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Another world
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882 3 1924 031 255


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the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924031255882

ANOTHER WORLD;
OR,

THE FOURTH DIMENSION.

A. T.

SCHOFIELD,

M.D.

ol St KaTaitudei/res toS atwyot iKetroy nocew.'

THIRD

EDITION

SWAN SONNENSCHEIN &


25

CO., LIM.

HIGH STREET, BLOOMSBURV


190S

First Edition,

/<;, 1888 Second Edition, May, Third Edition, August, 1905.


;

1897;

To

PROFESSOR

J.

H.

GLADSTONE,

Ph.Di, F.R.S., F.G.S., Etc., ETa

IN GRATEFUL RECOGNITION

OF VALUED HELP,
THIS BOOK
IS

DEDICATED

BY

THE AUTHOR.

ANOTHER WORLD;
OR,

THE FOURTH DIMENSION.

INTRODUCTORY.
It
is

undoubtedly the cherished belief of the

vast majority of mankind,


Christian,

whether they be
or Heathen,

Mohammedan, Hindoo,

whether they be savage or

civilized, in
is

every

quarter of the globe, that there

another world

besides the material universe in which

we

live.

All unite in considering that world to be

a higher sphere than


to

ours,

and

its

inhabitants

be more or

less spiritual beings.

It is also generally

believed that the beings

of that spirit world

can

and do

visit

ours,

The Fourth Dimension


manifesting themselves in a
shape.

human

or animal

When we

come, however, to further details

of this higher world,

we have every

diversity

of belief and superstition.

The
found

only account and description of

it

to

which we, as Christians, attach any credence,


is

in the Bible,

a book which
rulers,

we

regard

as a revelation
laws, given to

of

its

inhabitants,

and

man by

the supreme Ruler, not

only of the spiritual, but of our material world,

God.
In our

own

persons

we

get

confirmation

of the existence of a higher sphere, in being


able

consciously to distinguish between

our

spiritual, intellectual,

and moral selves and our

bodies and brains, through which

we

act

and

by which we

live.

Materialists will,

we know, have none

of
is,

this.

To

them,

if

true to their creed, there

and

can be, nothing beyond the material.

Mind,

Introductory.

morals,

feelings,

passions,

are to

them only
cells,

protoplasmic changes of ganglion nerve

producing carbonic acid gas and water.

To them

the almost universal consensus of

opinion in favour of a spirit world goes for


nothing, unless such a world can be
strated, handled,

demon-

and weighed.
propose, in the following pages

We therefore

to discuss from a

somewhat new point of view

the question of the existence of such a world,

what are

its

powers,

its

laws,

and
in

its

relationso,

ship, with this universe,

and

doing

will

observe

how far

these powers and laws, deduced


to

by analogy from mathematics, correspond

the spiritual claims of the Christian religion.


I

would here take the opportunity of acknow-

ledging

my

deep indebtedness to the anonysmall book, called "Flatland,"

mous author of a
which
I

have used extensively throughout, and


I

without which

am

quite sure the public

would

never have been troubled with these remarks

The Fourth Dimension.

my
me

object being to carry on the line of arguto

ment there brought forward,


its

what seems

to

true

and necessary conclusion.

Finally, let

me
and

ask the indulgence of


for

my
the

more advanced mathematical readers

many
less

fallacies

" non-sequiturs " that

doubt-

abound, in spite of

my
to

true endeavours

simply

and

impartially
logical
facts
I

draw

none
from

but
the

legitimate

and

conclusions

arguments and

have advanced.

PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION.


Many speculations concerning the fourth dimension have been made since this book was first issued, notably that by Mr. Wells that it is " Time." But no theory carries conviction, and indeed the whole is a speculation, the interest however of which remains untouched in the
close parallel afforded

true of a fourth dimension

between what would be and all that is written


world.
edition.

or

additions have been

known concerning the spirit made in this


A. T,
Harley Street, W.,
August, 1905.

few

SCHOFIELD.

CHAPTER

I.

THE LAND OF NO DIMENSIONS.

We

are

all

so

habituated

to

take

visible

realities

around us as a matter of course, and


solid

so accustomed to every variety of


material form, that

or

why

all

the universe should


is

be limited

to solidity, or three dimensions,

only asked at rare intervals by a few of the

more thoughtful among

us.

To make

this

plain.
will

Even

those unacif

customed to algebra

understand that

represents three inches, or a line of this length,


sf

{x square) represents
flat surface,

3x3, or nine square

inches on a

three inches each

way

x^ (x cube), again, represents 3 x 3 x 3, or twentyseven cubic or solid inches, or a solid body

measuring three inches every way.

Hence we

The Fourth Dimension.


consider
x? solids,

as

representing lines,

squares,

and then comes the question, What

does x^ represent? for mathematics passes as


easily

from x^ to x^ as from x? to
xf, x^, refer to

x^,

and yet
to all of

while X,

objects

known

us, the wisest

can form no possible conception


is

of what X*, or a world of four dimensions,


like.

Perhaps,

however,

before

disturbing

our

minds, and entering seriously upon the question


as to whether there can be

and

is

any object

or world represented by

x*,

and whether or no
reader will not be

we

can comprehend
if,

it,

my

offended

for the benefit of those less learned


I

than himself,

labour in the simplest language

further to explain these various dimensions.

To
which

begin

No dimension,

or size in no direc-

tion, is

represented mathematically by a point,


is

an object described as having no parts


:

or magnitude, thus

or size in one direction.

One dimension

{x),

The Land of
is

No

Dimensions.

represented

mathematically by a straight

line,

which

is

described as having length with:

out breadth, thus

{xf),

Two
is

dimensions

or size in two directions,

represented mathematically by a superficies


is

or surface, which

described

,as

having length
:

and breadth without

thickness, thus

Three dimensions {x% or


tions, is

size in three direc-

represented mathematically by a solid


is

body,

which

described

as

having

length,

breadth, and thickness, thus

The Fourth Dimension.

Four dimensions

(ar),

or size in four direclions,

we cannot

represent mathematically,
its

nor can

we

describe in what direction


lies,

fourth dimenit

sion

nor can

we

draw, or even imagine

the fact being that the whole material world

which we can
is

see,

and of which we can speak,

a world of three dimensions (or x^) and no


is it

more, nor

possible for the

mind of man

to

indicate or imagine

any other direction than

three

length,
this

breadth, and height (or depth


etc.).
it

or thickness,

On

account

is

that so

many have

denied the possibility of there being anything


higher than a
this
solid.

To show
we
will

the fallacy of
consider

argument,

then,

the

imaginary case of an inhabitant of a country

where nothing but perfectly

flat

objects exist,

when an endeavour
our

is

made
;

to explain to

him

own world

of solids

and by putting our-

selves in his place, and carefully observing the


difficulty he,

accustomed only to x' or

flatness,

The Land of
would have
in

No

Dimensions.

grasping

x^,

or solidity, which

nevertheless exists,
that the difficulty

we may

understand better

we

in x^, or solidity,

have

in

our turn of grasping


is

x^,

or the fourth dimension,

no argument whatever against the existence

of such a world.
First of
still
all,

however,

we

will

consider the

lower conditions of no dimensions and of

one dimension.

Imagine, then, a world or universe consisting


entirely

and absolutely of a single point, a


which
therefore

country

possesses

neither

length, breadth, depth,


(if

nor height.
in

Imagine

you can) the sole being

such a world, and

observe

what

his

experience

would

be,

as

described in " Flatland."


"

He

is

himself

his

own

world, his

own

universe;

of any other than


;

himself he can

form no conception

he knows not length, or

breadth, or height, for he has no experience of


1

"Flatland."

Seeleys.

lo

The Fourth Dimension.


;

them

he has no
;

cognizance

even

of

the
all,

number two

for

he

is

himself one and


his

being really nothing.


self-complacency,
that to ignorant,
to

Yet mark

perfect

and hence learn


is

this lesson,

be self-contented

to
is

be

vile

and
than

and that to

aspire

better

be blindly and impotently happy.

Now
buzzing

listen!

There arose from the


monotonous

little

creature a tiny, low,

tinkling,
'

from
all

which
space, that

caught

these words.
it
fills

It

fills

and what
utters;

it

is,

what
utters,

it thinks

IT

and what

it

that

it

hears,

and

it itself is thinker, utterer, hearer.


all

It

is

the one, and yet the

in all.'"

This

then

gives

us an

idea

of

what a

world would be that


being,
size.

consisted

only of one

and

that

being

having

no

parts

or

Having duly performed


effort of imagination,

this

excruciating
in realizing
is,

and succeeded

what nothing, or

" Pointland,"

really

the

The Land of

No

Dimensions.

exhausted reader had better

pause for

five

minutes before taking the next step higher


into the
sion,

more

interesting world of

one dimen-

or " Lineland,"

CHAPTER

II.

THE LAND OF ONE DIMENSION.

Let now my

faithful

reader,

somewhat

re-

cruited from the study of Chapter L, proceed


to picture a world of one dimension

uni-

verse that consists only of innumerable straight


lines,

long and short,

all

arranged

in

one and

the same interminable straight line


else at
all,

nothing
left,

no deviation to right or
even
existing
to
this

no

right

or

left

linear

world,

still

less

any height or depth.

To
mind
of

duly appreciate and grasp the phenomena of

such a world,
if

it

would greatly

assist the

my

reader were to arrange a


in

number
line,

pencils or matches

one long

end to

end, and

follow the fragments with his eye.

The Land of One Dimension.


Let
not

13

any think
are

that

these

preliminary
in

studies

needless, for

every link

the

chain of analogy must be carefully followed,


if

we
Let

are to reach the important conclusions


at.

we

are here aiming

my

reader, then,

now

retire

into

his

inner consciousness, and proceed

to imagine
said, consist-

a kingdom or world, as we have

ing of an infinite number of inhabitants, each

one being a shorter or longer straight

line,

and
line,

all

arranged
:

in

one and the same straight

thus

If

one end of these creatures or


it

lines

be

furnished with an eye,

is

obvious they will

each see the end of the line next in front of


them, which will be a simple point.

None,

therefore, in this line (or world)

can

ever see anything beyond a point.


line

To

see a

one must obviously be out of the

line (or

the

Land

of
is

One Dimension)

altogether.

If this

not clear, place your eye at the

14

The Fotirth Dimension.


straight line (a needle or knitting
will

end of any
needle),

and you

only see a single point.

Let the mind now proceed to picture a being


of two dimensions, such as a square (illustrating
it

at the

same time by a piece of cardboard),


with an
this

furnished

eye at one of

its

angles,

approaching

world of Lineland (Slide the

cardboard square along the table towards the


long line of pencils or matches,
listen
etc.)
;

and then

to the following

remarks from our un-

known
"
I

author.

The

square speaks.

saw before me a vast multitude of small


lines,
all

straight
fro
in

moving

to

and

one and the same straight


the
largest,
I

line.
it

Ap(Here

proaching

accosted

bring the square close to a match), but re-

ceived no answer.

Losing patience at what


I

appeared to

me

intolerable rudeness,
full

brought
it

my mouth
{Here
line

into a position

in front of

slide

a corner of the square into the


match), and repeated

in front of the

my

The Land of One Dimension.


question.
'

15

What
fro in

signifies

this

monotonous

motion to and
line
?

one and the same straight

*"

am

the
line.

Monarch of the World,'

replied

the small

'But thou, whence intrudes!


?

thou into

my

realm of Lineland
this

"Receiving

abrupt

reply,

begged
ex-

pardon

and

by persevering questions
:

tracted the following facts

"It seems that

this

poor ignorant monarch,

as he calls himself, was fully persuaded that the straight line which he called his kingdom,

and

in

which he passed his existence,

consti-

tuted the whole of the world, and indeed the

whole of space.

Not being

able either to
line,

move
"
first

or see, save in his straight


it

he had

no conception of anything out of

Though he had heard my

voice

when

addressed him, the sound had come to


in

him

a manner so contrary to his

own
'

ex-

perience, that he

had made no answer,

seeing

The Fourth Dimension.


"man,' as
it

no

he expressed

it,

and

'

hearing a

voice, as

were, from his

own
I

inside.'

" Until the


in his world,

moment when

placed

my mouth

he had not seen

me

nor had he

now

the least conception of the region from


I

which
all

had come.
to

Outside his world or line


;

was blank

him

nay, not even a blank,


;

for

a blank implies space

say rather,
with
all

all

was

non-existent.

Such a
all

life,

vision

limited to a point, and


line,
I

motion to a straight

seemed

to

me

inexpressibly dreary, and

was surprised

to note the vivacity

and cheer-

fulness of the king."

Such were the observations of our supposed


living square,
possible,

and such would be the only

life

were the world but one straight

line.

Our

square, however, rejoicing in his

own two
tries

dimensions of breadth as well as length,


to enlighten

the king of Lineland, and pro-

ceeds
"

Thinking that

it

was time

to bring

down

The Land of One Dimension.

17

the monarch from his raptures to the level of

common

sense,

determined to endeavour

to

open up to him some glimpses of the


that
is

truth

to say, of the nature of flat things, or

two dimensions.
"

So

began thus
I

'

Before

entered your
of

kingdom,

noticed
'

that

some

the lines

were larger
"
'

You speak of an
' ;

impossibility,' interrupted
vision, for to

the king

you must have seen a

detect the difference (even) between a line and

a point by the sense of sight


knows,
in

is,

as every one

the nature of
line,

things,

impossible.
to say, the

How
"
'

could you see a

that

is

inside of

any man

?
'

*
let

can discern a line from a point, and

me prove it. Before I came into your kingdom I saw you dancing backwards and for* A line having no breadth, outsides (so to speak)
its

are

its

two extremities, that which


;

lies

between being the


to the

inside of the line

and

this inside is

naked and open

eye of our square in two dimensions, but can never be seen

by a being

in one.

This

will

become

clearer as

we proceed.

The Fourth Dimension.

wards, with seven lines and a dot in front of


you, and eight lines

and a dot behind


tell

you.'

"He then
is

proceeds to

the king that there

another motion possible, besides backwards


;

and forwards
"
^

namely, from
ask,' said

left

to right.
'

Let

me

the

king,

what you
I

mean by
suppose

these words "left" and "right."


it

is

your way of saying northward

(forwards) and southward (backwards).'


"
'

Not

so,'

replied

'

besides your motion


is

of forwards

and backwards, there


I call

another

motion
"
'

which

from
if

left to right.'

Exhibit to me,
left to right.'

you

please, this

motion

from
"
'

Nay, that

cannot do, unless you could

step out of your line altogether.'


"
'

Out

of
?

my
Out

line ?

Do
? I

you mean out of

the world
"
'

of space
shall

Alas

How

make
it

it

clear

When
some

you move straight on, does


occur to

not sometimes
in

you

.that

you could move

The Land of One Dimension.


other

19

way

Instead of always moving in the

direction of

one of your extremities, do you

never

feel

a desire to

move
'

in the direction, so

to speak, of your side "


'

Never

And what do you mean ?


will try

How

can a
"
'

man move
then,

in the direction of his inside ?


I

Well

deeds

will gra-

dually

move
I

out of Lineland in the direction

which
"

desire to indicate to you.'

At

this

word

began

to

move my body

out
re-

of Lineland.

As

long as any part of

me

mained

in

his dominion,
'

and

in his view, the

king kept exclaiming,

see you,'

But when
line,

had

at last
'

moved myself
is

out of his

he

cried,

He

dead.'

(Move card

slowly out of

the straight
'" I

line.)
I; 'I

am

not dead,' replied


is

am

simply out

of Lineland, that
line

to say, out of the straight

which you

call space,
line,

and

at this

moment

can see your


ai-e

or side, or inside, as you

pleased to

call

it.'

20
"

The Fourth Dimension.


But the monarch
replied,
'

If

you were a man

of sense, you would listen to reason.

You ask

me

to believe that there

is

another line beside

that which

my

senses indicate,
I

and another

motion beside that of which


scious.
I,

am

daily conin

in return,

ask you to describe

words, or to indicate by motion, that other line


of which you speak.

Instead of moving, you

merely exercise some magic art of vanishing

and returning to
folly,

sight.

Acknowledge your
dominion.'
I

or depart from

my

"

Furious at his perversity,

retorted,

'

Be-

sotted being,

ypu think yourself the

perfection

of existence, while you are in reality the most


imperfect and imbecile.

You

profess

to
"

see,

whereas you can see nothing but a point'

We

have given these extracts at length,

in

order that the reader

may

fully

grasp what
life,

would be the general conditions of


pects,
sion,

pros-

and and

intelligence in a world of one dimen-

also

the

necessary impossibility of

The Land of One Dimension.


one
in

21

such a world being able to understand


illus-

the existence of another by argument or


tration.

Various other

suggestive analogies

present themselves here, but


discussion until

we

will defer their

we have

the other dimensions

before us, and then consider

them

all

together.

In the next chapter, therefore,

we

will

move a
a world

step higher, and attentively view

life

in

of two dimensions.

CHAPTER

III.

THE LAND OF TWO DIMENSIONS.

We
of

must now again tax the imagination of

our readers, and ask them to picture a country

two dimensions,

where

only

length

and

breadth are known.


aptly calls

This country our author

" Flatland,"

and

in

order to pre-

sent

it

vividly before our readers,

we must

again quote extensively.

Our

old friend, the

animated square, speaks.*


"

Imagine a vast sheet of paper, on which


triangles,

straight lines,
*This chapter

squares,

and
if

circles,

will

be better understood

the reader
etc.,

provides himself with a few squares, 'circles, triangles,


cut out of cardboard, to represent

the inhabitants,

the

country being represented by the top of the table on which


they are laid
;

while a house in Flatland

may be

easily

made by

enclosing a space with bits of cotton.

The Land of Two Dimensions.


instead of remaining fixed in their places,
freely

23

move
like

about on the surface

very

much

shadows

and
my

you

will

have a pretty correct


In

notion of

country and countrymen.


will

such a country you


it

perceive at once that

is

impossible that there should be anything


call

of what you

a solid
'

'

kind, but

daresay
least
see

you

will

suppose that we

could

at

the triangles, squares, and other figures moving,

about as

have

described

them.

On

the contrary, nothing was visible, nor could be


visible to us, except straight lines."

Our
here
:

readers

will

see

the
in

strict

analogy

that just -as

those
not

one

dimension
those
not

could
in

only see points,

lines,

so

two dimensions
If the

can

only
is

see

lines,

squares, etc.
(that
is,

eye

placed on a level
of
its

in the

same world) with the edge


figures,

one of the cardboard

whatever
;

shape, only a straight line will be seen


it

for
it

is

only as

we

rise

above or go below

24
that
is,

The Fourth Dimension.


enter the third dimension

that we see
en-

the shape of the figure.

The

houses in " Flatland," according to our


consist of spaces
left for

author and to reason,


closed

by

lines,

openings being

doors.
is

Of

course the idea of a roof to such houses

necessarily absurd,

there being no space exin

cept in length

and breadth

that world

hence the houses are to our ideas open.


is

There
two

a north, south, east and west

the

first

being equivalent to length and the latter two


to breadth.

Of

course, any being in such a house,

when

the door was shut,


invisible

though inaccessible and

to

any inhabitant of Flatland, could


if

be as easily touched and seen by us


side

out-

the house.

(One of the pieces of cardcircle

board placed inside a


illustrate
this.)

of

thread

will

Such a world,
peopled
with

then, being imagined, thickly


figures

flat

gliding

incessantly

The

Land

of Two Dimensions.

25

to and fro on the surface, or in and out these

spaces surrounded by
houses,

lines,

which they

call

we

will

now

try

and understand the


of

extraordinary

experiences

our

animated

square in Flatland, when, after having tried

and

failed

to

enlighten
is,

the
turn,

king of
instructed

one

dimension,

he

in

his

by

a being from our world


dimensions.

of solids,

or three
:

The

incident occurred thus

"It was the

last

day of the year 1999 of


sons

our

era.

My

four

and
to

two
their

orphan
several

grandchildren

had

retired

apartments, and

my

wife alone remained with

me
"

to

see the old


in.

millennium out and the

new one
I

was wrapt

thought, pondering In
that

my

mind some words

had

casually issued

from the mouth of

my

youngest grandson.

Taking nine
I

squares, each

an inch every way,


to

had put them together so as

form one

largfi

square with a side of three inches, and

26

The Fourth Dimension.


had proved
to

I it

my

grandson

that,

though

was impossible

for us

to see the

inside of

this,

or indeed of any square, yet

we might
in

ascertain the

number of square inches


by squaring
;
'

square, simply

the

number of
said
I,
'

inches

in

the side
3,

and

thus,'

we
is

know

that

or

9,

represents

the

number

of square inches in

a square whose side

three inches long.'

"The
tated
'

little

Hexagon (my grandson) mediawhile,

on

this

and then said

to

me

But you have been teaching


to

me
I

also to raise

numbers

the third power;

suppose

3*

must mean
does
"
'

something
'

in

geometry.

What

it

mean

Nothing

at

all,'

replied

I,

'

not at least
di-

in

geometry; for geometry has only two

mensions.'

And
point,

then

began to show the

boy how a

by moving through a length


line of three inches,
;

of three inches,

makes a

which may be represented by 3

and how

The Land of Two Dimensions.


a
line of three inches,

27

moving

parallel to itself

through a length of three inches, makes a


square of three inches every way, which

may

be represented by
"

3'.

Upon

this

my

grandson, again returning

to his former suggestion, took

me up

rather

suddenly, and exclaimed,


" Well, then,
'

if

a point by moving three

inches

makes a
and
if

line of three inches, represented


line

by

3,

a straight
itself

of three inches

moving

parallel to

makes a square of

three inches every way, represented


it

by

3,

must be that a square of three inches every


parallel

way moving somehow


I

to

itself

(but

don't see
(but
I

how)

must

make a something
of three inches

else

don't see what)

every way,

and

this

must be

represented

by 3V

"

Let the reader observe here how the Hexagon, by reasoning strictly by analogy, thus dis-

covers and describes a cube or solid figure.

28

The Fourth Dimension.

"'Go
sense,
"

to bed,' said
'

I,

little

ruffled

by

his interruption.

If

you would

talk less nonsense.'


in

you would remember more

So my grandson had disappeared


Rousing myself from
'

disI

grace.

my
!

reverie,

exclaimed,
"

The boy
I

is

fool

Straightway

became conscious of a

pre-

sence in the room, and a chilly breath thrilled

through

my

very being.
I

Looking round
I

in re-

every direction,

could see nothing.


exclaiming,
'

sumed my
is

seat again,

The boy

fool, I

say

3'

can have no distinct mean-

ing in geometry.'
"

At once
*

there
is

came a
not a

distinctly
fool,

audible

reply,

The boy

and

3^

has an

obvious geometrical meaning.'


"

My

wife,

as

well

as

myself,

heard the

words, although she did not understand their

meaning

and both of us sprang forward

in

the direction of the sound. horror

What was

our

when we beheld

before us a figure

The

Land of Two
to

Dimensions.

29
I

"My
began

wife retreated

her apartment.

to approach the stranger with

the in-

tention of taking a nearer view.

He

remained

motionless while

walked round him, beginit

ning from his eye, and returning to


Circular he

again.

was throughout
it.

there could not

be a doubt of

Then

followed a dialogue.
if

(The reader
illustrate

will

be much helped
first

he

will

this

by

placing

cardboard

square inside a large

circle of thread,
;

and then

place a ball inside the circle


let

or, better still,

the surface of a basin of water represent

Flatland,

and a

floating circle of thread


its

and

piece of cardboard the house and


ant,

inhabit-

and then a

ball,

half immersed, the visitor

capable
" /.
'

of sinking through or rising out of


will.)

Flatland at

Before your lordship enters into

fur-

ther communication, would he deign to satisfy

the curiosity of one

who would
?

gladly

know

whence

his visitor

came

3
"

The Fourth Dimension.


Stranger.
'

'From

space, sir

whence
is

else

?'

" /.

Pardon me,

my

lord

but

not your

lordship already in space

even

at this

mo-

ment

" Stranger.

'

Pooh

What do you know

of

space
" /.

?
'

Define space.'
Space,

my
'

lord, is length

and breadth,

indefinitely prolonged.'
" Stranger.

Exactly.
is.

You

see you do not


think
it

even know what space


two dimensions only
;

You
I

is

of

but

have come to
as
well as

announce to you a third


breadth and length.'
"/.

height,

'Your lordship

is. pleased

to be meri-y.

We

also speak of length

and height (which

are the same), or breadth and thickness (which


are the same), thus denoting two dimensions

by four names.
" Stranger.
'

But

mean not only

three

names, but three dimensions.'


" /.
'

Would your

lordship indicate or ex-

The Land of Two Dimensions.


plain
to

31

me
?

in

what

direction

is

the third

dimension

" Stranger.

'

came from

it.

It is

up above

and down
" /.
'

below.'
lord means, seemingly, that
it

My

is

northward and southward.'


" Stranger.
I
'

mean nothing

of the kind.

mean a

direction in

which you cannot look,


side.'

because you have no eye in your


(If the reader

makes a dot
will

for

an eye on

the cardboard square, he

see that such

an eye

in

the

"side" of the square would

look upwards.

Observe
its

also that the borders

of the square form

outside,

and

all

of

it

that can be seen by any one on the same


level,

and that the surface of the square


enclosed by the four borders.)

is

its inside,

" /.

'

Pardon me,
will

my

lord

a moment's

inI

spection

convince

your lordship that

have a perfect luminary at the junction

of

two of

my

sides.'

32

The Fourth Dimension.

The

reader will see the square palls his

borders sides, whereas the stranger refers to


the
surface
sides
;

of

the square.

Both may be
square

called

thus

cardboard

has

four sides, or
"

two sides.*
'

Stranger.

Yes

but in order to see into

space you ought to have an eye, not in your


border,

but in your side


call

that
!

is,

what you

would probably
Spaceland
" /.
call it

your inside; but we in


side,'

your
in

'An eye
!
!

my
am
I

inside

An

eye in

my

stomach
"
I

Your
'I

lordship jests.*
in

Stranger.

no jesting humour,
space.

tell

you

came from

From

that

position of advantage

discerned your houses,


lying

yea, even your insides,

all

open to

"/. 'Such assertions are easily


lord.'

my view.' made, my
him

" Stranger.

'

How

shall

convince

i*

Surely a plain statement of


*

facts,

followed

by

By

analogy these are of course " insides."

The Land of Two Dimensions.


ocular demonstration, ought to suffice.
sir,

33

Now,

listen to

me.

You

are living in a plane.

am not a plane (or flat) figure, but a solid. You call me a circle, but I am a sphere. Your
I

country

of
to

two dimensions
represent me,

is

not

spacious

enough

being of three;
or section of me>
See,
will

but can only exhibit a

slice

which

is

what you
and the

call

circle.

now

will rise,

effect

on your eye

be that
till

my
It

circle will

become smaller and

smaller,

dwindles to a point, and


"

finally vanishes.'

There was no

'

rising

'

that

could see

but he diminished, and

finally

vanished, and

then, after a while, reappeared and


his
for
original
size.
I

regained
sigh,

He

heaved a deep

he perceived

had altogether
Indeed,
I

failed

to

comprehend him.
ing to the belief
clever juggler.

was now

inclin-

that

he was

an extremely

"After a long pause he continued our

dia-

logue
D

34
"
'

i he Fourth Dimension.

How many
angles
'

sides has a square,

and how

many
" /.

Four
'

sides

and four
stretch

angles,'

" Sphere.
little,

Now

your imagination a
in Flatland

and conceive a square


its

(you
call

are a square) with


its

side, or

what you
to
itself,

inside,
"

moving

parallel

up-

wards.'

(The reader performs


raising the

this

by

just gradually'

cardboard square from the table


it.)

and

parallel with
' !

" /.

What northward ?
'

" Sphere.

No

not northward

upwardreplied

out of Flatland altogether.'


"
'

Restraining

my

impatience,

And what may which I am to


"

be the nature of the figure


shape out by
this

motion

which you are pleased to denote by the word

upward
"

" ?
'

Sphere.

cube, with eight terminal points

(or angles).'
* This
is

exactly what the grandson suggested.

The Land of Two Dimensions.


" /.
this
'

35

And how many


of
?

sides will pertain to to generate


in

being

motion
direction

whom my "
'

am

by the

inside "

an

"

upward

" Sphere.
will

The cube which you You

will

generate
to say,
?

be bounded by six sides


see
'

that
it

is

six of your insides.


"
'

all

now, eh

Monster

'

shrieked,

be thou juggler,

enchanter,

dream

or

devil,

no more
thou

will

I I

endure thy mockeries.

Either

or

must

perish.'

"And
feel

saying these words,


It

precipitated
I

myself upon him.

was

in vain.

could

him slowly

slipping

from

my

contact

not edging to the right or

left,

but moving

somehow
nothing.

out of the world, and vanishing to

But
'

still

heard the intruder's voice.

" Sphere.

Why
the

will

you refuse
find
in

to listen to

reason
apostle

had hoped to
gospel

you a

fit

for

of three
is

dimensions.
always the out-

* Observe the inside of one dimension


side of the dimension higher.

36
Listen,

The Fourth Dimension.

from

my friend. my position
that
I

have told you

can see
all

in

space the inside of


closed.

things

you

consider

For

ex-

ample,

see in yonder cupboard, near which


call

you are standing, several of what you


boxes
(but like

everything else in Flatland,


full

they have no tops or bottoms)


I

of money.
I

see

also

two

tablets

of

accounts.

am

about to descend into that cupboard, and to


bring you one of those tablets.
lock the cupboard half an
I

saw you
I

hour ago, and

know you have


But
I

the key in
;

your possession.
the door, you see,

descend from space

remains unmoved.
board, and
it.

Now
it.'

am

in

the cupI

am

taking the tablet.

Now

have

Now
"
I

ascend with

rushed to the

closet,

and dashed the

door open.

One

of the
it

tablets

was gone;
floor

At

the same time

appeared on the

of the room."
All
this,

however, failed to

convince our

The Land of Two Dtmensions.


square,

37

who

at last

threw himself

in

impotent

rage upon the apparent circle again.

The
in his

sphere

then, unwilling to leave

him

ignorance, as a last resource lifted our

poor square right up out of Flatland


the land of two dimensions

out of altogetherinto
Here

our world of

spar*\.

of three dimensions.
in the

we

will follow

him

next chapter.

CHAPTER

IV.

THE LAND OF THREE DIMENSIONS.

The

first

object that

met the bewildered gaze

of our square,

when

thus finally translated from

the world of two dimensions into that of three,

was the
him,
still

perfect

figure

of the sphere

beside
flat

appearing as a curiously shaded

circle, this

being the
;

first

surface he

had ever
his

gazed upon

all

flat

objects,

when

in

own

country, appearing, as
lines.

we have

seen, as straight

He
as
it

then turned his wondering eyes down-

wards, and beheld to his amazement Flatland


really was,

with

its

flat

inhabitants of

different shapes all snugly


different

ensconced in their

rooms of

their roofless houses, all of

which were of course now perfectly open to


38

The Land of Three Dimensions.


his view.

39

He

could gaze

down upon

his

own

house and the room he had just quitted, and


could see his wife and children.
turn,

He,

in

his

now

could look into his

own locked

cabinet,

and discern the very

tablets already

spoken of

But as he was carried higher he saw more.


His whole native
only as
lines,
city,

hitherto

known

to

him

lay revealed, with the shape of

every inhabitant equally plainly to be seen,

whether

in the street or within doors.


first

Naturally he thought at

he had become

a god,

in thus seeing all that

he had only sur-

mised before.

With
travelled

the

sphere

as

his
till

guide,

he

then

on through space,

beneath him he
hall of

saw the

interior of the great


all its

judgment

Flatland, with

wise

men

assembled.

He

then heard the following decree, to his dismay,

read out before them


"

all.

Whereas the

States had been troubled

by

40
divers

The Fourth Dimension.


ill-intentioned

persons

pretending

to

have received revelations from another world,


it

has been

for

this

cause

unanimously
to

re-

solved by the

Grand Council

make

strict

search for such misguided persons, to scourge

and imprison any

triangle,

and

to arrest

any

one of higher rank, to be examined and judged

by the
"

council."

You
;

hear
" death

your

fate,"

the

sphere

re-

marked

or imprisonment awaits the

apostle of the gospel of three dimensions."


"
is

Not

so," replied

our square

" the matter

now

so clear to

me, the nature of real


I

space so palpable, that methinks

could

make

a child understand

it.

Permit

me

but to de-

scend at this

moment and

enlighten them."

"Not

yet," said the sphere,

who then

taking
pro-

our friend with him further into space,

ceeded to introduce him to solid


ginning with a cube.

figures, be-

Taking a number of square cards

(the reader

The
can do
this

Land
if

of Three Dimensions.

41

he have enough), each the shape

of his friend, he placed them one on another


till

they were as high as they were broad, and

thus he built up a cube.

To
and

the uneducated eye of the square, how-

ever, accustomed only to see lines to

and
flat

points,

whom

the sight of even a

surface

was a new

revelation, this solid form (like the

sphere) appeared to be an irregular six-sided


flat

figure

thus,

(i)

not

a solid like

this,

(2)-

Fig. I.

Fig. 2.

The
eye,

reader can verify this by closing one


outlines of a cube seen

and drawing the

sideways, on paper.
It

was not

until

some time

after,

when he

42

The Fourth Dimension.


his

had by the direction of


felt
its

friend

carefully

six

sides

and

its

eight angles,

and

walked round and round and under and over


it,

and

had
that

many views
the

of

it

in

different

lights,

stupendous
that
this

fact

began

to

dawn upon
he had
see
in
all

him,

new world which


enabled

entered,
objects
in

not
his

only

him

to

own

familiar Flatland

new and

truer

light,

but

contained

bodies of a fresh and glorious order, utterly

transcending
or

all

his

powers

of

imagination

description,

and of a form so novel, so


it

unexpected, as to be incredible, were


that
his

not

senses
It took,

convinced him of their exindeed, a long time for

istence.

him

to understand that the surfaces

he saw of the

sphere and cube, thus,

The
were not

Land of

Three Dimensions.

43

their interiors, thus

Once our
fairly

friend the square had,

however,

grasped, as far as he could, the fact that


in

he now beheld

actual fact the realization


3^,

of the mathematical formula of

and of that

problem of

his

grandson he had scouted as

being alike unreasonable and impossible,

he
the

was not content

to stop here.
to

See now
aspired.

in

words of our author

what he
" for yet

" I thirsted," says he,

deeper know-

ledge than he (the sphere) was offering to me.


"

Pardon me,"

said

I,

"

thou

whom

must no longer address as the perfection of


beauty
;

let

me beg

of thee to vouchsafe thy

servant a sight of thine interior."


* Observe the surface of a higher dimension appears to

be the

interior to the

dimension below.

44
"Sphere.
" /.
'

The Fourth Dimension,

'My

what?'
thy stomach
!

Thine

interior,

" Sphere.

'Whence

this ill-timed, impertinent

request
that
I
?

And what mean you by


no
longer the
perfection

saying
of
all

am
'

beauty
"
/.

My

lord,

your own wisdom has taught

me

to aspire to

one even more


yourself.

great,

more

beautiful,

than
all

As you

yourself,

superior to

Flatland forms, combine

many

circles in one, so doubtless there is

one above
in

you,

who combines

many

spheres

one

supreme

existence, surpassing

even the solids


are

of Spaceland.
in space look

And even
down on
things,

as

we who

now

Flatland,

and see the

insides of
is

all

so of a certainty there

yet

above us some higher, purer region,

-whither thou dost surely purpose to lead me,

from the vantage ground of which we


look

shall

down upon

the revealed

insides of all

solid things.'

The Land of Three Dimensions.


"Sphere.
trifling.'

45
of this

'Pooh!

Stuff!

Enough

" /.
in

'

Nay

deny me

not what

know

it

is

thy power to perform.


interior.*

Grant

me

but one

glimpse of thine

" Sphere. 'Well then, to content

and silence

you, let

me say at once, I cannot. Would you have me turn my stomach inside out to oblige
you?'
" /.
'

But

my

lord has

shown me the
in

insides

of

all

my

countrymen

the
into

land of two
the

dimensions
three.

by taking me
therefore

land of
to take

What

more easy than

his servant a second journey into the blessed

region of the fourth dimension, where

shall

look

down with him once more upon

this land

of three dimensions,

and see the inside

of

every three-dimensioned house, and the inside


of every solid living creature
''Sphere. 'But
?

where

is

this

land of four

dimensions

46
"I.
'I

Thi Fourth Dimension.

know

not

but doubtless

my

teacher

knows.'
" Sphere.

'Not

I. it is

There

is

no such land.

The very
" /.
'

idea of

utterly inconceivable.'

Trifle not with me,

my

lord.

crave

and

thirst for

more knowledge.

Doubtless

we

cannot see that other higher Spaceland now,


because

we have no eye

in

our stomachs.
Flatland,

But, just as there

was the realm of

though that poor puny Lineland monarch could


turn neither to
left

nor right, and just as there

was

close at hand, touching

my
I,

frame, the land

of three dimensions, though


less wretch,

blind and senseit,

had no power

to touch
it
;

no eye

in

my

interior to discern
is

so, of

a surety,

there

a fourth dimension,

which

my

lord

perceives with the inner eye of thought.


"
'

In one dimension did not a


line with

moving point
?

produce a

two terminal points

"'In two dimensions did not a moving


produce a square with four terminal points
?

line

The Land of Three Dimensions.

47

'"In three dimensions did not a moving square

produce a cube with eight terminal points

"'And

in

four dimensions
and

shall not

a cube

alas for analogy,


truth,
if
it

alas for the progress of


in

be not so-^result

still

more

divine organization with sixteen terminal points ?

Behold the
2, 4, 8, 16.

infallible
Is

confirmation of the series,

not this a geometrical progression


? I

strictly
fore, is

according to analogy
it,

ask,

there-

or

is

it

not,

a fact that ere

now your

countrymen

also

have witnessed the descent

of beings of a higher order than their own,

entering closed rooms, even as your lordship

entered mine, without the opening of doors or

windows, and appearing and vanishing at

will ?

On

the reply to this question

am

ready to

stake everything.'

"Sphere.

'

It is

reported

so.

But men are


Therefore

divided in opinion as to the

facts.

pray have done with


return to business.'

this trifling,

and

let

us

4^
" /. 'I

The Fourth Dimension. was


'

certain of

it.'

" Sphere.

But most people say these visions

arose from the brain.'


" /.
'

Say they so
it

Oh

believe

them not
is.

or

if

indeed

be

so,

that this other space

really

Thoughtknd, then
'

take

me

to

that

blessed region where


"

My

words were cut short by a crash

out-

side,

which impelled

me

through space

down

downdown to Flatland.
and when
a
I

Then a
I

darkness,

came

to myself,

was once more

common
"

creeping

square, in

my

study at

home,
I

awoke

rejoicing,

and began

to reflect
I

on

the glorious career before me.


forth,

would go

methought, at once, and evangelize the


I

whole of Flatland.
wife.

would begin with

my

"Just as

had decided,

heard a herald's
I

proclamation.

Listening attentively,

recog-

nized the words of the resolution of the council.

The Land of Three Dimensions.

49

enjoining the arrest or imprisonment of any

who
by

should pervert the minds of the people

delusions,

and by professing

to

have
I

rere-

ceived revelations from another world.


flected the

danger was not to be

trifled

with.

Why
with

not therefore

make my

first

experiment
I

my

little

grandson, with

whom
?

should

be

in perfect safety, for

he would know nothing

of the proclamation of the council


"
I

therefore immediately sent for

my

grand-

son,

and taught him once more how a point by


in

motion

one dimension produces a


in

line

and

how

a straight line

two dimensions prothis,

duces a square.
I

After

forcing a laugh,

And now, make me believe


said,
'

you scamp, you wanted to


that a

square

may

in the

same way, by motion

"upward, not north-

ward," produce another figure, a sort of extra

square in three dimensions.'


"
'

Dear grandpapa,' he
and of course
I

said,

'

that

was only
at all

my

fun,

meant nothing

50.

The Fourth Dimension.


it
;

by

and

don't think

said anything about


I

the third dimension; and

am

sure

did

not say one word about

"

upward, not north-

ward," * for that would be such nonsense, you

know.

How
?

could a thing

move upward,
I

not

northward

Even

if

were a baby,

could
it

not be so absurd as that.

How
I,

silly

is!

Ha!
"
'

ha! hal'

Not
; '

at

all

silly,'

said
I

losing

my

temper

here, for example,

take this square,'

and
it,

at

the

word

grasped a
'

movable

square which was lying at hand,

and move
I

you

see, not

northward
to
say,

but, yes,

move

it

upward
I

that
it

is

not

northward,

but

move

somewhere

not
is

exactly like this

but somehow.'
* This diagram shows what
A.

upward

meant by "upward,
tion

not

northdirec-

ward;" upward being the


of the third
impossible
direction
to

dimension, a

be even

conceived by an inhabitant of two


dimensi'^ns, familiar as
it is

to us.

The Land of Three Dimensions.


"

51
to

Here

brought

my

sentence

an

inane
in

conclusion,

shaking

the square about

a purposeless manner, much to the amuse-

ment of

my

grandson,

who

burst out laughing


I

louder than ever, and declaring

was joking
first

with

him, ran away.

Thus ended my

attempt to

convert a pupil to the gospel of

three dimensions."

Our poor
and
tried

square
write

then

shut

himself up
the
subject,
illus-

to

a book on

but was greatly hampered for want of


trations,

which he found impossible to draw,

or words to

convey

his

meaning,

which he

found he could not

coin.
life

Meanwhile,

his

was under a

cloud.

He
in

could not help comparing what he saw


reality of

two dimensions with the


as seen from three.
his

Flattried

land
to

One day he
eyes shut,

see a cube with

but was

not quite certain he had realized the original.

This urged him

to

take some further steps

52
to

The Fourth Dimension,

make

the revelation
not.

known, but how to

begin he knew

At
"eye
" the

times he could

not restrain dangerous

utterances, dropping

such expressions as the


the
interior

that

discerns

of

things,"

all-seeing

one,"

and

" the

third

and

fourth dimensions"; and at last he


at a debating society,

was drawn
full

one day, to give a


journey into

account of his

glorious

Space

and of

all

he had seen and learned


at once arrested,

there.

He
the
story.

was

and taken before


he retold
all his

great council, to

whom
of

At

the close

a long examination
:

he was
1.

finally

asked two questions


indicate

Whether he could

the

direc-

tion
"

which he meant when he used the words,


?

upward, not northward "


2.

Whether, by any diagrams or descriptions

(other than the enumeration of imaginary sides

and

angles),

he could indicate the figure he


?

called a cube

The Land of Three Dimensions.

53

As

it

was obviously impossible

for

him

to

comply with
able

either of these apparently reason-

demands,

our

unfortunate

square

was

finally

sentenced to perpetual imprisonment.

Here, for
to
his

many

years,

he ceaselessly

tried

teach

the

gospel of three dimensions to

fellow-prisoners,
effect,

but

alas

without

the

slightest

being universally regarded as

a harmless monomaniac.
Here, then,
adieu,

we

bid our square friend a final


little

and leave the


is

book

in

which his

story

enshrined, to consider further the laws

of a fourth dimension.

CHAPTER

V.

THE LAND OF FOUR DIMENSIONS MATHEMATICALLY CONSIDERED.


In

now summing up
said,

the result of

all

that has
facts

been

and trying to carry the

that
first

have been observed


to the

in the relation of the

second, and

the second

to the

third

dimension into the relations of the third to


the
fourth,

we

will

first

of

all

consider this
as a mathe-

higher and
matical
of

unknown dimension

figure,

and secondly enumerate some


laws of
a

the

probable
its

world

of

such

dimensions and

inhabitants, as

deduced by

analogy, and their possible relations with our

world and

its

inhabitants.

Then we may
facts

further

consider the actual

around us bearing on the question, and

The Land of Four Dimensions.


compare
these deduced

55
fourth

laws of the

dimension with some of the claims of Christianity as stated in the Bible.

Let

us

then,

first

of

all,

consider

the

mathematical or geometrical side of the question,

and inquire what would be the character


in

of regular figures

the

fourth

dimension,

arguing from analogy.

And
that

in

so doing,
is

we must warn
necessarily
;

the reader
in-

the subject

somewhat

volved and

intricate

but

that

nevertheless

the conclusions arrived at are so fascinating

and

novel,

that

if

he

will

only traverse the

preliminary Sahara in patience, he will prob-

ably feel rewarded by the subsequent oasis

he reaches
tion of the

in

the

summing up and

applica-

whole theory.
set forth the

Let us therefore proceed to


facts in order.

IN
(i)

ONE DIMENSION
Straight
lines,

we get

56

The Fom'th Dimension.


Varying only
in

(2)
(3)

one direction

length
in-

Having two

terminal points (or sides or

outsides, the line


side)
(4)
;

between these being the

and

Seen only (by a

single

eye

in line with

them) as points.

IN r;^C>
(i)

DIMENSIONS
flat

we

get

Surface or

figures,

(2)

Varying

in

two directions

length

and

breadth, also in

number of

sides

and angles

(we also get irregular figures of one dimension,


but lying in two, as curved or crooked lines
(3)
;)

Having not

less

than three * terminal


not
less

points

or angles, and

than

three

borders or boundary

lines,

or sides or outsides
;

(the surface of the figure being the inside)


(4)

and
level

Seen only (by a single eye on a


lines.

with them) as
*

No

flat

figure

can have
;

less

than three angles and three


straight lines

borders, viz., a triangle


close a space.
(Circles
infinite

for

two

cannot en-

and curved

lines are not considered,


lines.)

being really an

number of straight

The Land of Four Dimensions.

57

IN
(i) (2)

THREE DIMENSIONS
Solids,

we get

Varying only

in three directions

length,
in three,

breadth, depth, also in

number and

regularity

of

sides

and angles

(we also get irregular

figures of

two dimensions, but lying

as curved or crooked surfaces)


(3)

Haying

not

less

than
less

four* terminal

points or angles,

and not

than four borders,

surfaces, or sides or outsides (the contents being

the insides)
(4)

and
single

Seen only (by a

eye f) as

surfaces.

IN

FOUR DIMENSIONS

we

get

(by

analogy)

solid

body cannot have fewer than four angles and


(Circular and curved bodies are
infinite

sides, viz.,

a solid triangle.

not considered, being composed of an


sides.)

number of

We

see bodies as solids, not surfaces, simply because


eyes,

we have two
view at once.

and can see them from two points of


stereoscope
is

The

founded on

this fact.

58
(i)
(2)

The Fourth Dimension.

Unnamed

bodies,
in foiir
,

Varying only

directions, lengthy

breath, depth,
regularity of
irregular

and
size

also in

number and
(we also
get

and
of

angles

bodies
;

three
)

dimensions,

but

lying in four
(3)

as

Having

not

less

than

five

terminal

points or angles, and not less than five borders,,


solids,

or sides or outsides

and
solids.

(4)

Seen only (by a double eye) as

Turning now to consider some of the probable laws deducible by analogy from these data

and the foregoing chapters, we may suggest the


following, the general truth of
will

which the reader


to admit.

probably be

now prepared

Some of the relations of a being ik <sm. dimension, with the dimension below
him and the beings in
it,
e.g.,

a being in

a fourth dimension with the third (our


world) and THOSE IN
IT,

ARE

The Land of Four Dimensions.


1.

59

He

can enter or leave the world below


is,

him, that

appear and disappear at

will,

and

that without changing his form (pp. 14, 33).


2.

However

near to the world below him^


till

he remains
3.

invisible

actually in

it.

He
in

can be in closest proximity with the


the world below,

beings

and yet outside


invisible.

that world altogether,


4.

and therefore

From

his dimension he can see and enter

at

will

the inside of every living being

and

thing in the world below him.


5.

When
is

he enters the world below, he can

never be wholly seen, and that part of him


that

seen

is

always in the form of the world


enters.
still

below him which he


6.

His

voice, while

in his

own dimen-

sion,

would be heard

(if

hearing were possible)

by a being of the world below as an internal


voice, or
7.

a voice from his

own

inside (p. 16).


in the

His appearance and disappearance

world below are not caused by any change of

6o

Tlte

Fourth Dimension.
his entering or leav-

form or substance, but by


ing that world.
8,

world and beings of any dimension


all

include

the shapes and characters of those

below them, adding to them that further shape

and

character peculiar to the added dimension.

The

relations of a being in one dimension


its

with that above him and


e.g.,

inhabitants,

ONE IN THE THIRD DIMENSION (oUR WORLd)

WITH THE FOURTH.


1.

All conception of a higher dimension

is

impossible,

though

capable

of

mathematical

demonstration.
2.

However
to

vast and populous the dimenis

sion,

him

it

absolutely

and necessarily

non-existent.
3.

If

he could hear such beings, the sound

-would appear to
ness,
4.

come from
his

his inner conscious-

and not from


If

own world without

such beings enter his world, he can

The Land of Four Dimensions.

only see and comprehend that part of thent


that enters
his
it.

Such beings may

directly enter

own

inside.

5.

And

to

him such part always

appears^

in the likeness

of an inhabitant of his world

(the inhabitants of one world being always


partial

likeness, or the likeness

of a part, of

those in the world above them).


6.

He

can never, by his


or world.

own power,

leave

his

own dimension
While

7.

in his world,

he can never see the


it^

true appearance or shape of any being in

but only
8.

its

exterior.

If raised into the

dimension above, he at

once perceives the true dimension and shape


of every being in his
9.

own

world.

The

beings of the dimension into which

he

is

raised, at first present the


first

same appeartruly seen)


in

ance as the beings (now


his

own

dimension.
close

10.

By

inspection and careful

com

parison the real difference can be discerned.

^2
11.

The Fourth Dimension.

Even

if

the dimension above be visited


it

and understood,

is

impossible to describe

it

in the language, or to
liis

draw

it

in the figures, of

own

dimension.

12.

All such attempts are necessarily unin-

telligible, 13.

and sound

foolish

and

irrational.

All attempts to understand or grasp the


it,

dimension above, without having entered


are
futile.

14.

An

eye

in one's inside

would, according

to analogy, look in the direction of the dimen-

sion above.
15.

Each dimension adds one new


space, capacity,

direction

of

size,

and form

to the

one

below.
16.

The
on

visibility

of

being
but

does

not
its

depend

physical properties,

on

position inside or outside of the world below

him.

'Ihe

Land
ul

of Four Dmiensions.
id J)

63

c m
.St3

>> j3

g
o

gS3

:2 C CI ^ (U
o
'55

o c m

*i

en

A
I.

o p o 3^ O H lis 3 _ I, 3 5 'O <u o 7. V.


.S

.
.

<'>

00

CO ooco

nioo "

. 00'

-
J3
tn (M

n
O
(U

-Si
(U

03

.s-s

3
e
fe

(u

CO

ooeooo

"'a c,Q
(/I

1^*
>'

O g "Oil
OJ in

IS 00

I I

01

to
43

4-J

g
^

S2.S 2 rt Si ^Sj5
a>

"
CD

S2

S3
U,

X <2
o

"fee

^^^

oQ

c '?

C C 2

41

^^ ^
r!

N
o
a

.So"
c c

^'

'.: "^

2 -*

V. 1>

CIS O 4J
13

^;=!-g

.B ^

M.s
*
Pi

.Sf)
S3 53
fJ

3 "

a,

u-S

!.fl

a.S
^(

c^

02 C3 c^

5 p.4ji: ^ -5

g-iiS

u 13
"-5
n!

|dSc

C4

TS-d

^
"O

ri

(-1

J3 .S

c 5

5 a>.g*-
ft

S " o
0^

!5

ic

CHAPTER

VI.
IN RELATION

THE LAND OF FOUR DIMENSIONS


OURS OF THREE.

TO

Turning now from analogies and


facts,

theories tc

we

find

in

the

first

place

an almost
all

universal
nations,

consensus of

opinion

amongst

throughout
exceptions),

all

ages
there

(with few

and

curious

that

does exist a

higher* world than ours, invisible to mortal


eyes.

Those among

civilized
its

nations

who have

doubted or denied
in spite of their
*

existence have done so


feelings,

own

and

in virtue

of

By

higher

is

meant greater

in

its

qualities

and powers.
it

In speaking of
cluded,
it

this world,

though the whole of


it

is

in-

is

mainly with that part of

that constitutes

God's

spiritual

kingdom

that

we

are concerned.

The Land of Four Dimensions.


a reasoning that
denies

65

anything

that can-

not be apprehended by the senses, in short,

anything that

is

not "matter."
it

The
all

narrowexact-

ness of such reasoning gives


ness,

its

and the
all

materialist finds a satisfaction

in

denying

he

cannot

account

for,

or

where the
standing
suppose,

clear but limited light of his under-

fails

to penetrate.

Some

minds,

prefer

the

well-trimmed
its

order
railing,
its

of or

a London square within

iron

a well-stocked kitchen garden with


high

four

bHck

walls,

to

the

boundless

prairie

or the rolling moorland.

The known can

at

any

rate be

made

to yield a tribute to the


classify,
it

complacent human wisdom which can


analyse,

and otherwise

ticket

and name

while the

unknown

is

denied

by our

little

philosophers, partly because the

human mind
it

cannot
ignore

fully
it,

grasp

it,

and

finds

easier to

and partly because the unknowii


and arranged.

refuses to be measured, weighed,

66

The Fourth Dimension.


to the gfreat-

and thus furnish another trophy


ness of man's intellect.
It

must not be supposed, however, that our

patient reader has been asked to


all

wade through

these pages merely to prove to our materialthere


is

ists that

a world that finds no place


;

in

their philosophy

for the reader himself doubt-

less already accepts the fact of this

world

in

a general way, and the


materialists is too small,

number
and

of absolute

their convictions

too strong, to be

much shaken by

the humble
far

methods adopted here.

We
to
this

seek to do

more than

this

we hope
of

show by analogy
highei^

how

the

powers

world,

in

many an
belong

unlooked-for particular,

correspond

with those that


\.Q

may

justly

be supposed to

x^.

Let us now proceed to consider some of the

phenomena of
tradition,

this

unseen world, as current

in

as experienced
in

by

individuals,
in

and

as

recorded

books

mainly

the

Bible,

The Land of Four Dimensions.


this

67

being the authoritative history accepted


Christians of the spiritual kingdom.

by

all

All believe that this wtorld


;

is

a higher one

than ours 'higher in the sense of being greater,


wiser,
tains
fair,

more powerful
inhabitants

that

it,

like ours, con-

good and bad, and regions


terrible.

and dark, and

But we
its

all feel

that the goodness of

some of

inhabitants

on the one hand, and the


the other,
alike transcend

evil of the rest

on
all

in

every way
here
;

standards of good
in

and

evil

and

that,

the same way, both the fairness and the horror


of
its

foulness and

different

regions

transcend

all

ever seen by mortal eye, or that

can be pictured by the

human mind.
some way
in

Most

believe this unseen world to be densely


it

peopled, and that in

rules over

our

own with a sway

every

way

greater,

again stronger, and more comprehensive than


that of

any known earthly government.


universal, instinctive belief

Another curiously

68

The Fourth Dimension.


Christianity,

and one by no means confined to


is,

that

when a man

dies, part

of him (his soul,

or

spirit)

leaves this world altogether, to enter

the higher one.


to

And

here

we may

turn aside

remark that the general

belief that

man

has a spiritual nature

something beyond and


cell

above the highest ganglion

in his brain,

something that leaves the body at death, but


abides in
trated
it

through lifemay be well

illus-

by

algebra.

Let,
solid,

for

example, the body, material and


fairly

be represented

enough by x^, and

the

spirit,

higher and possessing an unknown


a;*.*

power, by

Then

(a;^+.ar*)

represents the
and
hereafter the

* In taking x* here to represent


spirit world,
it

spirits

must be remembered that we are absolutely


is

ignorant of what
as

really involved

by

this formula.

As

far

we know,

the

"material"

is

strictly limited

to three

dimensions, nothing in one or two being material, or having

any substance whatever.


understood that

It

must therefore be

distinctly
spirit,

we

firmly believe that

God

is

and

the other world a spiritual one,

and

that

we have no wish

or intention of materializing

it

in enforcing the truUi of

The Land of Four Dimensions.

69

man

in

life,

while
the
its

{x^+x*)x*
spirit

represents
at

the departure of

(x*)

death,

which returns to

own

dimension, while the

body
which

(x^),

which

is left,

returns to the earth to

belongs.

If this, then,

be

true,

as

is

surely believed
is at

amongst

all

Christians, that

man

any

rate

a complex being, having as

definite

a relation

with the unseen world above him as with the


visible

world around him, a relation which

is

realized

by

all

after death, then is


all

explained
race,

the instinctive craving of

the

human

even apart from Bible


world
;

revelation, after a higher

hence, also, the capability to receive


its

and understand
sibility

mysteries,
it

and the pos-

of

communion with
tradition

even now.
experience,

Turning from

to

we

have not only unnumbered instances of com-

munion between our


some of
its

spirits

and the inhabitants

laws by means of analogies drawn from a

supposed fourth dimension.

70

The Fourth Dimension.


in-

of the higher world, but equally numerous

stances of the entrance of these higher beings,

and

their consequent

appearance

in

our world.

Speaking of communion, and turning to the


Bible and to the lives of the saints and of
all

good men
on

in

ancient and
to

modern
certain

days,

and,

the other hand,


of bad

events
in

in the

lives

men, especially

con-

nection with great crimes, no student of the


subject can doubt that the expressions,

"We
Lord,"

see Jesus,"
" "

"

David

sat

before

the

God spake

to Moses," " Satan tempted him,"


I

Daniel cried unto the Lord," "

sought the

Lord, and

He

heard me," and hundreds of

similar utterances in biographies


lips

and from the

of living men, represent the fact of com-

munion

and

intercourse
faith,

between

the

two

worlds, just as

the evidence of things

not seen,* prayer, contemplation and abstraction represent the means.


* Hebrews
xi. i.

The Land of Four Dimensiotis.


Then, again, as to appearances.
chical

The

Psydis-

Research Society

may

be unable to

cover a single authentic ghost, but nevertheless

innumerable appearances from the


are

spirit

world
think,

everywhere

believed

in,

and,

we

credibly attested.

The
is

testimony of the Bible alone

(if

believed)

of course overwhelming on the point.


at will,

Angels
seen in

come and go

God Himself
in

is

Old Testament times

human

form, and in

New

Testament times, when our Lord takes a

spiritual body.

He

appears or disappears
will.

in this

world of ours at
Belshazzar's wall.

hand wrote

on

The form

of the Son of

God was

seen in the fiery furnace.

Since then

appearances have been seen and voices heard


that cannot be explained

by anything

in three

dimensions.

Passing on to consider the history of this

higher world, more especially as recorded


the Bible,

in

we

find

its

superiority as to

its in-

72

The Fourth Dimension.


and
its

habitants, its regions,

powers,

all

amply

confirmed.

Whether we consider the

attributes

of God, or of an angel, or of a devil, whether

we

read about heaven or

hell,
all,

We

are

made

conscious. throughout, that

from the omni-

potent Ruler of this higher world

down

to its

meanest servants, transcend our ideas


way.

in every

We
with

find

omniscience and omnividence

claimed, "all things being naked

and open
iv.

to

Him

whom we

have to do" (Heb.

13),

We find the angels described


gers of good and
evil,

as unseen messen-

surrounding our path on


will

every

side,

and carrying out the


weal or woe.

of their

Master

for

We

find indications

that this unseen world itself surrounds us on

every
soul

side.

We

are positively told that our


it

definitely

enters

at

death,

when

it

is

"absent from the body."

We

have more.

In the twelfth chapter of

the second epistle to the Corinthians


detailed account given us

we

find a

by an educated man,

The Land of Four Dimensions.


well read in the philosophy of his day

73

Paul,

of the fact of his being caught up into the


higher world (supposed, by referring to the date

which he gives, to have been

when stoned
left for

and dragged out of a

city

and

dead),

and the

curious statement

made

that although
it

he saw and heard much, he found


to

impossible
lan-

describe or relate anything in

human

guage, on his return to this world.

We

have also the account of Elijah and


Christ suddenly leaving this world

Enoch and

for the higher one, while yet alive.

In some parts of the Bible, notably in the


Revelation, a definite endeavour
is

made

to

describe

some of these higher


all

glories in

human

language, and

that can be

done

is

to picture

them by the commonest


glass,

earthly symbols

gold,

precious stones, pearls, thrones, palms,

lamps, trumpets, white linen, swords, suppers,

and so

forth.

No

words existing

to pourtray

the glories of the spiritual world.

74

The Fotirth Dimension.


This world
is

described at length as passing

away

altogether,

and yet the foundations of


it

that world are not even shaken,

being de-

scribed as a "

kingdom

that cannot be moved."


seen,

The
from
it

descent, as
to

we have
is

of beings

our earth

constantly recorded,
of,

their appearance

and disappearance spoken

the former always in


latter is

human

form, though this

never spoken of as being assumed for

the occasion.

When

another form, as that

of a dove,
trary
is

is

assumed, the fact on the con-

always expressly mentioned.


are mysterious appearances and

Not only

disappearances constantly recorded,

but very

definitely in the case of our Lord, as entering a

room
all

in

a body "with
it

flesh

and bones," though


Also, at another

entrance to

was barred.

time,

when, sitting at supper.

He

vanished out

of their sight, though in a

body and capable of

eating
*

and drinking.*
would ask the reader mo^t
especially to note this

We

The Land of Four Dimensions.

75

The

Bible speaks also of our relationship


It tells

with that world.


sion

us that the apprehen-

of

its

glories

are not by means of the

seeing eye or the hearing ear, but by revelation of the Spirit of God.*
It reiterates

the fact

that the natural (or finite) mind, though linked

with

the fourth

dimension,

cannot

of

itself

grasp spiritual

realities,

but that they must be

revealed to us by spiritual means, and that


those alone to
discern, judge,

whom

this is
all

vouchsafed can
earthly things in

and weigh
real light.

their true

and

The
It lays

third chapter of

John

tells

us more.

down

the fact that

by no education can
this

any man mentally or morally enter


sphere.

higher
of
or,

He

must, in

the language

our
as

Saviour,

be positively born " again,"


is,

better rendered, " from above," that

intrd-

iii

connection with paragraph

1,

page 59, and paragraph

16,

page 62.
I

i\
if

Corinthians

9-13.

76

The Fourth Dimension.


truly into the higher world
first

duced as
as he was

by

birth,

introduced into this world in

the same manner.

All spiritual perception of this world


internal eyesight,

is

by

the

"eyes of our under-

standing."*

The language and


and morally (though

descriptions of those

who

profess to have been thus introduced, mentally

not yet physically) into

this other world, are mostly unintelligible,

and

foolishness to the inhabitants of this, t

Attempts, always unsuccessful, to penetrate


its

mysteries beyond, or apart from what


fill

is

directly revealed, only help to -and


lists

our asylums

of suicides, while, on the other hand,

we

are

everywhere

surrounded

with

large

bodies of sane people


introduced into
enjoy
its
it,

who

claim to have been


its

to

obey

laws,
its

and

to

privileges,

and some of

powers.

With regard
* Ephesians
i.

to our future relationship with


i8.

Corinthians

ii.

14.

The Land of Four Dimensions.


this higher world,
It

77

the Bible

is

equally clear.

not only

plainly
it

shows that the soul ia


definitely enters
it

affinity

with

in

life,

at

death, but points to a mysterious time, in the

hope of which thousands have closed

their eyes,

on

this world, of

a resurrection, when the spirit


differ-

shal'

be clothed again with a body, but


its

ing from the present one in

origin

and

in its

properties and powers, being called a spiritual

body, and
first

fitted

to enter

physically, for the

time, those higher regions already familiar

to the departed soul.

These few detached remarks may serve


point out

to

some leading

features of the world

" to come," in relation to our

own

we

will

now

consider

them

in connection

with the mutual

relations of the various dimensions.

CHAPTER

VII.
FACfS

THE LAND OF FOUR DIMENSIONS. AND ANALOGIES.

Those who have

-closely followed the allegory

of the different dimensions in the earlier chapters of this treatise,

must have been

struck, in

the

first

place,

by the absolute

impossibility

of any inhabitant belonging purely and simply


to

any one dimension


of

even conceiving

the

existence

a higher world than his own;


it

which to him, be
or solid space,

point, or line, or surface,


is,

is all

that there

or can be.

In the second place, a moment's reflection


will

have shown them that


it

in the
so.

very nature

of things,

obviously must be

To one

living entirely
78

on a surface and

in

The

Land

of Four Dimensions.
is

79

world where there


breadth

nothing but length and


prolonged,
the

indefinitely

idea

of

height and depth are absurd and impossible,

and there

exists

no mode of demonstrating

them, unless they are absolutely entered.

Having these
them
to

facts before us,

and applying

ourselves,
fully

we

find,

to our surprise,

they are not

borne out

in

our experience.

We

can to

some extent

understand

the
all

existence of another world, even apart from


revelation or entrance into
it,

and

this

is

be-

cause we are something more than mere forms

of three dimensions.
such traditions as

Were we

such only, no

we have

alluded to would
;

be common to the human race

the idea of a

higher world would be as impossible to us as


to the brute creation.

But there
in the

is

a part of us that has been

made
into

likeness of

God, a part breathed

us by the Divine breath, through which


instinctively perceive

we

the higher sphere, and

8o

The Fourth Dimension.


to ap-

by means of which we are partly able


prehend
Still,
its

teachings.

to a great extent, the analogies hold

good.

We,

like

our friend the square,

in Flat-

land, can see spiritual beings

when they enter

our world, and like him, explain their appearing

and vanishing by magic or miracle, rather than

by the simple
our dimension.

fact

of their entering or leaving

Again, analogy has shown us

how

near,

how

very near, the new dimension that characterizes


the world above us

may

be, with its inhabitants,

and yet be outside ours altogether. *

On
just as
line in

the other hand, analogy shows us that

a point

is

comprehended
in

in

line,
is

a square, a square

a cube, so

our

world of three dimensions completely included

and swallowed up

in the universe of four.


folly

* This shows also the


"three dimension"
lines,

of those who, reasoning on


spiritual

assert that the

world

must be beyond the confines of the material, and hence


millions of miles away,

and

farther than the farthest Etar.

The Land of Four Dimensions.

8i

Analogy points out how omnividence

is

an

almost necessary property of a higher world.

The careful comparison of the analogies of the


third

and fourth dimensions with the revealed


shows
is

relation of our world to the spirit world,

such a likeness between the two, that


too

it

not

much

to say that

if

we call our world a world


fairly

of three dimensions,
spirit

we may

consider the

world

in

many

respects a world of four.

We
than

conclude, therefore, that a higher world

ours

is
;

not

only conceivably possible,

but probable

secondly, that such a world

may

be considered as a world of four dimensions;


and, thirdly, that the
largely in
its

spiritual

world agrees
its

mysterious laws, in

language

which

is

foolishness to us,

in its

miraculous

appearances and interpositions, in


lofty claims of omniscience,

its

high and

omnividence, etCj

and

in other particulars,

with what by analogy

would be the

laws, language,

and claims of a

fourth dimension.

82

The Fourth Dimension.

Once

these conclusions

are admitted,

and

our eventual destination, body and soul, seen


to be in this higher world, the

transcendent

importance of understanding
intense
it,

all

about

it,

the

and

real interest of all connected with

becomes overpoweringly evident.


If
it

be true that we are everywhere suris

rounded by another world, which


goal,

our

final

how

foolish to stop
its

our ears to
facts,

its history,

to shut our eyes to

as recorded

in

what

is

believed by us to be an authoritative
!

statement of them

The

honest materialist has some excuse for


Bible he
disbelieves

the total neglect of a

but what shall

we say of

those who, professing

to accept these stupendous realities, are utterly


indifferent to

them and the Book that reveals

them

Surely the study of what


fourth

we

will

term

this

dimension

far

transcends

the highest
their

earthly subjects,

and dwarfs to

proper

The Land of Four Dimensions.


level
all

83

objects

of

human

ambition, for

we

see at once that the lowest inhabitant of the


fourth dimension
is

necessarily of a different

and a higher order than the greatest monarch


in

the

third.

The

lowliest

plant

is

of a

higher order than, and different beauty from,


the most precious
mineral,
life
;

possessing as
feeblest

it

does
again,

one sort of
is

the

animal,

of a higher order than, and different

beauty from, the oak or the cedar, possessing


as
it

does another sort of

life;

and
of

in

the

same way the humblest


spiritual

subject

God's

kingdom

is

of a higher order than,

and

different beauty

from the highest animal,


life.

possessing as he does yet another sort of

Another great advantage these considerations

give

is

that,

if

admitted, they at once

rescue Christianity from being degraded to a

code of

ethics,

whereby men can better adorn


and present
it

this third dimension,

in its true

and

proper character of a

new world and

84

The Fourth Dimension.


its

kingdom, with
houses,

invisible
;

inhabitants,
it

laws,

and

rulers

in

a word,

becomes
is

objective instead of subjective.

Light

also

thrown on the mysterious connection of soul

and body

in

us personally, and on the entrance

of the former into another world the


it is

moment

released from the

body by

death.
salvation,

Conversion,

the

new

birth,

or

whatever the entrance of the light of Christianity into the heart of

man

is

called, is

now
in

seen not

to

be a process

of

education

morality, in order to produce better

members

of society,
infinitely

and of
z.

this

world, but something

higher

positive resurrection into a

higher and purer world, where Christ

now

is,

an instruction in the heavenly a glimpse into


its

principles,

and

transcendent glories, coupled

with a view into the hearts of


the real nature of
all

men and

of

earthly things, that reveal

their true value, the result being

undoubtedly
in-

to elevate the tone,

life,

and manners of the

The Land of Four Dimensions.


dividual, but the object being to
fit

85
to

him

be

shortly

removed altogether

to that higher sphere

to which he

now

belongs, there to be clothed

with a spiritual (or fourth dimension) body.

Those who have

followed,

and who accept the

preceding lines of argument and thought, will

undoubtedly thus see more clearly the reason

and cause of a great many


of Christianity.
claims,

distinctive features

They

will

understand
its

its lofty

and know why, when

laws are truly

proclaimed, they are to


as,

men

foolishness, where-

when

adulterated with the

wisdom of

this

world (of the third dimension), they are more


or less
insisted
intelligible.

They

will

see

why

it

is

on so strongly that the natural man


its

cannot receive

mysteries (being of fhe third

dimension), and that they are only spiritually

discerned (that

is,

by

revelation),

why we must

be born again, or introduced by the power


of

God
They

into this
will

new

world.

now

see

how

it

is

possible this

86

The Fourth Dimension.


us,

kingdom can be within


us
;

and yet surrounding


our very
side,

how

angels

may be by

and

yet outside this world of space altogether.

They

will see the

impossibility of guessing
hell,

the direction of heaven or


is

seeing there
us,

an unknown direction around

which we

cannot conceive, and the puerility of assuming


that
it

must be
will

"

up above " or
that

"

down
the

below."
glorious

They

see

though

material universe extends


limits of

beyond the utmost


artificially

our vision, even

aided by

the most powerful telescopes, that does not

prevent the spiritual world and

its

beings, and
side.

heaven and

hell

being by our very

They

will

see that, far from these spiritual

regions occupying
material
universe,
less,

some small corner of the


as surely as the surely
is

greater
material
in

includes the

so
it

the

universe, vast as
spiritual.

is,

swallowed up

the

The

indications of the vast

unknown

extent

The Land of Four Dimensions.

87

of this spiritual kingdom will be more clearly

understood in such
i.

references

as

Ephesians
discern

21.

They

will

now more

clearly

" the

powers of the world to come," whereof we

speak, and understand the mysterious appear-

ances in the Bible of spiritual beings, always


in

human

form, necessarily so to be seen in


It will

the third dimension.


to

be no

difficulty

them

to believe all thoughts

and hearts
this world,

are
still

naked and open to the Ruler of


less that

every closed object and the inside


is

of

every solid thing


Believing as
part,

and must be

clearly seen.

we do
is

that the soul, or immortal


this

of

man

connected with

fourth

dimension, while the body belongs to the third,


the

phenomena

of death

is

clearly seen to

be
the

the separation of these two dimensions,

body remaining
enters the other.

in

this

world while the soul

The

simple and almost childish language of


to, will

Revelation, already alluded

no longer

88

The Fourth Dimension.


it

appear strange, when


inspired

is

seen that
glories

it

is

an
the
the

attempt to put the


the

of

fourth
third
;

dimension into

language of

hence the necessary use of such words


etc.
xii.,

as glass, gold,
Paul, in

Nor
fail

will the

language of

2 Cor.

to be better under-

stood as to what he heard

when caught up

out

of the third dimension into the fourth being impossible to utter or render into

human

language.

The

arrogance of

man

will receive
it

a severe

and salutary check when


very nature of things,
understand even the
this will
it

is

seen how, in the

is

impossible he can
direction in which

new

glorious world

lies,

while the Christian


constantly misunder-

quite see

why he
so,

is

stood,
in the

and always

indeed,

when he

lives

region of the fourth dimension; and


is

hence that saying

and must be
yet

true, that
is

he "discerns

all

things,

he himself

discerned of no man." *
*
I

Corinthians

ii.,

end of chapter.

The Land of Four Dimensions.


It is

89
the

hardly too

much

to say that

when

possibility is

proved of there being another


proximity to ours, but necessarily

world

in close

invisible to us,

save as

its

beings enter or leave


lead-

ours,

and when we discern a few of the


strict

ing laws, that by

analogy

may be

taken
;

as found in such a world in relation to ours


that nearly the whole of Christianity
clearer to
us,
its its

becomes

language more

intelligible,
al-

and some of

most

difficult

statements

most axiomatic.
If

we

consider such scriptures, for instance,


i.,

as Ephesians

Colossians

i.,

Corinthians

v.,

and
is

Corinthians xv,,

we

find, just as

Adam

the principal being in the third dimension,


is

so

Christ in the
is

fourth,

and hence with


Second Man."
literal

appropriateness

called " the


is

The new
and
real

creation

seen to be as

an introduction of beings
the
old

into

the

fourth
third,

dimension as

was

into
i.

the
16,

and such a verse as Colossians

90
descriptive

The Fourth Dimension.


of
the
Creator's

power

in

both
in-

dimensions,
visible, is

here designated visible and

apprehended.
Christians

The power whereby


any
ii.

are

lifted

out of the third into the fourth, mentally, at


rate, is graphically

portrayed in Colossians

20-iii. 4.

They

are there spoken of as dead

and

risen with Christ (into the fourth dimen-

sion),

and are to be occupied with the superior

glories of their
It
is

new

sphere.

but

little

wonder, therefore, that those

who have

really

been made thus alive should

speak somewhat slightingly of the glories of


this

world,

when they

consider

the

higher

glories of their own,

or that they should be


it,

enthusiastic

in

describing

or earnest
it
;

in

endeavouring to introduce others into

nor,

on the other hand, that by those who are


not thus alive, they should be accounted fools

and

fanatics,

and

their language

extravagant
is,

and

unintelligible.

The wonder

rather

that

The Land of Four Dimensions.


those

who

are thus alive should not be

more

enthusiastic

than they are, and appear more

foolish than they do.

In conclusion,

we would

briefly

emphasize

these following points.


If

we have

to

any degree succeeded

in

show-

ing the probability of that other world being

of a higher dimension than our own, and that

we have a

link with
;

it

naturally in the spiritual

part of our beings


lished

we
that

see most clearly estab-

by analogy,

by no development of
in

our mental
science,

faculties,

by no advancement

by no

cultivation of conduct or morals,

in short,

by no education or improvement of
race,

the

human

per

se,

can

we

understand,

enter,

or view this
in

higher
of

kingdom.
it,

Any
link

comprehension,

short,

is

not by cul-

tivation, or strengthening

even of that
our
souls,

we

already have with


distinct

it

in

but by a

revelation
us,

from that world to these

powers within

and a consequent elevation

92

The Fourth Dimension.

of these powers into this higher dimensien.

In relation therefore with Christianity (as


call

this

scheme of

revelation),

we

see

we why

the most highly cultured in the learning of the third dimension possess
little if

any advan-

tage (nay, often the reverse) over the wayfaring

man, though a

fool,

inasmuch as

it is

to both of

them a

distinct revelation,

more

easily received
is

indeed in the latter case, since there

here no

force of intellect to set aside, for the

meaning

of our Lord's saying


that except
shall in

is

now
as

clearly apparent,

we become

little

children,

we

no wise enter the kingdom of heaven.

If then these

few remarks, and these mathe-

matical analogies, serve to


tural

show

that the scrip-

way

of entering the
possible;
if

Kingdom

of

God

is

the only

way

they assist to rouse


convert unbelievers,
object of the

enthusiasm

in believers, to

and

to

silence materialists, the

writer will be fully gained.