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DC SYSTEM ANALYSIS TUTORIAL

Introduction
Four study modules are available in DC Systems Analysis: Battery Sizing DC Load Flow DC Short Circuit (ANSI) DC Short Circuit (IEC) These are the available DC components to build your DC system: DC bus DC load DC motor DC cable Train load Battery Rectifier DC generator (for Load Flow and ANSI short circuit only) Inverter DC-DC converter DC capacitor (for IEC short circuit only) You can also connect an inverter to the AC emergency loads as your DC systems load. Using a DC example project, this section demonstrates how to set the data for your DC components and how to run the four DC analysis tools for your DC system. Begin by building the one-line shown in Fig. 1. This DC system includes DC loads, DC motor, DC cables, train load, battery, rectifier, and DC generator. It also includes an inverter and 2 AC loads as emergency loads. After building this one-line diagram, we will enter data for the components, then we will demonstrate how to run the studies.

Fig. 1. DC system one-line diagram

Battery sizing
The Battery sizing criteria of the DC System Analysis study module is based on the ANSI/IEEE Std 485 IEEE Recommended Practice for Battery Sizing, published in 1983. Before you run the Battery Sizing Study, you need to enter data for the following DC components: DC bus DC loads DC cables Train load DC motor Inverter (and its AC loads if you have them) Battery DC Buses Double-click each DC bus icon, and in the Component Editor, set the Nominal System Voltage to 250 volts, as shown in Fig. 2:

Fig. 2. Window for setting DC bus data

DC Loads For DCLD-0002, as shown in Fig. 3, set the Rated Voltage to 250 volts; set Load Type to Constant Resistance; set the Load Size to 2.34 Ohms; and set the duration time to 480 mins (0~480 mins).

Fig. 3. Window for setting DC load data

For DCLD-0005, as shown in Fig. 4, set the Rated Voltage to 250 volts; set Load Type to Constant KW; and set the Load Size as following: From 0 to 50 Mins: 10 KW From 50 to 90 Mins: 11 KW From 90 to 110 Mins: 20 KW After 110 Mins: 0 KW

Fig. 4. Window for setting DC load data

DC Cables For DCBL-0007, set the values as shown in Fig. 5:

Fig. 5. Window for setting DC cable data

Set the values for the other cables as following: Cable Name Rated Voltage Cable length DCBL-0001 250 2000 DCBL-0002 250 1000 DCBL-0003 250 1000 DCBL-0004 250 1000 DCBL-0005 250 1000 DCBL-0006 250 1000 DCBL-0008 250 1000

R/1000ft 0.012 0.011 0.0234 0.032 0.0123 0.02 0.012

L/1000ft 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.6

Train load For TRN-0001, set the values as shown in Fig. 6. Note that total resistance & total inductance for the DC cable are the R & L used to supply the power to train, and R (%) is the current position of the train.

Fig. 6. Window for setting train load data

DC Motor For DMTR-0001, set the values as shown in Fig. 7. You do not have to link to the DC Motor Library here for Battery Sizing Study (it will be used for ANSI). Also, you do not have to set the data for ANSI and IEC subviews.

Fig. 7. Window for setting DC motor battery sizing data

Inverter and AC emergency loads For INV-0001, set the values as shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 8. Window for setting inverter data

For AC network emergency loads, use the following settings: Fig. 9 and Fig. 10 for AC buses, Fig. 11 and Fig. 12 for AC loads, and Fig. 13 for an AC cable.

Fig. 9. AC bus

Fig. 10. AC bus

Fig. 11. AC load

Fig. 12. AC load

Fig. 13. AC cable

Next we will set the start time and stop time for your AC emergency loads. In your DC system analysis window, click the right mouse-button, and in the popup menu, click AC Emergency loads, then click the Add button to set these data in the dialog box, as shown in Fig. 14 and Fig. 15:

Fig. 14.

Fig. 15. Window for setting AC emergency load data

Battery Double-click the Battery icon, and in the Component Editor (Fig. 16 and Fig. 17), enter the data shown. The field Bus Type is used only for the DC Load Flow study. The Bus Type option V Bus means the battery terminal voltage will be kept constant during the current calculation period, and P bus means the battery output power will keep constant during the current calculation period. The field Num of Positive plate gets set to the Battery Sizing Study result by the study.

Fig. 16. Setting battery data

Fig. 17. Setting battery data

Select a library component for your battery by clicking the Lib button, which opens the Library as shown in Fig. 18:

Fig. 18.

If your battery is not defined in the library, you have to enter one, as shown in Fig. 19 and Fig. 20:

Fig. 19.

Fig. 20.

Run Battery sizing Click the DC button on the toolbar; the DC system analysis window will appear, as shown in Fig. 21:

Fig. 21. DC System Analysis main window

You can also click the Run>DC System Analysis command to run the Study, as shown in Fig. 22:

Fig. 22. Another method to run DC system analysis

By clicking the Setup button, you can define the random loads for the Battery Sizing Study, as shown in Fig. 23:

Fig. 23. DC System Analysis setup window

Click Run, and the Battery Sizing study will run for your DC system, as shown in Fig. 24:

Fig. 24. Running Battery Sizing

You can click the Report button to check the Battery Sizing Study result report; it is in the IEEEs recommended standard format for battery sizing, as shown in Fig. 25:

Fig. 25.

You can also check your Battery Sizing Study results by clicking the Report button on the toolbar, then selecting the report for your study case, as shown in Fig. 26 (this is Study1):

Fig. 26.

Fig. 27, Fig. 28, Fig. 29, Fig. 30, and Fig. 31 show the report file you will see; it is in the IEEE standard format, ready for printing.

Fig. 27.

Fig. 28.

Fig. 29.

Fig. 30.

Fig. 31.

DC Load Flow
The DC Load Flow engine is based on chapter 16, DC Auxiliary Power System Analysis, in the ANSI/IEEE Std 399-1997. Unlike the AC Load Flow Study, the DC Load Flow Study calculates the load flow during several time periods; it does this because battery voltage decreases during its service period. In addition to entering data for the Battery Sizing Study, you will enter data for the following DC components (if they exist in your DC system) to run the DC Load Flow Study: Battery Rectifier DC generator Battery Double-click the Battery component, and in the Component Editor (Fig. 32), check the field Number of Cells to see if it has a result; this should have been set by the Battery Sizing Study and should have a value. (If you prefer to run DC Load Flow directly without running the Battery Sizing Study, you need to enter a value here.) You also need select Bus Type: V Bus means the battery terminal voltage will keep constant during the current calculation period, P bus means the battery output power will keep constant during the current calculation period.

Fig. 32. Battery subview

Rectifier Double-click the rectifier icon, and in the Component Editor (Fig. 33), and Load Flow subview (Fig. 34), set the data for AC side, DC side, and also the transformer (if the rectifier has a transformer). If the rectifier does not have a transformer there, just set the primary rated voltage and secondary rated voltage using the same values you used for the AC rated voltage, and set the %Z to 0.0. Rectifier control mode can be set as voltage control, current control, or firing angle control. If you do not have a transformer, usually it should be set to voltage control.

Fig. 33. Rectifier Parameter Setting Main Window for DC Load Flow

Fig. 34. Rectifier Parameter Setting, Load Flow subview for DC Load Flow

Generator Double-click the generator icon, and in the Component Editor (Fig. 35), set the Rated Voltage, Source Type, Power/Voltage, and Time Duration. You do not have to select the DC generator library here; it is only used for the DC ANSI short circuit calculation.

Fig. 35. DC generator parameter setting for DC Load Flow

Run DC Load Flow First, click the Setup button in the DC system analysis window and set the global setting for DC Load Flow, as shown in Fig. 36. Next, click the right mouse button, click Select Components to select the buses and branches for which you want to check the results, as shown in Fig. 37 and Fig. 38. Next, select Load Flow and click the Run button. DC Load Flow will run for your DC system, as shown in Fig. 39. Now click the Graph button. You can check the curves for bus voltage, branch current, and power flow in the different periods, as shown in Fig. 40. You can also check the detailed report for Load Flow by clicking the Report button, or by clicking the Report button on the toolbar, as shown in Fig. 41.

Fig. 36. Setup for DC Load Flow

Fig. 37. Menu for select components

Fig. 38. Select buses and branches

Fig. 39. Run DC Load Flow

Fig. 40. Results for bus voltage and branch current & power flow

Fig. 41. DC Load Flow results detailed reports

ANSI Short Circuit


The DC ANSI short-circuit engine is based on Chapter 16, DC auxiliary power system analysis, in ANSI/IEEE Std 399- 1997, and GE Industrial Power Systems Data Book. In addition to these data setting for Battery Sizing Study, you still need to set the data for following DC components (if they exist in your DC system) to run the DC Load Flow: Battery Rectifier DC generator DC motor Battery Double-click the battery icon, and in the Component Editor (Fig. 42), select the short circuit subview, and select the Battery size type from its 4 possible options, then set the data.

Fig. 42. ANSI short circuit subview for battery

Rectifier Double-click the rectifier icon, and in the Component Editor (Fig. 43), select the short circuit subview and select the Rectifier Type from its 4 possible options, then set the data for this type of rectifier.

Fig. 43. Short Circuit (ANSI) Subview for Rectifier

DC generator Double-click the DC generator icon, and in the Component Editor (Fig. 44), select the short circuit subview and set the data. If you have selected the model for the generator from the DC Generator library, Resistance and Inductance here will be updated from the values in the library (shown in Fig. 45). The DC generator model can be defined in the DC generator library, shown in Fig. 46.

Fig. 44. Short circuit subview for DC generator

Fig. 45. Short circuit subview for DC generator when its model is selected from Library

Fig. 46. DC generator model in Library

DC motor Double-click the DC motor icon, and in the Component Editor (Fig. 47), select the short circuit subview and set the data. If you have selected the model for the motor from the DC Motor library, Resistance and Inductance here will be updated from the values in the library (shown in Fig. 48). The DC motor model can be defined in the DC Motor library, as shown in Fig. 49.

Fig. 47. Short circuit subview for DC motor

Fig. 48. Short circuit subview for DC motor when its model is selected from Library

Fig. 49. DC motor library

Run ANSI DC short circuit First, you need to click the Setup button in the DC system analysis window and set the global setting for ANSI DC short circuit, as shown in Fig. 50. Second, click the right mouse-button, then click Select Components to select the sources and branches for which you want to check results, as shown in Fig. 51 and Fig. 52. Then select the Short Circuit (ANSI) item and click the Run button. The DC short circuit engine will run for your DC system, shown in Fig. 53. Click the Graph button; you can check the curves for short circuits in sources and branches, shown in Fig. 54 and Fig. 55. You can also check the detailed report for short circuits by clicking the report button or by clicking the Report button on the toolbar, as shown in Fig. 56.

Fig. 50. Global setting for ANSI DC short circuit

Fig. 51. Menu for select components for ANSI short circuit

Fig. 52. Window for selecting the components for curve output

Fig. 53. Run ANSI DC short circuit engine

Fig. 54. Short circuit curves 1

Fig. 55. Short circuit curves 2

Fig. 56. Detailed report for ANSI DC short circuit

IEC DC short circuit


The IEC DC short circuit engine is based on IEC standard 61660 Short-circuit currents in DC auxiliary installations in power plants and substations. In addition to the data settings for the Battery Sizing Study, you still need to set the data for following DC components (if they exist in your DC system) to run the IEC DC short circuit (IEC standard does not consider the DC generator): Battery Rectifier DC motor DC capacitor Before you set the data for these DC components, you need to set the IEC option for your DC system. Click the Project>Options command, select the Application subview, and select IEC as the standard, as shown in Fig. 57.

Fig. 57. Window for setting the IEC as the project standard

Battery Double-click the battery icon, and in the Component Editor (Fig. 58), select the short circuit (IEC) subview, and set its data.

Fig. 58. IEC DC short circuit subview for battery

Rectifier Double-click the rectifier icon, and in the Component Editor select the short circuit (IEC) AC subview (Fig. 59) and DC subview (Fig. 60), and set the data.

Fig. 59. IEC DC short circuit AC side subview for rectifier

Fig. 60. IEC DC short circuit DC side subview for rectifier

DC motor Double-click the motor icon, and in the Component Editor select the short circuit (IEC) subview (Fig. 61), and set the data.

Fig. 61. IEC DC short circuit subview for DC motor

DC Capacitor Set the DC generator out of service, and add a capacitor. Double-click the capacitor icon, and in the Component Editor (Fig. 62), set the data.

Fig. 62. IEC DC short circuit subview for capacitor

Run IEC DC short circuit First, click the Setup button in the DC system analysis window and set the global setting for IEC DC short circuit, as shown in Fig. 63. Next, click the right mouse-button, and click Select Components to select the sources and branches for which you want to check the results, as shown in Fig. 64. Next, select the Short Circuit (IEC) item and click the Run button. The DC Short Circuit Study will run for your DC system, as shown in Fig. 65. Now click the Graph button; you can check the curves for short circuits in sources and branches, as shown in Fig. 66. You can also check the detailed report for short circuits by clicking the Report button or by clicking the Report button on the toolbar, as shown in Fig. 67.

Fig. 63. IEC DC short circuit setup window

Fig. 64. IEC DC short circuit Select components window

Fig. 65. Message window of running IEC DC short circuit

Fig. 66. IEC DC short circuit graphic result output

Fig. 67. IEC DC short circuit detailed result report