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Goal of manufacturing

untuk menghasilkan produk dan komponen yang berfungsi dan bekerja dengan baik

What is manufacturing?
Literal: Manufacture = Manus (hand) + Factus (make) Made by hand Technological: Proses aplikasi secara fisik dan kimia untuk membuat komponen/produk termasuk assembly produk Economical: Perubahan material menjadi komponen yang memiliki nilai lebih melalui proses dan atau assembly CIRP definition: Design + production + assembly
(CIRP = International Academy for Production Eng.)

What is manufacturing?
Representation of manufacturing in a technological way

What is manufacturing?
Representation of manufacturing in a economical way

PRODUCT REALIZATION

PROCESS PLANNING

Design
Process Planning

Machine Tool

Scheduling and Production Control

Proses Desain
Desain adalah tahap pertama dalam proses manufaktur:
What it is What properties must it possess What material How to make it How many to make What conditions will it see during use How long will it take us to complete it How reliable will it be How can we recycle it

How can we make it ?


Apakah sudah ada yang pernah mengerjakan ? Yes : metode apa yang dilakukan No : Desain proses yang baru

What methods were used ?


Machining methods Pressworking Welding/fabrication Casting Powder materials Layered deposition Others

Welding/fabrication: Additive techniques

Initial Stock

Weld Add-on

Weld Add-on

Final Product

Machining Methods: Subtractive techniques

Initial Stock

Slotting

Drilling

Final Product

Casting: Form Methods

Langkah-langkah dalam men-desain


1. Konsep
Beberapa konsep perlu dipersiapkan

2. Fungsi
Desain yang dapat dapat dikerjakan Rencana detil untuk proses manufaktur Prototipe

3. Produksi
Full production Kecepatan produksi dan jumlah

Importance of manufacturing
Manufaktur berperan sangat penting untuk menghasilkan material wealth!!! Satu pekerjaan dalam sebuah manufacturing plant menghasilkan sekitar 4 pekerjaan lainnya!!! Question: How? Data from the USA:
Manufacturing : ~ 20% of the GNP Agriculture, mining : < 5% of the GNP Construction, public utilities : ~ 5% of the GNP Service sector : ~ 70% of the GNP (GNP = Gross National Product)

Industries and products


Industri manufaktur
- Industri primer: natural resources as mining, fishing, agriculture, petroleum - Industri sekunder: automotive, computers, electronics - Industri tertier (service): banking, tourism, education

Produk manufaktur
Consumer goods: cars, TVs, tires, tennis rackets Capital goods: aircraft, machine tools, machinery Discrete products: pumps, shavers, coffee makers Continuous produced products: sheet-metal coils

Product example

Electric shaver

Manufacturing capability
Kemampuan Proses Teknologi - Ketersediaan proses dan mesin - Outsourcing of some operations (casting, heat treatment, etc.) Keterbatasan produk - Ukuran, berat - Dimensi mesin, handling Kapasitas produksi (Plant capacity) - jumlah produksi dalam waktu yang ditentukan

Engineering Materials in Manufacturing


Metals - Ferrous: Steel (iron-carbon, 0,02% - 2,11% C) Cast iron (iron + 2% - 4% C + silicon) - Nonferrous: copper, aluminium, nickel, alloys Ceramics: clay, silica, carbides (Al, Si), nitrides (Ti) Polymers - Thermoplastic polymers: PE, PP, PS, PVC - Thermosetting polymers: phenolics, epoxies - Elastomers: rubber, neoprene, silicone, PU Composites: more phases, particles/fibres + matrix glass reinforced plastic, Kevlar, WC in cobalt

Materials in Manufacturing

Venn diagram

Historical perspective
Manufacturing materials and processes: Neolithic period (~8000 - 3000 B.C.) in Mesopotamia Mediterranean, Asia; hammering, gold Bronze age (3500 - 1500 B.C.), extracting copper from ores, casting, hammering. Iron age (since 1000 B.C.), heating, quenching Industrial Revolution (1770 - 1850), machining like boring, turning, drilling, milling, shaping. Assembly methods (since ancient cultures), ships, weapons, tools, farming equipment Fusion welding (around 1900) Rubber and polymer shaping, vulcanization (1939)
Master Engineering & Management

Klasifikasi Proses Manufacturing Manufaktur (1)

processes

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Proses-proses manufaktur (2)


1. Sheet metalworking: Cutting operations, bending operations, other sheet-metal operations, dies and presses, other machines, bending of tube. 2. Property enhancing and surface processing: Heat and surface treatment, cleaning, coating. 3. Material removal: Chip formation, force, power and energy relationships, cutting temperature, turning operations, drilling, milling, machining and turning centres, other machining operations. 4. Material removal: tool life, tool materials, cutting fluids, machineability, tolerances and surface finish, selection of cutting conditions, design aspects, grinding, electric discharge and laser beam machining.

5. Joining and assembly: Fundamentals of welding, welding processes, weld quality, weldability, brazing, soldering, adhesive bonding, mechanical assembly, design aspects. 6. Manufacturing (support) systems: Numerical control, industrial robots, group technology, FMS, production lines, quality control, metrology, measuring instruments, surface measurement.

7. Processes for shapeless materials:


Casting fundamentals and processes, casting quality, design aspects, powder metallurgy, rapid prototyping technologies.

8. Shaping of polymers, rubber and composites: Polymer melts, extrusion, injection moulding, compression moulding, blow moulding, thermoforming, design aspects, processes for rubber and composites. 9. Metal forming: Material behaviour in metal forming, influence of temperature, friction and lubrication, rolling processes, forging processes, extrusion, wire and bar drawing.

Processing operations
1) Shaping operations
- Solidification processes casting of metals, moulding of plastics - Particulate processing powder metallurgy - Deformation processes forging, extrusion - Material removal processes machining, nontraditional, grinding

2) Property enhancing processes


- Heat treatments, sintering

3) Surface processing
- Cleaning, coating, plating, deposion

Casting and moulding processes

Pouring/ Penuangan

Solidification /Pembekuan

Particulate processing

Sintering Powder Pressing

Deformation processes

Forging

Extrusion

Shaping processes
General aim: Minimize waste and scrap!!! - Net shape processes no subsequent machining - Near net shape processes minimum machining

Turning

Drilling

Milling

Sistem Produksi
Terdiri dari orang, peralatan dan prosedur Fasilitas produksi: factory, production equipment material handling equipment Plant layout + Manufacturing systems Influence of production quantity (low, medium, high) Sistem pendukung manufaktur - Manufacturing engineering process planning - Production planning and control logistics, ordering materials and parts, scheduling - Quality control

Jumlah produksi
Low quantity production (1 100 units/year) - Job shop maximum flexibility, fixed-position layout and often also process layout - Examples: aircraft, ships, heavy machinery Medium quantity production (102 104 units/year) - Batch production process layout or cellular layout, usually make-to-stock - Examples: pumps, lathes, gear drives High quantity production (> 10.000 units/year) - Flow line production product layout - Examples: cars, household appliances

Plant layouts

Fixed-position layout

Process layout

Cellular layout

Product layout
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Production System

Mutual relationships
Function

Material

Shape

Process

Product attributes
Mechanical properties, e.g. tensile strength Physical properties, e.g. thermal expansion Dimensions, e.g. mm Tolerances: bilateral, unilateral tolerances limit dimensions Geometric attributes: angularity, circularity, concentricity, cylindricity, flatness, parallellism, perpendicularity, roundness, squareness and straightness Surface quality, e.g. roughness

Specification of tolerances

Bilatertal tolerance

Unilateral tolerance

Limit dimensions

Geometric tolerances
a. Flatness

b. Circularity
c. Cylindricity

d. Perpendicularity
e. Concentricity

Permukaan
Pentingnya kualitas permukaan - Alasan keindahan - Aspek keamanan - Pengaruh pada friksi dan keausan - Pengaruh pada sifat mekanik dan fisik - assembly - kontak listrik yang lebih baik Surface technology berkaitan dengan - tekstur permukaan - integritas permukaan - berhubungan dengan proses manufaktur

Karakteristik Permukaan
A microscopic view shows: - Substrate bulk material - Altered layer different structure - Surface texture exterior part with roughness - In addition: Mostly an oxide film

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Tekstur Permukaan
Surface texture Deviations from the surface
Roughness: small deviations Waveness: deviations with much larger spacing Lay: predominant direction or pattern of the surface Flaws: irregularities like cracks, inclusions, etc.

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Possible lays

Master Engineering & Management

Kekasaran permukaan (1)


Definisi kekasaran permukaan Arithmetic average (AA) of the vertical Lm y deviations from the normal surface Ra .dx Lm over a specified surface length. 0

Surface roughness (2)


Approximation form:

Ra
i 1

yi n

Units for Ra: m (10 -6 m) Cutoff length Filter to separate the waviness from the roughness deviations Usually: Cutoff length = 0,8 mm = 1/5.Lm Surface finish = surface roughness denoting good quality and smoothness

Symbols for surface texture

Symbols on engineering drawings

Final remarks
Final remarks related to product attributes:

Surface integrity - Changes in the subsurface layer - Alterations like cracks, craters, hardness changes inclusions, residual stresses, etc. - Different reasons: mechanical, thermal,etc. Effect of manufacturing processes on - Tolerance limits - Surface roughness values

Tolerance limits

Surface roughness values

Manufacturing Process Selection


Aspects: Batch size: Single product, medium size or mass production Geometric requirements: Shape and tolerances Manufacturing phase: Primary or secondary Tools: General purpose or product specific Assembly: Pay attention to assembly aspects during process selection for part manufacturing Minimize costs: Costs per product + Costs per batch + Once-only costs

Interfaces with other courses


Product design: Selection of the product material and the manufacturing process is related to the product shape and product function. Production systems: Selection of a manufacturing process is related to the optimum batch size and has consequences for the plant layout. Management and cost accounting: If more manufacturing scenarios are possible, the final choice will be made based on minimum costs. Total Quality Management: All decisions related to manufacturing are dealing with quality aspects.

Case study 1.2


Subject: Manufacturing of golf balls

1) What are the functional requirements for golf balls? 2) With which type of materials can you realize these requirements in the best way? 3) Which type of manufacturing processes would be required to make a golf ball?

Case study 1.3


1) What are the functional requirments for a safe? 2) With which type of materials can you realize these requirements in the best way? 3) Which type of manufacturing processes would be required to make a safe?