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Technion - Israel Institute of Technology

Grand Water Research Institute


Rabin Desalination Laboratory
Chemical Engineering Department

Membrane Processes for Desalination 
and Water Reuse
and Water Reuse
Raphael Semiat

McDonnell International Scholars Academy


2nd International Symposium of Energy and Environment
December 8 - 10, 2008
Island Shangri-La Hong Kong

1
2004 Water deficiency

1 5B
1.5B
2004
3B2025
2004 2025

Source: Seckler et al, 2002
2
Driving Forces for Water R&D
Related
Related Documents
Documents
Need for Water
Global need, Industry, Agriculture, Remote
L ti
Locations, Desertification,
D tifi ti Et
Etc.
Cost Difference - (Industry/Urban - Agriculture)
C t Diff
Cost Difference - (Thermal
(Th lPProcesses - Membrane
M b Processes)
P )
Technologies for Export

3
RDL GWRI Technion 3
RO DESALINATION

Desalination Sites PILOT PLANTS


PLANTS
FOR WATER QUALITY
IMPROVEMENT

Large
g plants:
p NAHAL TANINIM (1997) MIZPE SHALEM ((1983))
BRACKISH (SURFACE) WATER 50 m3/day

600Mm3/y by 2013 ASHDOD (1988)


MEDITERRANEAN SEA
Haifa EIN BOKEK (1988)
50 m 3/day

NEVE ZOHAR (1986)


EILAT (1994) 50 m3 /day

750 Mm3/y by 2020


RED SEA
NEOT HAKIKAR (1982)
Ceasarea 50 m 3/day
RO DESALINATION
PLANTS FOR WATER
EIDAN (1983)
Hadera (100+) QUALITY
IMPROVEMENT Tel Aviv
50 m 3/day

KFAR DAROM (1989) EIN YAHAV (1992)


50 m3/day Jerusalem 50 m 3/day
A hd d (100)
Ashdod NAHAL MORAG (1991)
Ashdod
LOTAN (1983)
50 m3/day 50 m 3/day

Palmahim (30) BEER ORA (1983)


50 m3/day
BeerSheva
YAHEL (1979)
50 m3/day

EILOT (1986) KTURA (1983)


50 m3/day
Brackish inland (50) 50 m3/day

GROFIT (1974)
RO DESALINATION 50 m3/day

Ashkelon (100) PLANTS FOR WATER


SUPPLY YOTVATA (1973)
50 m3/day
MAAGAN MICHAEL (1994)
1,200 m3/day MAALE SHACHARUT

Ktziot (3) BW - SABHA "A" (1978)


(1985) 50 m 3/day

25,500 m 3/day ELIPAZ (1983)


50 m3/day
Tenders ‐ BOOT projects for  BW - SABHA "B" (1993)
10,000 m 3/day SAMAR ((1979))
25 years SW - SABHA "C" (1997)
50 m3/day

10,000 m 3/day SDE UVDA 1 (1979)


Eilat 250 m3/day (RESERV.)

4
SDE UVDA 2 (1980)
500 m3/day (RESERV.) 4
Eilat Plants
Eilat Plants

Sabha A: 25,500m3/day BW
Sabha B: 10,000 BW
Sabha C: 10,000 SW

RDL
5 GWRI Technion
5
cent/m3 - feed water Initial Design Actual Design Changes
%
Investment 4.0 2.6 -35.0%
Ch i l
Chemicals 58
5.8 24
2.4 -58.6%
58 6%
- HCl 2.96 1.85 -37.5%
- NaHSO 3 1.16 -100.0%
Operational - FeCl3 0.70 0.34 -51.7%
- NaOCl 0.99 0.22 -78.1%
Experience:
9.8
-78.1%
Saving on - NaOCl
-51.7%
10.0 - FeCl3
chemicals
chemicals. C
H N HSO3 -100%
- NaHSO3 100%
9.0 E - HCl -37.5%
M
Eilat plants 8.0 I
C
5.8 A
7.0 L
cent//m - feed water

S 5.0
6.0
-58.6%
5.0
3

I
40
4.0 N 24
2.4
V
E
3.0 S
T
4.0 M
2.0 E
-35.0%
N
2.6
1.0 T

0.0
Initial Design Actual Design
7
Ashkelon Plant

100,000.000 M3/year
8
Reverse Osmosis  ‐ Membrane Desalination
10
RDL GWRI Technion Picometer 10-12 m Femtometer 10-15m …
Significant membrane properties
Main Characteristic properties:
p p
Selectivity Membrane thickness,
Permeability P
Permeability,
bilit rejection,
j ti
Mechanical stability (creep and compaction) Size, size distribution
Anti fouling treatment
Anti-fouling
Chemical
h i l Stability
bili (Hydrolytic
( d l i stability,
bili
Catalitic reactivity.
Organic material stability, pH,
Microbial resistance, Cl2 attack, etc.
•Surface anti-fouling properties
(Phtalates, cellulose acetate, Chlorine in water, NaOH in
cleaning,
IInitial
iti l fluxes
fl reduction,
d ti suspended
d d materials
t i l andd
precipitants (CaCO3, CaSO4, SiO2, CaF2, SrSO4, BaSO4,
RDL GWRI Technion
etc.)
Expensive product, 50/50 mm. A tool for production of the cheapest
product on Earth, 5-6 m2

The RO cellulose acetate asymmetric membrane developed Loeb-Sourirajan in


the middle 60. The thickness of the active layer is reduced since while
improvement of surface properties.

12
Spiral Wound
Membranes
membranes thickness-
200 nm and down
down.
Holes size and size
distribution,, membrane
properties

RDL
13 GWRI Technion
Bio-Fouling

14
RDL GWRI Technion
Man made polluted waters: Industrial, agriculture and urban effluents

Modern Sewage Treatment


Straining

Secondary
treatment
Sludge/ solids
treatment
Adsorption

Micro/Ultra- Energy Compost


MBR Filtration

Reverse-Osmosis Polishing
Concentrate disposal
15 or Nano-Filtration
RDL GWRI Technion
16 RDL GWRI Technion
Prof. Moris eizen

17
Performance of new membranes

Rejection of CaCl2 0.1% by different membranes


50

40
ejection (%)

30

20
Re

10

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
membrane type

18
Module view and sampling

Prof Carlos Dozoretz


Prof. Carlos Dozoretz

3 2 1

7 6 5 4

11 10 9 8

15 14 13 12

18 17 16

19
Energy usage in Desalination ‐ comparison
Subject \ Fuel
Subject  \  Fuel Gas Gasoil Heavy fuel
Heavy fuel Coal
Caloric value Kcal/Kg fuel 9000 10750 10000 7700
Caloric Value Kwht/Kg fuel 10.5 12.5 11.6 9
Electricity production (45% eff.)
Electricity production  (45% eff.) 
Kwhe/Kg fuel large Power station 4.7 5.6 5.2 4
Electricity production (80% eff.) 
High efficiency gas turbine
High efficiency gas turbine 
Kwh/Kg fuel 8.4
Capacity ‐ Seawater Desal (50% 
Recovery) m3/ kg fuel
Recovery) m3/ kg fuel 1.3
1 3 16
1.6 15
1.5 12
1.2
80% efficiency 2.4
Fuel consumption/ ton 
Desalinated water Kg fuel /m3
Desalinated  water Kg fuel /m3 0.7
0 7 06
0.6 07
0.7 09
0.9
80% efficiency 0.4
How many km can I drive with 1 
m3 Desal water fuel consumption?
m3 Desal water fuel consumption? 27
2‐7   2‐6
26
How many hours of AC ‐ single 
room (2.5 Kw‐h) can I operate? 1.4
Household Energy Consumption
Electricity, transportation and desalinated water…
A small family, consumes water at a rate of 18 m3/month, 
1200 KWh f l
1200 KWh of electricity /month, Drives 1500 km/month, consumes 
i i / h Di 1500 k / h
160 liter gasoil/month
Energy consumption assuming only desalinated seawater used ‐
140 KWh/
140 KWh/month (fuel value)
th (f l l )
Energy consumption ‐ driving a car ‐ 1500 KWh/month (fuel value)
Energy consumption ‐ electricity ‐ 1200/0.45=2667 KWh/month 
(f l l )
(fuel value)

Energy for desalination/ energy for transportation ‐
gy gy p 9.3%
Energy for desalination/ energy for electricity ‐ 2.6%
Energy for desalination/ total energy consumption ‐ 3.4%
Can we save 3 4% in our household energy consumption?
Can we save 3.4% in our household energy consumption?
Where we should put our energy for use? In water? In high energy 
consuming cars? In overused  AC? 
Desalination and proper water usage
p p g
Other costs should be included 
besides Energy
besides Energy
• Cost of water in negligible for regular household
• Cost of water is tolerable for most industries
• Cost of water is significant in agriculture
Cost of water is significant in agriculture
Make better usage of water:
– Use of greenhouses
Use of greenhouses
– Use Drip‐Irrigation – save 30‐90% of water 
consumption by other irrigation techniques – reduce 
consumption by other irrigation techniques  reduce
the cost problem
Pushing the Limits of Desalination
R d ti off RO d
Reduction desalination
li ti process costs
t
Main directions for reducing desalination costs
M b
Membrane improvement
i
Permeability, rejection, resistance to fouling
Concentration polarization - Flow
Improvement of membrane modules
Foulingg and scalinggpprevention
Optimization of the water recovery level
The boron problem
Pretreatment – MF, UF etc.
Energy aspects
Concentrates - Environmental
23
Process optimization RDL GWRI Technion