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Abstract:

Bangladesh is an agricultural country having over 140 Millions of people. It cannot provide
accommodation its growing population. However, there is dearth of skilled manpower in
Bangladesh both in technical and management areas. So different institutions were set up to
develop skilled Manpower for the sake of fulfills the gap of skilled industrial and other sectors
work force. . This paper will only deal with the educational facilities available for improving
management and technical skills of human resources in Bangladesh. The main areas of
management skill development of human resources are general, personnel, and financial
management. Skill developments in these are essential for industrial development of
Bangladesh.

Keywords: Human Resources, Institution, Education

Introduction

Human Resources are the most powerful propeller of a country’s economic growth and development.
Human Resources denote the management as well as the working force i.e. the workers, staffs and
employees of a business organization. HRD has been defined as improving the aptitudes, skills,
abilities, knowledge, understanding and attitude of the employees of an enterprise (Jucius. J., 1993).
The wealth of a nation depends more on its people, management and government, than on its natural
resources. Education helps to enhance the knowledge base of a nation and therefore it has a vital role to
play in shaping the future of a nation. Emerging global trends, new economic challenges, the rapid
increase in information technologies (IT) and the requirement of multi-lingual proficiencies are some
of the challenges that developing nations have to face. The role of education, especially business
education, in building a workforce and management capable enough to cope with these challenges, has
placed business education in a much sharper focus than ever before. Knowledge is a scarce national
resource, which must be developed on a continuum. The supply of knowledge in any field can be
increased by an education system. However, creating a ``yearning for learning’’ should be the primary
aim of an educational system. From this point of view, we have to identify the difference between
teaching and learning: teaching occurs when we show a student how to solve a problem; learning
occurs when the student figures out how to solve his own problem (Tribus, 1999). There is a consensus
that the quality of the education system is deteriorating. This deteriorating is evidenced by declining
test scores, graduate with inadequate basic skills, increasing dropout rates and widening gap between
industry needs and student capabilities (Fisher,1993, schargel, 1993). Society, on the other hand, has
responded to this decline by demanding higher test scores and greater financial accountability and by
implementing their own educational programmes (Shalala, 1993) . Brings up and examines the concept
of a business school as a learning organization. Discusses the issue of change as a stimulus to learning
as business face new challenges. So, therefore, do business schools. Hence the necessity to become a
learning organization (Lorange. P., 1996. The present paper tries to unearth the present condition,
opinion of sample respondents, problems and some effective suggestion for the educational institutions
which are directly and indirectly involved with the development of human resources in Bangladesh

Rationale of the study

Most recent issue in Bangladesh is to develop Human Resources to compete locally and globally in the
globalization era. Government, NGO’s and other private organization are working on it and emphasis
on its development. In such context academicians, researchers, Government, decision makers and
others planners and administrators recognize human resource as the most and only vital and complex
factor of industrial development in Bangladesh. That is why, Bangladesh need to develop its
educational institutional supports to develop the human resources through proper education like
business education, technical education, technical training, vocational training and other training
programmes. A survey of the existing literature reveals that there is no plethora research work on it in
the context of Bangladesh. This is why researcher feels to do some research on it and do study the
elements that are involving to develop educational institutions in Bangladesh. This research will add
some value and fill up the gap that motivated the authors to undertake such a study.

Objectives of the study

In the light of development of Human Resources, the main objectives of the study were

1. To spot the present condition of educational intuitions the development of human


resources in Bangladesh.
2. To bring to light the opinion of sample respondents those who are involving with Human
resource development institutions.
3. To pin point the problems areas of educational institutions.
4. To suggest probable steps to overcome the problems of institution s.

Scope and Methodologies of the study

The study covered 20 universities including Government and private institutions situated mainly capital
Dhaka and commercial capital city Chittagong in Bangladesh. The sample comprised of 5 Government
universities and 15 private universities. Necessary information and primary data were collected from
sample respondents through the direct interview method by using structured questionnaire. In addition,
review of all the websites of respected institutions for updated information. In total 200 respondents
were interviewed during the study period. The secondary data has been collected through existing
literature, textbooks, annual reports, program bulletins, government publication etc. The data thus
collected have been tabulated manually and analyzed with relevant techniques.
In the other hand, the researcher also review several foreign research work done by UK and USA based
University academician and local research work as well in this field.

Limitations of the study

The study covered very limited number of sample educational organization. There is no plethora of
research work in this field. Sometimes responded were not interested to express their honest opinion.
To overcome these limitations, an intensive study of existing literature in this field, foreign journal,
relevant publication by Government and other private agencies were studied. Fully self-financed
research work is why the researcher could not able to cover wider area.

Analysis of Findings

The major findings of the present study are analyzed as follows-

To develop the human resources in Bangladesh, it is needed to increase education facility primary level
to university level trough interactive, case study method, field survey method and updated education.

Government Role

Education sector as one of the most priority sectors of the Bangladesh government plays significant
role in overall development of Bangladesh. Education has been considered as one of the strategies
effective for human resource development, poverty alleviation, and socioeconomic development
culminate into national development. It is the need of the time to transform huge population into
productive human resources through the coordination and interaction between men and education and
training linking with technologies. The government with this end in view, has sustained development
endeavors through educational expansion and quality improvement in different sub-sectors of
education.
Development in Education sector

There are sixty-two development projects in education sector and they have been allocated
Tk.95667.00 lacs under the Annual Development Program in the current financial year 2001 -2002. Out
of this, an allocation for investment projects is TK. 94287.00 lacs and TK. 1380.00 lacs for technical
assistance and self-financed projects. Out of sixty-two projects, eighteen are in secondary and higher
secondary sector and thirteen are in technical and vocational sector. Almost half of the projects belong
to these two sectors. They have been allocated a sum of Tk. 82642.00 lacs in the present ADP (2001-
2002), which is 86.38% of the total ADP allocation in education sector. In the current financial year
(2001-2002), university education has got an allocation of 8150.00 lacs taka against 19 development
projects. (www.dns3.bdcom.com).

Development in technical and vocational education

As a part of development program, 13 development projects are being implemented in technical


education sector. These projects have been allocated Tk.8150.00 lacs including Tk.8485.40 lacs as
project aid. Among these projects, (i) Introduction of SSC vocational course in Non-government high
schools in each Thana, (ii) Establishment of thirteen new vocational training institutes, (iii)
Renovation, expansion, and modernization of the college of Textile Technology and opening of four
departments, and (iv) Modernization of existing 20 polytechnic institutes and establishment of 18 new
polytechnic institutes are mentionable.(www.dns3.bdcom.com).

Development in higher education

In order to accelerate development in higher education, University Grants Commission (U GC) is


implementing 19 development projects. These projects have been allocated Tk.8150.00 lacs in the
current financial year 2001-2002. The entire amount comes from GOB as grant. Among various
development projects in higher education sector (1) Establishment of One Science and Technology
University in each of the 12 greater districts (Where there is no university), (2) Construction of flats for
teachers and residential hall for the students of Dhaka University are mentionable. Besides, different
projects for further development of the existing universities are also mentionable.

Programs for the expansion of women's education

Emphasis has been given on reducing disparity between male and female in education sector. In order
to expand women's education, nurture empowerment and ensure women's participation in development
activities, female students have been provided stipends in secondary schools in 460 rural upazillas.
Stipend programs have been able to play a landmark role in reducing dropout and increasing
enrollment in secondary education. As an outcome of stipend program, the rate of teenage marriage has
decreased rapidly. In order to empower women in education sector, different development projects are
being implemented, such as, Female Secondary Stipend Project, Female Secondary School Assistance
Project (2nd phase), and Establishment of 3 Mohila Polytechnic Institutes at 3 Divisional Headquarters.
EU assisted Program to Motivate, Train, and Employ Female Teachers in Rural Secondary schools
(PROMOTE).

Impact of development interventions in education sector

Poor students, especially female ones are being benefited more from the projects. Their participation in
schools has increased satisfactorily. This is really expected because they are more neglected in their
family. The stipend projects are helping in assuaging the burden of the poor parents in carrying out
educational costs. On the other hand, PROMOTE project has brought opportunities for the unemployed
women to have teachers training in rural areas and to get employment in rural schools. This project is
working with the objective of employing 1000 women in rural secondary schools. With this end in
view, several female hostels have been made in District and in Thana levels to provide accommodation
to the female trainees. This project will offer 839 scholarships as well. This initiative has created
inspiration among the female trainees, who are looking for teacher ship.
Development in private sector

In order to control burden on revenue budget in education sector, private sector education is being
inspired. A large number of schools, colleges, madrasahs, and universities have been established in
private sector in Bangladesh. At present in private sector of Bangladesh, there are 2846 junior
secondary schools, 15778 secondary schools, 2176 general colleges, 20 polytechnic institutes, 51
vocational training institutes, 7273 madrasahs, and more than 50 universities. With a view to bringing
discipline in private sector education, initiative has been undertaken to establish a private service
commission to conduct employment and deployment of teachers of all schools and colleges covering
MPO scheme. Initiative would be taken to amend the Private Universities Act 1992. In order to expand
women's education and for the empowerment of women, initiative has been undertaken to establish an
Asian University for women in private sector.

Ongoing policies and programs of Government

The newly elected government has taken positive steps towards improved governance in educational
management. The cabinet has already taken some important decisions for educational reforms, such as,
(a) a national expert committee has been formed to identify the possible areas of reforms in education
sector. The committee will submit its report soon. (b) Education ministry is to prepare an action plan
for the improvement of quality in education by motivating teachers to their profession and recruiting
quality teachers for vacant posts. A committee has been formed for making recommendations in this
regard. The committee will submit its report soon. (c) Six language centers are to be established at six
divisional headquarters for training in communicative English. Besides English, there will be
provisions for learning foreign languages such as Arabic, French, Japanese, Chinese, and German. (d)
Computer education is to be made popular at all stages of education. Ten thousand computers are to be
distributed to equal number of secondary schools as a follow up of this policy. This program is being
implemented now and will cover a three- year period. (e) In order to enhance the status of teachers in
the eyes of the students and the community, Nineteenth January has been declared as the "Teacher's
Day". (f) A Retirement Benefit Foundation for non-government teachers has been established so as to
extend financial support to the non-government teachers after their retirement. (g) Three new Science
and Technology Universities are being setup. This would expand and encourage the development of
science and technology in the country. (h) An MOU has been signed between the Government of
Bangladesh and the European Parliament for the establishment of the Asian University for Women in
Bangladesh. This would encourage female education in the country further and create a new impact on
empowerment of women in Asia. (i) The government has decided to expand the existing female stipend
program from secondary level to higher secondary level and to make tuition fees free for all girl
students up to grade xii. (www.dns3.bdcom.com).

Future Plan and Strategies in post-primary education

The government has the following plans and strategies for education:

Take an executive decision to establish a Teaching Service Commission to streamline teacher


recruitment, training and deployment for primary and post-primary education both in government and
non-government schools, (b) Operationally reforms in textbook printing, publishing, and distribution,
(c) Take actions to consolidate a sector-wide system for public expenditure tracking survey in
education, (d) Prepare and execute an action plan for the completion of secondary curriculum revision
and implementation of revised curriculum, (e) Take steps to encourage the expansion of private TVET
system, (f) Disseminate widely the strategic plan for higher education, (g) Establish an independent
accreditation mechanism for private universities, (h) Establish quality assurance mechanism for public
and private colleges and universities.
Allocation of Budget in Education sector comparison to all sectors

Table 1: Government Budget on Education and percentage of allocation over all sectors.

Year Revenue Budget


All Sector Education % of all sector
1990 -91 RB 73102.4 11820.1 16.17
1991 -92 RB 79000.0 13815.8 17.49
1992 -93 RB 85100.0 16743.9 19.68
1993 -94 RB 91500.0 18057.5 19.73
1994 -95 RB 103000.0 20077.3 19.49
1995 -96 RB 118139.2 21514.5 18.21
1996 -97 RB 125349.1 22955.4 18.21
1997 -98 RB 145000.0 26957.4 18.59
1998 -99 RB 167650.0 29680.0 17.70
1999-2000 RB 184440.0 32567.2 17.76
2000-2001 RB 196330.0 35996.6 18.23
[Source: Website of Education Ministry of Govt. Republic of Bangladesh]

It is clear that Government has no lacking of intension for the development of efficient human
resources in Bangladesh. Govt. has played a vital and significant role.

The Role of Other Institutions

There are 17 state universities , 49 Private universities, 51 vocational institutions, more than 25 NGO’s
who are working hard for developing human resources through technical, educational, specific purpose
job oriented training supports. Here is some types of institutions those who are specialized for their
own specified service like BBA, MBA, Executive MBA, Insurance Management, International studies,
Company MBA, Pharmacy Management, Library Science, specific training and integrated educational
module given by learners. Here some discussion about different pattern of education for human
resource development as follows:

Cost and Management Education

The Institute of Cost and Management Accountants of Bangladesh and Institute of Chartered Accounts
of Bangladesh, an autonomous professional body under the Ministry of Commerce, Government of
People's Republic of Bangladesh is the only Institution in the country dedicated to Cost and
Management Accounting education and research. Institute's mission is to develop and promote Cost
and Management Accounting profession by maintaining highest professional standards of its members
in order to enable them to provide better services to the society. The Institute spearheads the
formulation and implementation of national cost accounting standards. Its goal is to help Bangladesh
become an industrialized nation by promoting and regulating Cost and Management Accounting
profession towards market economy to enhance economic competitiveness and quality of life. The
Institute of Cost and Management Accountants of Bangladesh is the only national Institute imparting
education and training, regulating and promoting the profession of Cost and Management Accounting
in Bangladesh. It was reconstituted under the Cost and Management Accountants Ordinance, 1977
(Ordinance No. LIII of 1977) and regulated by the Cost and Management Accountants Regulations,
1980 (as amended up to date).

Business Education

Business education is tremendously expanded in Bangladesh. Most of the state universities and private
universities give business education in their own way follow the model of European including United
Kingdom and United States Business education model and syllabus. Out of 17 state universities , more
than 10 are providing Business education through their own business faculty. They are facilitating their
student for better education to develop them as skill resources in the job market. In other hand, out of
49 private universities, more than 40 are providing Business education for same purpose.

IT Education
Some of the schools are providing IT education like Software programming, Computer science,
Network engineering and e-commerce technology. Those who are act like Franchise, they also
providing IT education but they are not acting as a university rather than purpose oriented human
resource development centre some organizations.

Table 2 Trends of Choices the Courses by potential students


Course Name Percentage
Professional Education 11.70%
Business Education 34.90%
Science Education 20.40%
Social Science 18.70%
Vocational Training 9.60%
Purpose Oriented Education & Training 11.20%
Not Decided 8.20%
100+
[Source: Field Survey]

Table 2 shows the trend of potential students those who are interested to do course for self-
development. The percentage exceeds 100 because some of the sample respondents answer more than
one choice and the survey concludes with 300 potential respondents.The survey shows that Business
education is most demanded things to develop human resources and entrepreneur.

Vocational Education & Training

Those who are not able to do well in primary and secondary level education in Bangladesh, they are
very much interested to do vocational training programs like various Diploma. There is still have a lot
of chance to do well in this track.

Other purpose oriented Education & Training

Other purpose-oriented education has also be great demand in the context of growing business day by
day. Because people need to survive their existent field that is why they need vocational education or
training.

Quality of T rainer
Teaching and training is the most vital thing for human resource development through giving
education. A trainer spends more than an hour explaining the virtues of clear, concise communication.
He might ramble, repeated, and spoke in a dreary monotone. The audience divided into two: some were
convinced of the merits of the message by virtue of negative demonstrations, the rest were too bored to
care. In Bangladesh Most of the teachers are using traditional methods by using old script actually there
is no updating the education but most recently students organization audience are conscious about what
they are getting actually? This question mark develops the teaching quality through training for
teachers programs.

Table 3 The Most demanded Teaching methods for Trainer


Method No. of Respondents Percentage
Understanding or Script Lecture 300 27%
Case Method L ecture 300 15%
Review & Updated Lecture 300 07%
Presentation Method 300 23%
Practical organization Field Work Method 300 17%
Others 300 11%
[Source: Field Survey]
Table 3 shows that audience are very much like to see the trainer as a think tanker who knows every
in’s and out’s of the topic which trainer are undertaking. Most of the students are stressed to
understanding the matters what they are going to understand from the trainer.

Table 4 Opinion of the respondents towards Trainer efficiency

Variables Average Score


v Clearing Thinking 2.0
v Empathy 1.5
v Sufficient expertise in relevant content 1.5
v Humility 1.0
v Resourcefulness 2.0
v Knowing how to find information 2.0
v Intuition 1.5
v Patience, tolerance and good humor 2.5
v Presentation Skills 2.0
v Flexibility 1.0
v Facilitation 1.0
v Confidence 2.5
v Ability to let go or Understanding lacking 1.0
Average 1.65

Table-4 shows that the aggregate overall score as per opinion of the respondents based on thirteen sub
variables is 1.65 indicating nearer to moderate efficiency of the system.
Placement of the Learner

After completing the courses like MBA, Other Masters, IT education or others training programmes
where the students are placed? It is the main things to think by the institutions. In Bangladesh, there is
tremendous employment crisis and good placement is quite impossible sometimes. The private
universities are doing well in this connection due to they are keeping connection with giant company
and they always arrange seminars, conference, workshop, etc. through the giant company that is why
they can able to place some potentials students to this type of companies. The numbers of total student
are very few that is why they do not face hazardous situation like state universities. All the state
universities produce more than 2500+ students in the market after completing graduate or postgraduate
education. There are more than 17 state universities and sometimes the figure will exceeds the mansion
figure. Out of 2500, 30-40% of the students are get descent job other is struggling.

Table 5 Placement of the graduate to the various companies

Degree From Sample Govt. Private Banking MNC Others Total


Sector Sector Sector
Public 100 5 43 18 4 30 100
University
Private 100 3 56 19 6 16 100
University
Vocational 50 2 32 2 1 13 50
Training
Institute
Diploma 50 1 31 3 1 14 50
General 50 1 36 2 1 10 50
Training
Specialized 40 6 30 5 2 7 40
Training
[source: Field Survey]

Table 5 shows that the trend of getting job after passing from the institut es, Government and
Multinational sector’s opportunities are very few. The main strength is private and banking sectors that
have tremendous prospects in Bangladesh and already both the sectors are doing well.

Satisfaction of the People

The level of satisfaction measuring is a difficult task for the researcher. The researcher tries to unearth
the satisfaction level of the people who are passed trough from these types of institutions and after
getting job, how they feel? Was there education and training per fect? Most of the cases, people need
another training for their new job environment to develop their competencies comparison to their job
role. This is the way, institutions and organizations are building human resource as competence and
skilled.

Problem of HRD through Institutional supports

From the previous literature study and our study, the major problems of developing human resources in
Bangladesh may be identified as follows:-

Lack of Government Initiative


Government does not emphasis this problem as they said in verbally. Government does not give much
fund for the development scheme under the human resource development programme. There is no
nation wide study for determining the quality and quantity of human resource development.

Lack of infrastructure
The institutions may offer a good course, which might have great potentials in the job field, but the
problem is the way they have to learn the student, they cannot give them these sorts of facilities to
develop them.

Lack of useful arrangement

To develop human resource through institutional support; both the public and private sector suffer from
ineffective arrangement in the national budget funds are allocated for education, work forces, and
manpower development.

Lack of Quality

There are so many institutions those are not maintaining satisfactory level of quality. They do not
provide the students quality teacher, quality-teaching materials and other things. Government also
casual of look after it.

Lack of Co-ordination

Human resource development activities through institution are not well coordinated. There is no
coordination among the primary, secondary, and tertiary education systems. The different
methodologies are using different level. Even quality, syllabus structure, teaching methodologies,
styles, facilities for same courses or topics differ from institution to institutions.

Lack of investment

Both the government and private sector invest meager in this HRD in Bangladesh. All the planning for
HRD are handicapped by the scarcity of funds and financing.
Lack of trained instructor

Availability of experienced, efficient, and trained instructor or teacher is a rarity in Bangladesh. On the
other hand, hired instructor is too costly to implement.

Lack of Facilities

To conducting effective HRD, programs also hold back HRD in Bangladesh. The speedy method of
learning like Multi media, OHP, Internet, Computerized program, and other audio visual devices are
almost absent in Bangladesh.

Lack of Communication

No feed back system is applied in HRD training programs in Bangladesh. Nobody bothers for
communicating to the educators or student to know their comment or feedback.

Improper Licensing

Government has approved so many institutions for human resource development without any given
guidel ine, rules, and condition. This the way, the institution get chance to do fraud with learners.

Recommendations for HRD through Institutional support

Government initiatives

To develop his human resources to compete locally and globally; government has to take major step
like create institution, increasing infrastructure and financing.

Proper planning and coordination

Effective planning and proper coordination is must for development of human resources. Effective
planning and coordination is equally significant for private and public sector in Bangladesh. Especially
educational infrastructure should be updated.

To invest in Human Resources Development

Government and non-government policymaker should emphasize on to invest more and more in this
HRD program and need to encourage everybody to invest on it. Moreover, have to give some facilities
like tax or VAT exemptions, tax credit and loan facilities.

To create more institutions and training centre

Presently, the institutes for educational, technical, professional, vocational and other specialized
training institutions are too limited to the overall demand or need in Bangladesh. Sufficient regarding
institution should be established for the sake of human resource development.

To recruit trained instructors

Trained trainer and qualified trainer should be given due to incentives and motivations and all harmful
brain drainage should be checked.

To create employment opportunities


After establishing HRD institutes or invest to the HRD institutes, Govt. and NGO should aware of
creating new job dimension.
Proper Placement

After ensuring smooth employment opportunities, everybody has to ensure to proper placement.

Modern equipment

The institutes should ensure modern equipments in such organizations. It has to maintain scientific
education through modern technologies.

To develop infrastructural facility

Everybody also keep keen eyes to develop infrastructural facilities in such organizations.

To ensure the quality

By giving permission and financing to create or develop, this program through institutions is not the
final touch of the task. In parallel, everybody has to ensure the quality of education and training that
they can develop the skilled human resources for the Bangladesh.

Final comments

The role of institutions for developing human resource is enormous. It is indispensable for any
economy in the world. Country like Bangladesh has tremendous emergence to develop his human
resource into efficient. It is one of the substitutes in connection with the development of Bangladesh.
There is remarkable competition in free market economy. Everybody compete with their efficient
human resource and increase their productivity, innovation of new products, ensures quality assurance
and
Create market forces through efficient human resource. Moreover, efficient human resources create
from a good institution. So human resource development through good institutions should be given the
top most priority in the development process of public and private sectors along the line discussed in
this paper.

References

Fisher J. (1993), “TQM:A warning for higher education”, Education Record, Spring, pp. 15-19

Lorange, P., “A Business School as a Learning Organization”, The Learning Organization., Volume 3,
Number 5, 1996, pp.5-13

Michael J. Jucius, personnel Management,(Homewood, Illinois) Richard D. Irwin, INC., 1979,p.221.

Schragel. F. (1993)”Total Quality in Education” , Quality Progress, October, pp. 67-69.

Shalala. D. (1993),”TQM applications in Education”, Executive Excellence, May, pp. 6-7.


Tribus,M. (1999), ``Will our educational system be the solution or the problem?’’, Total Quality
Management, Vol. 10 No. 4/5, pp. 745-71.

http://www.dns3.bdcom.com, Education Ministry, government Republic of Bangladesh.

http://www.govfinance.org

http://www.icmab.com

http://www.ugc.com