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LECTURE-03 DRILLING & RELATED OPERATIONS

NIKHIL R. DHAR, Ph. D.


DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL & PRODUCTION ENGINEERING BUET BANGLADESH

Intr "#'t% n

Drilling is most common single m c!ining o"er tion Drilling m #es $" %&' o( m c!ining Drilling occ$rs t t!e en) o( tool *it!in t!e m teri l+ (o$r ctions t #e "l ce t!e )rill ti"

A sm ll !ole is (orme) ,- t!e -e.. c!i"s re not c$t !ere in t!e norm l sense/ C!i"s re (orme) ,- t!e rot ting &%p$/ C!i"s re remo0e) (rom t!e !ole ,- t!e scre* ction o( t!e he&%'a& !&#te$/ T!e )rill is g$i)e) ,- &an"$ or m rgins t! t r$, g inst t!e * lls o( t!e !ole

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Drill c n ,e )e(ine) s rot r- en) c$tting tool ! 0ing one or more c$tting li"s+ n) ! 0ing one or more !elic l or str ig!t (l$tes (or t!e " ss ge o( c!i"s n) t!e )mission o( c$tting (l$i)/

Nomencl t$re n) geometr- o( con0ention l t*ist )rill


Department ! In"#$tr%a& & Pr "#'t% n En(%neer%n( )*+3

N men'&at#re an" Ge metr0


T!ree m in com"onents re t!e1 S! n# Bo) Point

! a T-%$t Dr%&&

Shan1 2 T!is is t!e "ortion *!ic! is 3cl m"e)4 to "ro0i)e t!e )ri0e/ Str ig!t s! n# (or )rill $" to 54/ S! n# is e6$ l to ,o)- )i meter/ A,o0e 54+ s! n# c n ,e t "ere) or re)$ce)/ 2 "0 Fl$tes 2 Helic l groo0es c$t ro$n) t!e ,o)- *!ic! (orm t!e c$tting e)ges Allo* cool nt to (lo* to t!e c$tting e)ge Allo* c!i"s to ,e *it!)r *n M rgin2 N rro* r ise) section o( t!e ,o)-/ Pro0i)es ($ll ,o)- to !ole s$""ort to !el" #ee" it ligne) s it )rills/ Bo)- cle r nce 2 Re)$ce) section o( t!e )rill ,et*een t!e (l$tes n) m rgin/ Use) to re)$ce (riction ,et*een )rill n) *or#"iece
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4e.- T!in section in t!e center o( t!e )rill *!ic! (orms 3core4 (or t!e )rill/ T!is (e t$re incre ses s it e7ten)s to t!e s! n#/ Forms t!e c!isel e)ge o( t!e )rill/ P %nt 2 C!isel e)ge o( t!e )rill/ T!e $p%ra&+ or r te o( t*ist in t!e )rill+ controls t!e r te o( c!i" remo0 l in )rill/ A ( st s"ir l )rill is $se) in !ig! (ee) r te ""lic tions $n)er lo* s"in)le s"ee)s+ *!ere remo0 l o( l rge 0ol$me o( s* r( is re6$ire)/ Lo* s"ir l )rills re $se) in c$tting ""lic tions *!ere !ig! c$tting s"ee)s re tr )ition ll- $se)+ n) *!ere t!e m teri l ! s ten)encto g ll on t!e )rill or ot!er*ise clog t!e !ole+ s$c! s l$min$m or co""er/
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T!e p %nt an(&e is )etermine) ,t!e m teri l t!e )rill *ill ,e o"er ting in/ H r)er m teri ls re6$ire l rger "oint ngle+ n) so(ter m teri ls re6$ire s! r"er ngle/ T!e correct "oint ngle (or t!e ! r)ness o( t!e m teri l controls * n)ering+ c! tter+ !ole s! "e+ *e r r te+ n) ot!er c! r cteristics/ T!e &%p an(&e )etermines t!e mo$nt o( s$""ort "ro0i)e) to t!e c$tting e)ge/ A gre ter li" ngle *ill c $se t!e )rill to c$t more ggressi0el- $n)er t!e s me mo$nt o( "oint "ress$re s )rill *it! sm ller li" ngle/ Bot! con)itions c n c $se ,in)ing+ *e r+ n) e0ent$ l c t stro"!ic ( il$re o( t!e tool/ T!e "ro"er mo$nt o( li" cle r nce is )etermine) ,- t!e "oint ngle/

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C&a$$%!%'at% n 2a$e"

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Soli) Drills1 T!ose m )e o( one "iece o( m teri l s$c! s !ig! s"ee) steel Ti""e) Soli) Drills1 T!ose ! 0ing ,o)- o( one m teri l *it! c$tting li"s m )e o( not!er m teri l ,r 8e) or ot!er*ise ,on)e) in "l ce Com"osite Drills1 T!ose ! 0ing c$tting "ortions mec! nic ll- !el) in "l ce

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Str ig!t S! n# Drills1 T!ose ! 0ing c-lin)ric l s! n#s *!ic! m - ,e t!e s me or )i((erent )i meter t! n t!e ,o)- o( t!e )rill9 t!e s! n#s m - ,e m )e *it! or *it!o$t )ri0ing (l ts+ t ng+ groo0es or t!re )s T "er S! n# Drills1 T!ose ! 0ing conic l s! n#s s$it ,le (or )irect (itting into t "ere) !oles in m c!ine s"in)les+ )ri0ing slee0es or soc#ets9 t "ere) s! n#s gener ll- ! 0e )ri0ing t ng T "er S! n# S6$ re Drills1 T!ose ! 0ing t "ere) s! n#s *it! (o$r (l t si)es (or (itting r c!et or ,r ce S!ell Core Drills1 Core )rills mo$nt ,le on r,ors s"eci(ic ll- )esigne) (or t!e "$r"ose9 commonl- $se) *it! s!ell re mer r,ors

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T!re )e) S! n# Drills1 T!ose m )e *it! t!re )e) s! n#s gener ll- $se) in close center m$lti"le s"in)le ""lic tions or "ort ,le ngle )rilling tools Be )e) S! n# Bits1 Drills *it! (l t s! n#s ! 0ing r ise) ,e )s " r llel to t!e 7is

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T*o2Fl$te Drills1 T!e con0ention l t-"e o( t*ist )rill $se) (or origin ting !oles Single2Fl$te Drills1 T!ose ! 0ing onl- one (l$te commonl- $se) (or origin ting !oles T!ree2Fl$te Drills :Core Drills;1 Drills commonl- $se) (or enl rging n) (inis!ing+ )rille)+ c st+ or "$nc!e) !oles9 t!e- *ill not "ro)$ce origin l !oles Fo$r2Fl$te Drills :Core Drills;1 Use) interc! nge ,l- *it! t!ree2(l$te )rills9 t!ere o( simil r constr$ction e7ce"t (or t!e n$m,er o( (l$tes

C&a$$%!%'at% n 2a$e"

n Han"

! C#t

Rig!t2H n) C$t1 <!en 0ie*e) (rom t!e c$tting "oint t!e co$ntercloc#*ise rot tion o( )rill in or)er to c$t9 t!e gre t m =orit- o( )rills re m )e rig!t ! n) Le(t2H n) C$t1 <!en 0ie*e) (rom t!e c$tting "oint t!e cloc#*ise rot tion o( )rill in or)er to c$t

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&$ ! r Dr%&&%n( Operat% n$

T-%$t Dr%&&1 T!e t*ist )rill is t!e most common t-"e o( )rill/ It ! s t*o c$tting e)ges n) t*o !elic l (l$tes t! t contin$e o0er t!e lengt! o( t!e )rill ,o)-/ T!e )rill lso consists o( nec# n) s! n# t! t c n ,e eit!er str ig!t or t "ere)/ A t "ere) s! n# i) (itte) ,- t!e *e)ge ction into t!e t "ere) soc#et o( t!e s"in)le n) ! s t ng t! t goes into slot in t!e s"in)le soc#et+ t!$s cting s soli) me ns (or tr nsmitting rot tion/ Str ig!t s! n# )rills re !el) in )rill c!$c# t! t is+ in t$rn+ (itte) into t!e s"in)le soc#et in t!e s me * - s t "ere) s! n# )rills/
C re Dr%&&1 A core )rill consists o( t!e c! m(er+ ,o)-+ nec#

Twist drill

n) s! n#/ T!is t-"e o( )rill m - ! 0e t!ree or (o$r (l$tes n) n e6$ l n$m,er o( m rgins+ *!ic! ens$res s$"erior g$i) nce+ t!$s res$lting in !ig! m c!ining cc$r c-/ l rge !oles o( >? mm or more/ T!e )esign o( t!is t-"e o( )rill res$lts in m r#e) s 0ing in tool cost s *ell s in t ngi,le re)$ction in tool *eig!t t! t ( cilit tes its e se o( ! n)ling/ Moreo0er+ t!is )rill is e s- to grin)/
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Spa"e Dr%&&1 A s" )e )rill is $se) (or )rilling


Core )rilling1 to incre se diameter of existing holes

Spade drill: for l rge+ )ee" !oles )*+:

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Step Dr%&&1 A m$lti"le )i meter )rill *it! one set o( )rill l n)s *!ic! re gro$n) to )i((erent )i meters

Step drill: for ste""e) !oles

G#n Dr%&&1 A g$n )rill is $se) (or )rilling )ee" !ole/ All g$n )rills re str ig!t2(l$te)+ n) e c! ! s single c$tting e)ge/ A !ole in t!e ,o)- cts s con)$it to tr nsmit cool nt $n)er consi)er ,le "ress$re to t!e ti" o( t!e )rill/ Center Dr%&&1 Center )rill ,its re $se) in met l*or#ing to "ro0i)e st rting !ole (or l rger2si8e) )rill ,it or to m #e conic l in)ent tion in t!e en) o( *or#"iece in *!ic! to mo$nt l t!e center/ In eit!er $se+ s t!e )rill is eit!er est ,lis!ing t!e center o( !ole or m #ing conic l !ole (or l t!e center/ Ho*e0er+ t!e tr$e "$r"ose o( center )rill is t!e l tter t s#+ *!ile t!e (ormer t s# is ,est )one *it! s"otting )rill/

Gun drill with holes for coolant

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Operat% n$ Re&ate" t

Dr%&&%n(

Ream%n(1 Re ming is $se) to slig!tl- enl rge !ole+ to "ro0i)e ,etter toler nce on its )i meter n) to im"ro0e its s$r( ce (inis!/ T!e tool is c lle) re mer n) it $s$ ll- ! s str ig!t (l$tes/

Tapp%n(1 T!is o"er tion is "er(orme)

,n t " n) is $se) to "ro0i)e intern l scre* t!re )s on n e7isting !ole/

C #nter. r%n(1 Co$nter,oring "ro0i)es

ste""e) !ole+ in *!ic! l rger )i meter (ollo*s sm ller )i meter " rti llinto t!e !ole/ A co$nter,oring !ole is $se) to se t ,olt !e )s into !ole so t!e !e )s )o not "rotr$)e ,o0e t!e s$r( ce/
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C #nter$%n1%n(1 T!is is simil r to Co$nter,oring+ e7ce"t t! t t!e ste" in t!e !ole is cone2s! "e) (or (l t !e ) scre*s n) ,olts/

Center%n(1 Also c lle) center )rilling+

t!is o"er tion )rills st rting !ole to cc$r tel- est ,lis! its loc tion (or s$,se6$ent )rilling/ T!is tool is c lle) center)rill/

Sp t!a'%n(1 S"ot( cing is simil r to milling/ It is $se) to

"ro0i)e re /

(l t m c!ine) s$r( ce on t!e *or#" rt in

loc li8e)

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Dr%&&$ an" Dr%&&%n( Operat% n$

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Dr%&& Pre$$
A )rill "ress is "re(er ,le to ! n) )rill *!en t!e loc tion n) orient tion o( t!e !ole m$st ,e controlle) cc$r tel-/ A )rill "ress is com"ose) o( , se t! t s$""orts col$mn+ t!e col$mn in t$rn s$""orts t ,le/ <or# c n ,e s$""orte) on t!e t ,le *it! 0ise or !ol) )o*n cl m"s+ or t!e t ,le c n ,e s*i0ele) o$t o( t!e * - to llo* t ll *or# to ,e s$""orte) )irectl- on t!e , se/ Heig!t o( t!e t ,le c n ,e )=$ste) *it! t ,le li(t cr n# t! n loc#e) in "l ce *it! t ,le loc#/ T!e col$mn lso s$""orts !e ) cont ining motor/ T!e motor t$rns t!e s"in)le t s"ee) controlle) ,0 ri ,le s"ee) control )i l/ T!e s"in)le !ol)s )rill c!$c# to !ol) t!e c$tting tools :)rill ,its+ center )rills+ )e,$rring tools+ etc/;/
Department ! In"#$tr%a& & Pr "#'t% n En(%neer%n( )*+)/

Spe'%a&%;e" Dr%&& Pre$$e$


Gan(-"r%&&%n( ma'h%ne$1 in)e"en)ent col$mns+ e c! *it! )i((erent )rilling o"er tion+ *or# "iece sli) (rom one col$mn to ne7t T#rret-t0pe, #pr%(ht "r%&&%n( ma'h%ne$1 $se) *!en n$mero$s )rilling o"er tion re re6$ire) in r "i) s$ccession+ t$rret rot tes nee)e) tool into "osition (or e c! o"er tion

G ng2)rilling m c!ines
Department ! In"#$tr%a& & Pr "#'t% n En(%neer%n(

T$rret2t-"e+ $"rig!t )rilling m c!ines


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Spe'%a&%;e" Dr%&& Pre$$e$


Ra"%a& "r%&&%n( ma'h%ne$1 $se) on l rge *or#"ieces+ s"in)le mo$nts on r )i l rm+ llo*ing )rilling o"er tions n-*!ere long t!e rm lengt! 7#&t%p&e-$p%n"&e "r%&&%n( ma'h%ne$1 Single "o*er!e ) o"er tes m$lti"le s"in)les en ,ling m$lti"le !oles t one time+ e c! !ole c n ,e $ni6$e

R )i l )rilling m c!ines
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M$lti"le2s"in)le )rilling m c!ines


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S#mmar0 Drilling is t!e most common m c!ining o"er tion Drilling c n ,e "er(orme) on n$m,er o( m c!ine tools+ )rill "resses re s"eci li8e) m c!ine tools (or )rilling onlDrills come in *i)e 0 riet- o( t-"es n) ti" geometries )e"en)ing $"on "ro)$ction r te n) cc$r c- nee)e) Hole geometries c n ,e )=$ste) t!ro$g! t!e $se o( co$nter,oring+ co$ntersin#ing n) re ming

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