Power losses are major problem in present Power System. It increases rapidly in day by day. Flexible Alternative Controllers in Power Systems (FACTS) are used to solve various active and reactive power problems. Flexible Alternative Controllers in Power System provides regulate power flow in critical lines. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) is the fast advancement in thyristor devices and associated switching control technology, the Capacitance of the series capacitance bank can be controlled much more effectively. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a heuristic global optimization method and also an optimization algorithm, which is based on swarm intelligence. This paper presents in Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) compared with genetic algorithm. The suggested algorithm has been applied to IEEE-30 bus system.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

2 tayangan

Power losses are major problem in present Power System. It increases rapidly in day by day. Flexible Alternative Controllers in Power Systems (FACTS) are used to solve various active and reactive power problems. Flexible Alternative Controllers in Power System provides regulate power flow in critical lines. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) is the fast advancement in thyristor devices and associated switching control technology, the Capacitance of the series capacitance bank can be controlled much more effectively. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a heuristic global optimization method and also an optimization algorithm, which is based on swarm intelligence. This paper presents in Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) compared with genetic algorithm. The suggested algorithm has been applied to IEEE-30 bus system.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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ISSN(E): 2321-8843; ISSN(P): 2347-4599

Vol. 1, Issue 7, Dec 2013, 15-22

Impact Journals

REDUCE THE POWER SYSTEM LOSSES BY THE PLACEMENT OF TCSC USING

PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION

RAMPRASAD KANNEMADUGU

1

& A. LAKSHMI DEVI

2

1

Research Scholar, Department of EEE, SV University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India

2

Department of EEE, SV University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT

Power losses are major problem in present Power System. It increases rapidly in day by day. Flexible Alternative

Controllers in Power Systems (FACTS) are used to solve various active and reactive power problems. Flexible Alternative

Controllers in Power System provides regulate power flow in critical lines. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC)

is the fast advancement in thyristor devices and associated switching control technology, the Capacitance of the series

capacitance bank can be controlled much more effectively. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a heuristic global

optimization method and also an optimization algorithm, which is based on swarm intelligence. This paper presents in

Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) compared with genetic algorithm. The suggested algorithm has been applied to

IEEE-30 bus system.

KEYWORDS: Flexible Alternative Controllers in Power Systems (FACTS), Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm

Optimization (PSO), Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC), Power System Stability

INTRODUCTION

The number of transmission networks increased day by day. It affects complexity to maintain the stability of the

Power Systems. Conventional planning and operating methods can leave systems showing to instability. Voltage instability

occurrence is major blackout. Power flow shows different variations. To control the power flow appropriate to have

reliable, secure system is in the interest of the transmission system operator (TSO). To overcome this condition, FACTS

devices are introduced.

FACTS devices can be effectively used for power flow control, enhancement of transient stability and mitigation

of the system oscillation by giving additional flexibility, FACTS controllers can enable a line to carry power closer to its

thermal rating. It employs high speed thyristors for switching in or out transmission line components such as capacitors,

reactors or phase shifting transformer for some desirable performance of the systems. [3] Thyristor controlled series

capacitor (TCSC) is the one of the family member of FACTS controllers. It acts as the capacitive or inductive compensator

by the modifying reactance of the transmission line.

Genetic Algorithm (GA) is a family of computational models inspired by evolution. It is the population based

model that uses selection and recombination operators to generate new sample points in a search space. Particle Swarm

Optimization (PSO) technique is used to solve various optimization problems in Power Systems. In Particle Swarm

Optimization (PSO) is developed from swarm intelligence and is based on the research of bird and fish flock movement

behaviour. PSO is used to find out the best particle (solution) of the system.

Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization techniques are similarity study of each other. GA is the

selected from population and PSO is the selected from the overall best particle (solution). Compare to GA, PSO is some

initial parameters are adjusted.

16 Ramprasad Kannemadugu & A. Lakshmi Devi

MODELLING OF TCSC

Thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) is an important device in the FACTS family. It consists of a fixed

capacitor in parallel with a thyristor controlled reactor. It acts as the capacitive or inductive compensator by modifying

reactance of transmission line. Figure 1 shows the single line diagram of a TCSC.

Figure 1: Basic Diagram of a TCSC

In this paper TCSC is modelled by changing transmission line reactance below:

X

]

= X

Inc

+ X

1CSC

(1)

X

1CSC

= r

1CSC

. X

Inc

(2)

Where X

Inc

is reactance of transmission line and r

1CSC

is compensation factor of TCSC. TCSC reactance is

chosen between -0.7X

Inc

to 0.2X

Inc

.

Figure 2: Equivalent Circuit of TCSC

In a practical TCSC implementation, several such basic compensators may be connected in series to obtain the

desired voltage rating and operating characteristics. This arrangement is similar in structure to the TSSC and, if the

impedance of the reactor, X1, is sufficiently smaller than that of the capacitor, Xc, it can be operated in an on/off manner

like the TSSC. However, the basic idea behind the TCSC scheme is to provide a continuously variable capacitor by means

of partially cancelling the effective compensating capacitance by the TCR.

POWER SYSTEM STABILITY

Stability is the ability of the system to develop restoring forces equal to or more than the disturbing forces and

remaining original stage when subjected to the disturbance. At any point of time, a power system operating condition

should be stable, meeting various operational criteria, and it should also be secure in the event of any credible contingency.

Voltage Stability (PV Curve)

This is one of the widely used methods of voltage stability analysis. This gives the available amount of active

power margin before the point of voltage instability. In this method Real power transfer through a transmission interface or

interconnection also can be studied.

Reduce the Power System Losses by the Placement of TCSC Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Figure

GENETIC ALGORITHM (GA)

Genetic algorithms are a family of computational models inspired by evolution.

is inspired by Darwin's theory of evolution.

which genetic algorithms have been applied is quite broad. An implementation of a genetic algorithm begins with a

population of chromosomes. Genetic algorithm operates using genetic operators (i.e. selection,

Selection

In proposed GA, method of tournament selection is used for selection. This method chooses each parent by

choosing n

t

(tournament size) players randomly and choosing the best individual out of that set to be a parent. In

n

t

is chosen n

t

= 4.

Crossover (Recombination)

After the selection, we go for crossover. Crossover point will be chosen for each pair

crossover point will be exchanged between the two individual of each pair.

Mutation

The last step is the mutation, with the sense of adding some effect of exploration of the phase

algorithm. To implementation of Mutation is compared to other modules

probability P to get inverted.

Algorithm for Genetic Algorithm

[Start] Generate random population of

[Fitness] Evaluate the fitness f(x)

[New Population] Create a new population by repeating following steps until the new population is complete

o [Selection] Select two parent chromosomes from a population according to their fitness

(the better fitness, the bigger chance to be select

o [Crossover] With a crossover probability cross over the parents to form a new offspring (children).

If no crossover was performed, offspring is an exact copy of parents.

o [Mutation] With a mutation probability mutate new offspring at each lo

o [Accepting] Place new offspring in a new population

Reduce the Power System Losses by the Placement of TCSC Using Particle Swarm Optimization

3: Normalized P-V Curves for 2-Bus Test System

Genetic algorithms are a family of computational models inspired by evolution. GA of evolutionary computation

is inspired by Darwin's theory of evolution. It is often viewed as function optimizers, although the range of problems to

which genetic algorithms have been applied is quite broad. An implementation of a genetic algorithm begins with a

population of chromosomes. Genetic algorithm operates using genetic operators (i.e. selection,

In proposed GA, method of tournament selection is used for selection. This method chooses each parent by

(tournament size) players randomly and choosing the best individual out of that set to be a parent. In

After the selection, we go for crossover. Crossover point will be chosen for each pair

crossover point will be exchanged between the two individual of each pair.

The last step is the mutation, with the sense of adding some effect of exploration of the phase

algorithm. To implementation of Mutation is compared to other modules-fairly trivial. Each bit in every gene has a defined

Generate random population of n chromosomes (suitable solutions for the problem)

f(x) of each chromosome x in the population

Create a new population by repeating following steps until the new population is complete

Select two parent chromosomes from a population according to their fitness

(the better fitness, the bigger chance to be selected)

With a crossover probability cross over the parents to form a new offspring (children).

If no crossover was performed, offspring is an exact copy of parents.

With a mutation probability mutate new offspring at each locus (position in chromosome).

Place new offspring in a new population

17

GA of evolutionary computation

optimizers, although the range of problems to

which genetic algorithms have been applied is quite broad. An implementation of a genetic algorithm begins with a

population of chromosomes. Genetic algorithm operates using genetic operators (i.e. selection, crossover and mutation).

In proposed GA, method of tournament selection is used for selection. This method chooses each parent by

(tournament size) players randomly and choosing the best individual out of that set to be a parent. In this paper

After the selection, we go for crossover. Crossover point will be chosen for each pair. The information after the

The last step is the mutation, with the sense of adding some effect of exploration of the phase-space to the

fairly trivial. Each bit in every gene has a defined

chromosomes (suitable solutions for the problem)

Create a new population by repeating following steps until the new population is complete

Select two parent chromosomes from a population according to their fitness

With a crossover probability cross over the parents to form a new offspring (children).

cus (position in chromosome).

18 Ramprasad Kannemadugu & A. Lakshmi Devi

[Replace] Use new generated population for a further run of algorithm

[Test] If the end condition is satisfied, stop, and return the best solution in current population

[Loop] Go to step 2

PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION (PSO)

Particle Swarm Optimization(PSO) is a population-based stochastic approach for solving continuous and discrete

optimization problems. In particle swarm optimization, simple software agents, called particles, move in the search space

of an optimization problem. The position of a particle represents a candidate solution to the optimization problem at hand.

Each particle searches for better positions in the search space by changing its velocity according to rules originally inspired

by behavioural models of bird flocking.

Each particle is treated as a point in a D dimensional space.

The i

th

particle is represented as

X

= (X

1

, X

2

, . . X

d

)

The best previous position of the i

th

particle is recorded and represented as

P

bcst

= (P

bcst1,

P

bcst2

, P

bcstd

)

The index of the best particle among the entire particle in the population is represented by the symbol g

bcst d

.

The rate of the position change (velocity) for the particle is represented as

I

= (I

1

, I

2

, I

d

)

After the search procedure for the P

best id

and g

best id

the modified velocity and position of each particle can be

calculated using the current velocity and the distance from P

bcstd

to g

bcstd

as shown in the following equation.

I

|d

(t +1) = w - I

d

(t) + C

1

- ronJ( ) - (P

bcst d

- X

d

(t)) + C

2

- ronJ( ) - (g

bcst d

- X

d

(t)) (3)

Where

i = 1, 2, 3n

d = 1, 2, 3.m

n: number of particles

m: solutions dimensions i.e., the number of control variables

I

d

(t): Current velocity of the i at iteration t

I

d

(t + 1): modified velocity of particle i

Rand: random number between 0 and 1

X

d

(t): Current position of particle i at iteration t

P

bcst d

: P

bcst

of particle i

g

bcst d

: g

bcst

of particle i

W: weight function for velocity of particle i

Reduce the Power System Losses by the Placement of TCSC Using Particle Swarm Optimization 19

C

Algorithm for Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)

The following PSO algorithm is used to obtain the optimal location of TCSC for loss minimization.

Step 1: Initial searching points and velocities are randomly generated within their limits.

Step 2: P

best

is set to each initial searching points. The best evaluated values among the P

best

are set to g

best

.

Step 3: New velocities are calculated using equation (5)

Step 4: If I

d

(t +1) < I

dmn

Then I

d

(t+1) = I

dmn

and if I

d

(t + 1) > I

dmux

Then I

d

(t +1) = I

dmux

Step 5: New searching points are calculated using equation (7)

Step 6: Check the capacity limits constraints

If P

d

(t +1) > P

dmux

Then P

d

(t + 1) = P

dmux

and if P

d

(t + 1) < P

dmn

Then P

d

(t + 1) = P

dmn

Step 7: Evaluate the fitness value for new searching point. If evaluated value of each agent is better than previous P

bcst

then set to P

bcst

if the best P

bcst

is better than g

bcst

then set to g

bcst

Step 8: If the maximum iteration is reached stop the process otherwise go to step 3.

Figure 4: Concept of Modification Searching Points in PSO

RESULTS

Simulation studies were done for different scenarios in IEEE 30 bus power system.

Scenario 1: Power system normal operation (without FACTS devices installation).

Scenario 2: TCSC-GA operation

Scenario 3: TCSC-PSO operation

The first scenario is normal operation of network without installation any device. In second TCSC-GA was

installed. And finally TCSC-PSO was installed.

20 Ramprasad Kannemadugu & A. Lakshmi Devi

Figure 5: Real Power Losses with and without TCSC

Figure 6: Voltage Profile with and without Placement UPFC

CONCLUSIONS

In this paper, performance of transmission system with TCSC device is studied using Particle Swarm

Optimization (PSO) and Genetic Algorithm (GA). It is concluded that with PSO the performance studies in terms of

voltage profile and power loss are more accurate compared with GA. Using PSO accurate results can be obtained.

Case Study was conducted on IEEE-30 bus system.

REFERENCES

1. K.R. Padiyar, FACTS Controllers in Power Transmission and Distribution Copyright 2007, New Age

International (P) Ltd., Publishers.

2. N.G. Hingorani, and L. Gyugyi, Understand FACTS: Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission

Systems, IEEE Press, New-York, 2000.

Reduce the Power System Losses by the Placement of TCSC Using Particle Swarm Optimization 21

3. D P Kothari, and I J Nagrath, Modern Power System Analysis 4

th

edition, TATA McGraw Hill Education

Private Limited, New Delhi.

4. Qinghai Bai, Analysis of Particle Swarm Optimization Computer and Information Science vol.3, No.1,

February 2010.

5. H.R. Baghaee, B. Vahidi, Improvement of Voltage Stability and Reduce Power System Losses by Optimal

GA-based Allocation of Multi-type FACTS Devices Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment,

2008. OPTIM 2008. 11th International Conference on 22-24 May 2008.

6. MD. Narimul Islam Maruf, A.S.M. Mahsin, STUDY OF THYRISTOR CONTROLLEDSERIES CAPACITOR

(TCSC) AS AUSEFUL FACTS DEVICE International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology

Vol. 2(9), 2010, 4357-4360.

7. J. Vivekananthan1, R. Karthick2, Voltage Stability Improvement and Reduce Power System Losses by Bacterial

Foraging Optimization Based Location of Facts Devices, International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ)

Vol. 4 (2013) No. 1, pp. 1034-1040 ISSN 2078-2365.

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