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Pendidikan Moral: Pengenalan

Tan Bee Piang

Moral: Teras Pendidikan

All education is in fact moral education Pada dasarnya, pendidikan dilihatkan sebagai suatu usaha manusia yang optimistik yang dicirikan oleh cita-cita untuk mencapai kemajuan dan kebaikan Sepanjang sejarah manusia, mengajar kemoralan dan menyampaikan nilai-nilai murni kepada muridmurid, membantu murid-murid menjadi manusia yang berdisplin dan bertingkah laku baik, adalah sentiasa sebagai tujuan utama pendidikan.

Hansen makes a distinction between moral education and education as a moral endeavour. He suggests that although many moral implications of teaching are unintentional, teaching as an endeavour is inherently moral. In contrast, moral education refers to the deliberate teaching of particular values, attitudes, and dispositions to stimulate the prosocial and moral development of students.

Moral education is incorporated in the formal curriculum and taught as a single subject or should be practiced as the integration of values across the curriculum approach, cross-curricular activities, through formal or informal curriculum?

Terdapat sesetengah maysarakar mengatakan bahawa perkembangan konsep-konsep moral serta cara membuat penaakulan akan diperolehi oleh pelajar-pelajar dengan sendirinya menerusi pengalaman yang di terima di rumah dan di sekolah. Jika ini benar, kenapakah kita perlu mengadakan satu program pendidikan moral yang formal di sekolahsekolah?

Terdapat dua pandangan yang berbeza terhadap perlakasaan pendidikan moral, adaka pihak berpendapat pengajaran moral haruslah sebagai hidden curriculum, elemen pendidikan harus diterap merentasi semua mata pelajaran dan kegiatan kokurikulum.

Namun, juga ada pihak yang menyokong pendidikan moral perlu dijalan melalui mata pelajaran yang formal, misalnya Wilson, beliau mengatakan bahawa kemoralan mempunyai kemahiran mengikut penaakulan moral, emosi moral dan tingkah laku moral yang seperti kemahiran muzik, sains, sejarah dan kesusasteraan, boleh diajar secara sistematik.

Downey dan Kelly juga berpendapat pembelajaran moral yang tidak formal adalah tidak bercorak reflektif dan kritik. In promote understanding, critical awareness and an appreciation of the need for knowledge and skills of many kinds as a basis for making of autonomous moral decisions that are sound and for thinking for oneself, in the fullest possible way.

Dalam pendidikan moral, pelajar dapat menyertai perbincangan tentang isu-isu moral, ini membantu pembentukan kefahaman dan kesedaran pelajar yang luas terhadap kemorolan.

Di masyarakat yang berlainan, pendidikan moral adalah penting untuk sebab-sebab yang berbeza. Negara mengamalkan pendidikan moral/ pendidikan agama mengikut keperluan negara dan masyarakat sendiri.

Education of Value

The function of school, it was believed, was not only to make people smart but also to make them good. Civic Education Moral Education Character Education Value Education

The Objective of Moral Education

Good character consists of knowing the good, desiring the good, and doing the good. Schools must help children understand the core values, adopt or commit to them, and then act upon them in their own lives. ( Lickona, Thomas The Return of Character Education)

Definisi Pendidikan Moral (Malaysia)

Pendidikan Moral ialah satu program yang mendidik murid supaya menjadi insan yang bermoral atau berakhlak mulia dengan menekankan aspek perkembangan pemikiran moral,perasaan moral dan tingkah laku moral. Moral Education is a subject in the form of a program that educates students to become individuals who are moral or good mannered. The moral program in Malaysia stresses on the holistic development of the individual and concerned with development of moral thinking, moral feeling and moral action.

Pendidikan Moral KBSR Pendidikan Moral KBSM

Moral Education focuses on the effort to instill spiritual and moral strength through experiential and daily virtues of Malaysian society that is found in religion, traditions and cultural rites of the various races in Malaysia. Thus, students can build a way of life which enables them to be moral individuals. This also enables them to be socially and morally responsible towards any decision or action taken.

The Moral Education curriculum enables students to:

1. understand and appreciate values which are needed to be virtuous; 2. realize and accept the importance of harmony between human beings and environment and make an effort to sustain it; 3. increase the understanding and cooperation by sustaining a peaceful and harmonious life in a democratic Malaysia; 4. develop matured thinking based on moral and spiritual values in making moral decisions and problem solving; 5. be initiative to act morally based on justice and altruistic in line with the values of the Malaysia community.

Bertanggungjawab pada diri, keluarga dan orang lain; Berpegang teguh pada ajaran agama; Prihatin kepada alam sekitar; Mengekalkan keamanan dan keharmonian hidup; Bersemangat patriotik; Menghormati hak asasi manusia; dan Mengamalkan prinsip demokrasi dalam kehidupan

Pendidikan Moral di Korea

Objectives:
"The

formation of moral habits and good manners" "The comprehension of moral norms and ideals "The development of moral judgment and decisionmaking "Building autonomous moral character" r

Pendidikan Moral di Korea

Elementary schools:
First

level, subject : "Right Life Second level , subject : "Morals"

Middle schools
"Morals

High School
Ethics

Civics and Moral Education (CME) in Singapore

The overarching goal of CME is to nurture a person of good character, who is caring and acts responsibly towards self, family, school, community, nation and the world. The CME syllabus focuses on six core values, namely Respect,Responsibility, Integrity, Care, Resilience and Harmony. These values complement and reinforce Our Shared Values, the Singapore Family Values, the Singapore 21 Vision and the National Education messages.

Character Education in America

Bidang pembelajaran: KBSR

1. Nilai berkaitan dengan Perkembangan Diri 2. Nilai berkaitan dengan Diri dan Keluarga 3. Nilai berkaitan dengan Diri dan Masyarakat 4. Nilai berkaitan dengan Diri dan Alam Sekitar 5. Nilai berkaitan dengan Diri dan Negara

Nature Nature
World World Nation Nation Community Community
Family/School Family/School

Self Self

Who am I? What are my values and beliefs? Do they make me a person of good character? How do I apply my values and beliefs? What are my goals? How meaningful are they? How can I prepare myself for the future? How do I relate to others and the environment?

What are my roles and how can I contribute in my family? my community? the nation? the world?

Who are we as a nation? What constitutes our national identity? What does our country mean to us? How can we play our part in the global community?

Bidang pembelajaran: KBSM

1. Nilai berkaitan dengan Perkembangan Diri 2. Nilai berkaitan dengan Kekeluargaan 3. Nilai berkaitan dengan Alam Sekitar 4. Nilai berkaitan dengan Patriotisme 5. Nilai berkaitan dengan Hak Asasi Manusia 6. Nilai berkaitan dengan Demokrasi 7. Nilai berkaitan dengan Keamanan dan keharmonian

ISSUES AND CONTROVERSIES

Obstacles faced include:

1. students do not know how to solve their own problems; 2. students memorize, rather than understand what they are taught; 3. students cannot apply what they learn to other situations;

4. students do not see the relevance of what they learn to their everyday lives 5. students do not accept responsibility for consequences 6. testing requirements drain a lot of resources and students concentrate more on exam questions rather than moral feelings and moral action.

Can Morality be Taught in School?

.but may I remind you that the problem facing teacher is a very serious and deep one. Unless the society in which they lived and work gives some account of what it considers important in human life then teachers have no real framework in which to operate

Does Moral Education Improve Moral Judgment?


A student wrote to a local paper, After studying this subject for five years in secondary school, I can safely say that I have learnt nothing. How can remembering the definitions of moral values make you a moral person? (Neorewarp, 2007). Justifikasi moral melibatkan seseorang itu memberi sebab-sebab yang munasabah tentang sesuatu keputusan moral. How people define one or another course of action in a situation as morally right?

Dissatisfaction with the way ME is taught and assessed

All we need to know is understand the values and answer according to the need of the exam paper. ME is done. Why waste time with projects and homework? (16 year old girl) Moral is boring. We study the same values over and over again and then sit for this exam. But in real life, it is more complicated. (17 year old boy)

ISU MORAL: KITA MEMBINCANGKAN PERKARA YANG BUKAN KECIL, IAITU BAGAIMANA KITA PATUT HIDUP

Kepentingan Pendidikan Moral di Sekolah

Kemerosotan keyakinan dan kepercayaan terhadap nilai dan tradisi kebudayaan, adat resam dan keagamaan. Too much on Professionally, economically, technologically. Isu-isu moral dikalangan murid: seks sebelum kahwin, Isu buli. Pendidkan Moral:
Pengajaran

nilai-nilai moral dengan lebih nyata dan

langsung. Pemulih situasi.

PENGAJIAN PENGETAHUAN MORAL

Bidang Pengetahuan

Falsafah Moral (Etika)

Psikologi

Sosiologi

Falsafah Moral (Etika)

Perbincangan tentang andaian dan idea-idea tentang betul, salah,patut,baik. Teori Etika To provide a systematic answer to the question of how we should behave

Psikologi

Developmental psychology: The science that seeks to understand the ways in which people change and stay the same as they grow older perkembangan kapasiti manusia untuk membuat pertimbangan moral sebagai agen moral yang bertanggungjawab. Teori Perkembangan Moral

Sosiologi

Penilaian moral individu dari perspektif sosial. personality shaped by society socialisation as the social learning of beliefs and behaviour typified by the individual's adaptation and conformity to social norms. This also includes learning of expectations, habits, values, motives, skills, beliefs that are necessary to interact with one's own social groups. Sosialisasi dan Pembentukan Tabiat Moral