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Numerical Simulation Of Storm Water Sewer System With Sobek-Rr-Sf (Rainfall Runoff - Sewer Flow)

(Yureana Wijayanti, Oki Setyandito)

U /

Kajian Penggunaan Batuan Silika Sebagai Agregat Kasar Beton


(lsfrnari)

Pengaruh Pengawetan Dengan Sistem Pengasapan Terhadap Sifat Fisik Dan

MekanikBambu
(Jauhar Fajrin, Muh. Zaenuddin)

Pengaruh Penggunaan Abu Sekam Padi (Rha) Sebagai Pengganti Sebagian semen Dengan Proporsi Fralsi Beratpada Beton Beragregat Kasar Batuan

Piroklastik Merah
(Ni Ketut Sri Astati Sukawati, Hariyadi)

Kontribusi Lempung Ekspansif Terhadap Kerusakan Ruas Jalan BanggoDompu (AgungPrabowo)

Kajian Konservasi Daerah Resapan Cekunganair Tanah Mataram-selong Propinsi Nusa Tenggara Barat (Dwi Winarti, S. Koesnaryo, Suyono)

Vol.3 No. I Pebruari 2006

ISSN 1693-9s9X

SKALA
IURNAL TEKMK
Penangsung Jawab Dekan Fakultas Teknik Universitas Muhammadiyah Mataram

Penerbit Fakultas Teknik Universitas Muhammadiyah Mataram

Pemimpin Redaksi Ngudiyono

Wakil Pemimpin Redaksi


Isfanari

Aneeota AgusPartono

WiduriY{ianti
Ixraidin Hiliyadi

TimAhli
Dwi Winarti, ST. MT. (TeknikPertanrbangan-UMM Mataram) Didi S. Agustawijaya, k, M. Eng, Ph.D (Teknik Geologi-UNRAM Mataram) Suryawan Murtiadi, Ir., M. Eng, Ph. D (Teknik Stuktur-UNRAM Mataram) N.K. sri Astati sukawati, h., MT. (Teknik Transportasi-UNMAS Denpasar) Yureana Wijayanti, ST. M.Eng. (Teknik Hidro-UII Yogyakarta)

Sekretariat Jurnal Teknik SKALA Fakultas Teknik Universitas Muhammadiyah Mataram JIn. K.II. A. Dahlan No. 1 Pagesangan Mataram NTB Telp/Fax : (0370) 640728 e-mail: j urnalskala@yahoo.com

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Vol.3 No. 1 Pebruari 2006

ISSN: 1693-959X

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DAFTAR ISI
Numerical simulation of storm water sewer system Rr-Sf (R.infalt Ruroff- SewerFIow)

with sobek1-10

(Yureana$/ijayanti,m&ie )$
(Isfanari)

Kajian Penggunaan Batuan Silika Sebagai Agregat Kasar Beton.


Pengaruh Pengawetan Dengan Sistem Pengasapan Terhadap sifat FisikDan MekanikBambu (Jauhar Fajrin, Muh. Zaenuddin) Pengaruh Penggunaan Abu Sekam Padi (Rha) Sebagai Penggauti sebagian scmen Dengan Proporsi Fraksi Beratpada Beton Beragregat Kasar Batuan Piroklastik Merah (I.{i Ketut Sri Astati Strkawati, Hariyadi)

l 1-18

t9-28

29-40

Kontribusi Lempung Ekspansif Terhadap Kerusakan Ruas Jalan


Banggo-Dompu (Agung Prabowo)

4r-54

Kajian Konservasi I)aerah Resapan Cekunganair Tanah MataramSelong Propinsi Nusa Tenggara Barat (Dwi Winarti, S, Koesnaryo, Suyono)

55-74

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IYT'IVIERICAL SIMT}LATION OF STORM WATER SEWER SYSTEM WITII soBEK-RR-Sr EATNTALL Rt NOrr - SEWER FLOW)

Yureanarilijayanti.), fu*rp&fa1"!
'\.ecturer in Environmental Eng. Dept.. Faculty of Civil Engineering and Design,
")Lecturer in civil Eng. Depart*"yJtt*ff*frgineering university of Mataram

ABSTRACT
Flooding is the big problem in every urban area. Some solutions regarding sewer pipe, drainage channels that laying to accommodate the rain-fall run otT have been made. Yet, it is still lot accurately defined what the best solution for the
management of floodplains is. Therefore,

it is important to understand the behavior

sewer system and the influence of a certain combination management in order to find some alternative solutions.

of a

of

storage and

To study flooding problems in wban area, this modeling presents the appiication of Sobek-RR-SF system for rainfell run-off and sewer flow. Sobek, rvhich is developed by WL Delft l{ydraulics, is an integrated numerical modeling package to simulate hydrodynamics of one-dimensional model. With this program, the user can determine the level of the schematizalion. Also, it has the capability of dealing with historical rainfall data as well as with a user defined rain event. Water system can be schematized by nodes and branches being building blocks for the one-dimensional
schematization.

- -'

The simulation shows the effect of storage in the reduction of the quantity of water flow in a swer and the flood is not occurred. Other finding is the laying of a shortcut pipe (new pipe from node 29 to node 13) to overcome the flooding there. Horvevel in laying new pipes, it is important to check the land use of that area. More alternatives such as adding other ponds for storage, laying channels (using SOBEKRR-CF-SF) can be done for finding the most effective and efficient solution for the flooding problern-

Keywords: Sobek RR-SF, sewer system, flooding, storage

INTRODUCTION Background experiment


simulation

The main objective of this is to simulate the rainfall runoff and sewer system. And the
be applied in Flavs city as city is annually suffered from flooding during the rainy season. The map of the city can be seen in figure 1. The
a case study. This

rainfalls or the existing design is no longer be able to cope with- Also the first point of flooding is unknown, although some areas
are flooded-

will

The simulation must achieve cuntnt standard, which is no flooding should occur within l- years return period
( in 60 minutes duration).

Objectives

of the flooding cause is still uncertain, whether from ftw heavy


prediction

Numerical Sirnulation Of Storm Water Sewer System With Sobek-Rr-Sf (Rainfall Runoff- Sewer Flow) (Yureana Wijayanti, Oki Setyandito)

Figure

1.

The Map of Flavo City

LITERATURX, R"EVIEW Basic Theory 1. Delft-scheme and Calculation

o Accurate, i.e. sufficient accuracy given the modeling purpose.

A sobek-flow model

consists

of

The computation of the water levels and discharge in the sobek-flow network is performed with the Delftand momentum equation by mean of a staggered grid. In this staggered grid the
rvater levels are defined at the connection
scheme. This scheme solves the continuity

point

network ofreaches connected to each other at connection nodes. In each reach number of calculation points can be defined. These

calculation points represent the spatial

numerical grid to be used in the simulation.

The momentum equation and continuity equation will be solved nunerically on this
grid, which results in the hydraulic states at

nodes and calculation points, while the elischarges are defined at the intermediate reaches or reach segrnents. In general nurnerical approximations must satisfy the following
requirements:

the calculation points and the


discharges

reach

segments. The resulting water levels are defined at the calculation points, while the

are defined at the

reach

segments (staggered grid).

a problems . Efficient" i.e. efficient usc of computational resources such as processor time;
dealing with
practical

Robust" i.e. effective

or capable wide range

of of

The locatiorr of each calculation


point should be selected on various criteria: . The distance between two neighboring calculation points should not be too large (for accuracy and proper represenratiott of the physical processes);

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The distance between two


points should not be too small because of increasing simulation time. The smallest distance the Delft-schenre uses is l0 meters; The location of the calculation points may be non-equidistant

In the sobek-flow
structure types are available:

module three

neighboring calculation

Orifice o pump o Weir

Figure

3.

Storage and structure in network

Boundary nodes and halfthe reach (segments) next to this boundary do not have any storage. Structures are defined at
reach segments.

Figure

2- Caiculation points

4.
be

Bed friction

2.

Boundary

The bed friction

is the friction

Boundary conditions

can

between the flowing water and the riverbed.

to solye the water-flow equations (continuity equation and momentum


supplicd.

applied at the locations where the model network ends as a boundary node. In order

As such, it exerts a force on the flowing


water always in the direction opposite the water-flow. In water courses this force together with the force caused by earth gravity usually determines the flow conditions: the other forces are far less
important.

equation), information about the waterflow at the model boundaries should be

At

each boundary, one condition

for the water-flow should be specified. The following options are available:

The fourth term of the mcmentum equation is the bed-friction term:


Bed friction = where:

r Discharge (constan!

solal
C, RA,
1m2/s2;

tabulated

function of time, tabulated function of the water level); o Water level (constant, tabulated function of time) In sewer systems a dead end (or beginning) of a reach can be a connection node representing a manhole at the end of a pipe. In contrast to a boundary node, this node
has storage.

g: Gravity acceleration Q: Discharge (m3ls)


C

3. Storage and Structure

The storage that is used in the continuity equations is in the Sobek-flow module joined to the nodes and calculation points. Each node has as its storage the node storage plus the storage of half of the reach segments that are connected to the node. Each calculation point has as its storage half of the reach segments on either side of the calculation point.

In this rnodeling of the SobekFlow module, the value of the chezy coefficient C during cornputation may be detennined in number of input ref,erences. I use nranning (n*) number, so it will result
in chery coefficient according to:

Chezy coefficient lmr/2/s; R = Hydraulic radius (m) As: Wetted area (m2)

^ R"o ('-_
nm

Numerical Simulation

Of

(Rainftll Runoff-

Storm Water Sewer System With Sobek-Rr-Sf

Sewer Flow) (Yureana Wijayanti, Oki Setyandito)

0.09

D03

Sewer inflorr'

->

Hietograph

year Period

0.03 0.o2

Figure 5. 'Ihe rainfall of standard event 05 and the inflow into the sewer for a flat
closed paved area of 2. Evaporation

ha.

The evaporation process is of

runoffmodel is called the Runoffmodel of


Flow-Manhole and Flow-Pipe.

minor influence on the loss of rainfall. The storage in depressions of impervious


surfaces (e.g. closed paved areas) however, can only disappear by evaporation. Storage pervious surfaces depressions

The inflow towards the sewer system consists of runoff from rainfall and

disappears mostly by infiltration. The evaporation of SOBEK-RR-SF is based on the evaporation data of KNMI (The Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute). Methodology To model the behavior of a sewer system, the following building blocks,
called nodes and branches, are available:

in

of

Flow-Manhoie with Runoff " Flow- Pipe with Runoff Where the input parameters of the node and the branch are the same. The Rainfall-

dry weather flow. The Runoff model of Flow-Manhole and Flow-Pipe, also called NWRW model, describes the dry weather flow and the transformation in time of rainfall into runoff entering the sewer system. The Runoff model is based on the guidelines. The processes included are: r moistening, and puddle forming o infiltration . runoffdelay Figure 6, illustrates the rainfall-runoff process with net to rainfall is the same as the runoff to*'ards the selver system and is eqr:al to the rainfall minus evaporation minus infiltration minus the change of
storage.

Numerical Simulation

Of Storm Water Sewer System With Sobek-Rr-Sf (Rainfall Runoff- Sewer Flow) (Yureana Wijayanti, Oki Setyandito)

II

et ailD iail

o11

Figure 6. The rainfal l-runoff process

As a result of moistening and


puddte forming, part of the rainfall

condition. Other factors may also play an

will

be

important

role. For example, the

stored temporarily on t}te surface. This storage is called surface storage. This storage is reduced by evaporation as well as infiltration. Different types of surfaees can be distinguished, depending on surface characteristics and slope. The model distinguishes four types ofsurfaces (closed paved, open paved, roof unpaved) and three types of slopes (area with a slope, flat, sketched flat), thus twelve different area types. The slope of the surface and the infiltration capacity largely influence the rainfall-runoff process.

infiltration capacrty of brick paths depends on the condition of the openings between the bricks. The infiltration capacity of the unpaved areas depends on the vegetation, the kind of soil and the percentage of moisture in the subsurface. The description of the infiltration of the Runoff model is based on the formula of Horton (Table 2. Default Parameter Horton Equation).

MODEL SETI]P AND RESTTLTS As mention before, there are two


Rainfall-runoff modeling and Sewer modeling. Therefore there will be two inputs data for each modeling. And both will be compute as
one result.

kinds of modeling:

The infiltration of rainfall

takes

place in the open paved areas and unpaved

areas. The infiltration capacrty depends mostly on the type of surface and moisture
T able 2. Default Parameter Horton

ation. Infiltration
Capacity

Infiltration
Capacity

Time Factor
Decreasing

Time
Factor

No

Area Type
Closed paved

RunoffType With
Flat Stetched flat
a slope

Maximum rfb)
0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 5.0 5.0

Minimum (fc)
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0
1.0 1.0 1.0

(ka)
0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0
3.0 3.0

Recovering

ftb)
0.0 0.0 0.0

Closed paved Closed paved Onen oaved Open paved Open paved

)
4
5

With a slope
Flat
Stretched flat

0.t
0.1
0.1

6
8

Roof Roof Roof


Unpaved IJnoaved Unoaved

Witt'
Flat

a slooe

0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 3.0 3.0

0.0 0.0 0.0

Stretched flat

l0

Wiih
Flat

a slope

0.t
0.1 0.1

ll
t2

Stretched flat

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Model Setup l. Rainfall data The rainfall of standard event 05 is chosen for the criteria of the calculation
able 3. Standard Precipitation events 0 5.

point (Return Period I year, 60 minutes occurs and location of peak at the front). The data of standard precipitation event 05
is as follows:

Date(dd/mm/

Time(hh:
mm:ss) 00:01:00 00:04:00 00:07:00 00:10:00 00:13:00
00:

Height

Date(dd/mm/

vvvv)

(m)
0.01 0.01

ww)
0 0 0 0 0

Time(hh:
mm:ss) 00:40:00 00:43:00 00:44:00 00:47:00 00:49:00 00:52:00 00:55:00 00:58:00

Height

(m)
a.a4 0.037 0.037
0.03 0.03

0t/aylg'gs
01101/1995

auOt/1995 0t/01/r99s 01layt995


01101/t995
01101/199s

0.02 0.02
0-05 0.05

l6:00

au0t/1995 4u01fi99s
01/au19gs

aual/199s

0llaut99s
01loyt99s au0ut99s auatl1995
01i01/199s
2. Delay of

00:20:00 00:23:00 00:25:00 00:28:00 00:30:00 00:32:00 00:34:00 00:37:00 00:40:00 00:43:00

0.09 0.09 0.09 4.07 0.07


0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04

4.437

0 0 0 0 0 t1995 0 /1995 0 11995 0 11993 0 l0ilr99s 0 l0t/199s 0 lot/1995

l0 t0 t0 /a la t0 /0 l0 t0 l0 /0 t0 t0

/1995 /1995

/199s /1995 /199s /1995 n995 /199s /199s

0.027 0.021
0.02

0l:01:00
01:04:00 01:06:00 01:08:00 01:10:00

0.02 0.018 0.018

0.0r 0.0r
0.006
0_006

01:i3:00 0l : l5:00
01:18:00

0.001

runoff

of the catchments. The formrlla which

The delay of runoffdepends on the average distance to the inflow location in sewer system, the slope and the geometry

: runofffactor h : rainfall, dynamic storage on


c
catchments

describes the runoff to the sewer system is the formula of the rational method:

Q:
where:

The runoff factor is a function of length, roughness and slope, Twelve different area types are described in the 'Dutch Guidelines for sewer systems
computations, hydraulic functioning'. The types and default values are presented in
Table 4.

c.h into sewer

Q::nflow

Table 4. Default No
1

2
J
4 5

meters of Delav of Runoff RUNOFF RT]NOFF AREA TYPE TYPE FACTOR, C Closed paved With a slope 0.5 Closed oaved Flat 0.2
Closed paved 0oen oaved Open paved Open paved Stretched flat With a slooe
0.1

M
SURTACE STORAGE. h
0.0
0.5

t.0
0.0

Flat
Stretched flat With a slone

0.5 0.2

05
1.0

6
7 8

0.t
0.5

Roof Roof Roof


Unpaved Unpaved Unpaved

Flat
Stretched flat With a slope

0.2
0.1

0.0 2.0
4_A

t0

H
t2

Flat
Stretched flat

0.5 0.2
0.1

2.4 4.4 6.0

of Storm water Sewer system with sobek-Rr-Sf (Rainfall Runoff- Sewer Flow) (yureana Wijayanti, Oki Setyandito)
Numerical Simulation

An area 'with a sloPe' is an area


with a slope more than 4Yo. A sfietched flat area is an ara with the distance to the nearest inflow point in the sewer larger than 100 meters.

Results

The result shows thal flooding point 20 up to point 29 ( call &om occurs be viewed on the longitudinal section, Figure 7.):

Iml

WArER LEVEL NODES - 1-'l-1994 00:00:00 TLAYOE{{IF

zo tt

22 23 ^--*

7500.0: 'i,.,i6

i'

,'

zooo.ol .
l.':1^o:

,:,J.' ur*.ol ! .
ssoo.o

i 6

j
I

5000.0

-1

i,.i*#' i:.!:\7

ii

a500.01.-;ffi

:; j;.;,, ,-[--;:i-;.-+;;; +--- '-- ,;;..-i ; ,-;+;_--: --j -;.- -:;;,.i;-, - , 4000.0 '4500.0 9500'0 5000.0 5500.0 6000.0 &frn.o 7000.0 7500.0 s0m.0 8500,0 9000-0 Figure 7. Water kvel Nodes' :

The flooding betwen the points are recogniznd by the hydraulic gradient
position is above the ground level:

ruRNAL TEKNIK

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WATER LEVEL BRANCHES - 1-1-1994 00:00:00 FI-AV0EX.PRF


Discharge

.0001

llo.ooo

0.0m

0 000

0.ooo

10.000

0 000

m3

,{V

,v

,(

\, t)

8.0
l

:
60 I

4.0:

, 0
\,

-:

'l

::
ri
1000.0

r-------ir0

T-t-:-r-1.. :

::-ir-:---r-:-t
4000.0

500.0
o
ci
N

1$0.0

2000.0

25000 30000 3500.0


1.0

500{i0

s500.0

6000.0

6500.0 iml

(.iround

Lev.

o o 1 o

1 o o
q
t-..

q
o;

lnvert lev.

Ir oo io iN q c!9 io N:O ld Nrl'. ro


tN
l

o
q
N

oo 1q oo TN qc!
NN

;
L.)

o 1 o s q o
rf,

d o

Length

NN

o :$ ro .o Nd r lo $ rN

; o
G lo
i
I
I

ooo qe c orQ(o ooo) f-.- O o d iri + lo r iN


'i'-- io .
I

Iq n-. q@

lml

o
!1

lml

cil N, ol
:

{
I

d ld o:,o o,N
:o

d o

s; oi
'l.i rf, c
i

Iml ,t
l,'

l,N I

r
i

ro lO t; uEme{er ii
i

o o

oo qq

o (); u) ,oi

o:

u:
i

I o oi 'l loLorn

iN,

o $ o

1
I
I

,;t; i qt9 i
,

lrl
006

Siope

o/oo

0.i1
,l

C.69

10.70

0.72'

0 50

050
I

0.49

0.53

i2.44
I

Figure 8. Water level in sewer system

RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION


Recommendations 1) Some strategies are suggested

diameters of the pipe can be view

in the

appendix, including each

flood mr,p.

main attempt is to lower hydraulic gradient below

mitigate the problems, yet the

to

6)

The green pipes on the nrap shorv' the proposed new diameter, blue
pipes show the existin$ pipe'

the
the

2) 3)

First, propose bigger diameter of


the pipes in certain areas Second, build storage to "flood" into the storage

1) The morieiing

approach can be

flow the

2) In

used for the flooding proL,lems

4) Third, make
route

second line pipes from pint 29 to 13 across other

order to gain more reliable result, the ,modeling still needs some checks between tlre data
from the simulation and data from the field (at the critical points). More alternatives such as adding other ponds for storage. la,ving

5) In this case, first option is chosen. Herewith the proposed new

3)

Numerical Simulation

Of Storm Water Sewer System With Sobek-Rr-Sf (Rainfall Runoff- Sewer Flow) (Yureana W.ijayanti. Oki Setyandito)

channels (using SOBEK-RR-CFSF) can be done for finding the most effective and efficient solution for the flooding Problem' REFERENCES

Subramany4 K-, 1986, Engineering Hydrologt, Ivlc{raw-Hill, New


Delhi

Sulistiyowati, D, Rodriguez, R., 2005, Hydro informatics Teclmologt for AnatYsis of Flooding Problems,

Chow, V.T., 1959, OPen


York.

Chonnel

Modul 3Drainage&Sewer
Netherlands

Hydraulics' McGraw-Hiil, New


ComPound-

System, UNF,SCO-IHE, Delft, The

Fei, W., 2004, Modeling

Channels with Sobek, Master of Science thesis, LINESCO-IHE, Delft, The Netherlands
En gineers,

Suyono S., 1983, Hidrologi wtuk Pengairan, PradnYa Paramita,


Jakarta

Wanielista

Linsley, Kohler, Paulitus, 1988, Hydrologt

Woter gualitY Control,

M-,

1990, HYdralogt and


John

for

Mc-Graw'Hill,

WileY & sons-

New York
Erlangga, Jakarta

Soemifio, C.D., 1995, Hidrologi Tefuik,

Wijayanti, Y., 2000, Simulation of le storui wqter sYSrcm in Flavo CitY using Sabek ftft-SF Progrum, Master of Engineering thesis, IHE
Delft, The

Netherlands.

l0

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