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Introduction Introduction

Argumentation Argumentation
Argumentation dialogue systems Argumentation dialogue systems
Summary Summary

Where are we?


Agent-Based Systems
Semester 2, 2008-09
Last time . . .
Michael Rovatsos ◮ Mechanism design & automated negotiation
mrovatso@inf.ed.ac.uk ◮ Protocols for reaching agreement
◮ Properties of such protocols
◮ Auction protocols and their properties
◮ Automated negotiation
Today . . .
Lecture 4 – Deductive Reasoning Agents ◮ Argumentation in Multiagent Systems
22nd January 2009

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Introduction Introduction
Argumentation Argumentation
Logic-based argumentation Logic-based argumentation
Argumentation dialogue systems Argumentation dialogue systems
Summary Summary

Game-theoretic negotiation – Limitations Different modes of argument


◮ Game-theoretic negotiation has its advantages
◮ But also some problems
◮ Positions cannot be justified 1. Logical mode (deductive, proof-like, concerned with making
◮ It is often not clear why agreement was reached correct inferences)
◮ Hard to explain to human user how they got best deal
◮ With a better understanding, the other might make more useful
2. Emotional mode (appeals to feelings, attitudes, etc.)
concessions 3. Visceral mode (physical, social aspects)
◮ Positions cannot be changed 4. Kisceral mode (appeals to the intuitive, mystical or religious)
◮ Utilities don’t change as we negotiate ◮ Different types are used in different situations (e.g. logical mode
◮ We cannot model belief change with new information
(hopefully) in courts of law)
◮ In case of irrational behaviour, no methods for recovery
◮ Limitations give rise to argumentation-based negotiation
(exchange of propositions to convince other of truth or falsity of
certain facts)
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Introduction Introduction
Argumentation Argumentation
Logic-based argumentation Logic-based argumentation
Argumentation dialogue systems Argumentation dialogue systems
Summary Summary

Logic-based argumentation Logic-based argumentation


◮ “Purest”, most rational kind of argument: in classical logic,
argument = sequence of inferences leading to a conclusion ◮ Database provides agreed common ground
◮ Write ∆ ⊢ ϕ to denote that sequence of inference steps from ◮ Agents make arguments of the form hSentence, Groundsi in
premises ∆ will allow us to establish proposition ϕ support of Sentence
◮ Example argument: ∆ ⊢ mortal (Socrates) where ◮ Formal model: let ∆ a database, set of all arguments A(∆)
∆ = {human(Socrates), contains pairs Arg = hϕ, Γi, Γ ⊆ ∆ are grounds/support for
human(X ) ⇒ mortal(X )} argument Γ ⊢ ϕ
◮ Idea: establish whether or not a set of arguments are in favour of
◮ Consider arguments of the form Database ⊢ hSentence, Groundsi some proposition
where ◮ Two important classes of arguments:
◮ Database is a possibly inconsistent set of logical formulae ◮ Non-trivial arguments: hϕ, Γi where Γ consistent
◮ Sentence is a logical formula (the conclusion) ◮ Tautological arguments: hϕ, Γi where Γ = ∅
◮ Grounds is a set of logical formulae with Grounds ⊆ Database and
Grounds ⊢ Sentence
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Introduction Introduction
Argumentation Argumentation
Logic-based argumentation Logic-based argumentation
Argumentation dialogue systems Argumentation dialogue systems
Summary Summary

Logic-based argumentation Logic-based argumentation


◮ ϕ attacks ψ iff ϕ ≡ ¬ψ ◮ Define argument
◮ hϕ1 , Γ1 i rebuts hϕ2 , Γ2 i if ϕ1 attacks ϕ2 Arg1 = hmortal(Heracles), {human(Heracles), human(X ) ⇒ mortal(X )}i
◮ hϕ1 , Γ1 i undercuts hϕ2 , Γ2 i if ϕ1 attacks some ψ ∈ Γ2
◮ Rebutting argument for Arg1
◮ hϕ1 , Γ1 i defeats hϕ2 , Γ2 i if it undercuts or rebuts it
◮ Example: Arg2 = h¬mortal(Heracles), {father (Heracles, Zeus),
human(Hercules) father (X , Zeus) ⇒ divine(X ), divine(X ) ⇒ ¬mortal(X )}i
father (Heracles, Zeus) ◮ Arg2 undercut by
father (Apollo, Zeus)
divine(X ) ⇒ ¬mortal(X ) Arg3 = h¬(father (X , Zeus) ⇒ divine(X )), {¬(father (X , Zeus) ⇒ divine(X ))}i
father (X , Zeus) ⇒ divine(X ) ◮ Next, we define an ordering on “power” of arguments
¬(father (X , Zeus) ⇒ divine(X )) ◮ For example, if ∆ = {p ⇒ q, p}, hp ∨ ¬p, ∅i is intuitively stronger
than hq, {p ⇒ q, p}i
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Introduction Introduction
Argumentation Argumentation
Logic-based argumentation Logic-based argumentation
Argumentation dialogue systems Argumentation dialogue systems
Summary Summary

Logic-based argumentation Logic-based argumentation

◮ We can identify five classes of argument type in order of increasing


acceptability ◮ In the above examples, Arg1 and Arg2 are mutually rebutting and
◮ A1: The class of all arguments that can be constructed from ∆ thus in A2
◮ A2: The class of all non-trivial arguments that can be constructed
◮ hdivine(Heracles) ∨ ¬divine(Heracles), ∅i is in A5
from ∆ ◮ h¬mortal (apollo), {father (apollo, Zeus), father (X , Zeus) ⇒
◮ A3: The class of all arguments that can be constructed from ∆ divine(X ), divine(X ) ⇒ ¬mortal (X )}i is in A4 (if we assume that
with no rebutting arguments no undercutting arguments are allowed that can be attacked
◮ A4: The class of all arguments that can be constructed from ∆
◮ This model is widely used in argumentation-based systems
with no undercutting arguments ◮ Idea: convince the other agent to carry out some task for you by
◮ A5: The class of all tautological arguments that can be arguing for him actually intending to carry it out
constructed from ∆

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Introduction Introduction
Argumentation Abstract argumentation Argumentation Abstract argumentation
Argumentation dialogue systems Implemented argumentation agents Argumentation dialogue systems Implemented argumentation agents
Summary Summary

Argumentation dialogue systems Types of dialogue


◮ Now we turn to defining argumentation dialogues in which agents
try to win an argument Typology due to Walton and Krabbe (1995):
◮ Call agents 0 and 1, assume following structure:
◮ Agent 0 attempts to convince 1 of some argument
◮ Agent 1 attempts to rebut or undercut it Type Initial situation Main goal Participants’ aim
Persuasion conflict of opinion resolve the issue persuade other
◮ Agent 0 in turn attempts to defeat 1’s argument
Negotiation conflict of interest make a deal get best deal
◮ And so on . . .
Inquiry general ignorance growth of knowledge find a proof
◮ Moves hPlayer , Arg i are steps in such a dialogue, Player ∈ {0, 1}, Deliberation need for action reach a decision influence outcome
Arg ∈ A(∆) Information personal ignorance spread knowledge gain or pass on
seeking knowledge
◮ A sequence hm0 , . . . mk i is a dialogue history if Eristics conflict/antagonism reaching accommoda- strike other party
◮ Player2i = 0, Player2i +1 for all i ≥ 0 tion
◮ Argi +2 6= Argi , Argi +1 defeats Argi for all i ≥ 0
◮ A dialogue ends if no further moves are possible, the winner is
Playerk
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Introduction Introduction
Argumentation Abstract argumentation Argumentation Abstract argumentation
Argumentation dialogue systems Implemented argumentation agents Argumentation dialogue systems Implemented argumentation agents
Summary Summary

Abstract argumentation Abstract argumentation

◮ There is a more abstract way of looking at argumentation ◮ Question: when is an argument “safe” (i.e. acceptable)?
◮ Discard logical content of arguments and look just at relationships ◮ We discuss one way of modelling this
between them (Dung, 1995) ◮ x is attacked by a set of arguments Y ⊆ X if ∃y ∈ Y .y → x
◮ An abstract argumentation system A = hX , →i is defined by
◮ x is acceptable (“in”) wrt Y ⊆ X if every attacker of x (in X ) is
◮ a set of arguments X (just a collection of objects),
◮ →⊆ X × X a binary attack relation on arguments also attacked by Y
◮ We write x → y as shorthand for (x, y ) ∈→ (“argument x attacks
◮ Y ⊆ X is conflict-free if no argument in Y attacks some other
argument y ”) argument in Y
◮ We are not concerned with content of arguments or origin of
◮ Y is admissible if it is conflict-free and each argument in Y is
“attack” relationship acceptable with respect to Y

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Introduction Introduction
Argumentation Abstract argumentation Argumentation Abstract argumentation
Argumentation dialogue systems Implemented argumentation agents Argumentation dialogue systems Implemented argumentation agents
Summary Summary

Example Example

◮ Abstract argumentation example


c m
◮ Argument h has no attackers “in”
d ◮ Because of this, a is not acceptable “out”
a g
k l ◮ For same reason p is out
j
b ◮ p only attacker of q, thus q is “in”
i
◮ As concerns i and j, at least one of them must be in
e
◮ Both attack n, so n has one undefeated attacker “out”
n p
f
h q

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Introduction Introduction
Argumentation Abstract argumentation Argumentation Abstract argumentation
Argumentation dialogue systems Implemented argumentation agents Argumentation dialogue systems Implemented argumentation agents
Summary Summary

Implemented argumentation agents Implemented argumentation agents

◮ Example: PERSUADER system for labour negotiation domain PERSUADER belief structure example (company perspective):
◮ Agents: labour union, company, mediator profits(+)
◮ Purpose: to reach agreement by exchanging proposals and
counter-proposals production cost(−) sales(+)
◮ Agents model each other’s beliefs
quality (+) prices (−)
◮ Example argument: If the company is forced to grant higher wage plant efficiency (+) materials cost(−) labour cost (−)

increases, then it will decrease employment


employee satisfaction (+) employment (−) economic concessions (−)
◮ Argument types (in order of increasing “severity”)
◮ appeal to universal principle, appeal to a theme, appeal to economic concessions (+) uneconomic concessions (+) automation (+) subcontract (+) wages(−) fringes(−)

authority, appeal to “status quo”, appeal to “minor standards”,


wages(+)
appeal to “prevailing practice”, appeal to precedents as
counter-examples, threaten

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Introduction
Argumentation
Argumentation dialogue systems
Summary

Summary

◮ Argumentation: a richer form of negotiation


◮ Logic-based negotiation: attacks, defeats
◮ Strengths of arguments
◮ Abstract argumentation systems
◮ (Implemented) argumentation dialogue systems
◮ Next time: Cooperative Distributed Problem Solving

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