge of the work piece.

Deference between Shaper and Planer Machine

1. It is comparatively light 2. 3. 4. 5.

1. It is comparatively 2. 3. 4. 5.

machine. Less space required. It is use for small size and light work piece. Generally single tool is used. Less time is required to setting the job.

heavy machine. Large space required. It is used for large size and heavy work piece. More than one tool can used simultaneously. More time is required to setting the job.

6. Shaper consume 15-20 HP. 7.Stroke length is small. 8. Machine cost is less

6. Palner consume 120 HP. 7. Stroke length is small 8. Machine cost is high.