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8. Of Repentance and Faith New Hampshire Confession of Faith (1853?) We believe that Repentance and Faith are sacred duties, and also inseparable graces, wrought in our souls by the regenerating Spirit of God (1); whereby being deeply convinced of our guilt, danger, and helplessness, and of the way of salvation by Christ (2), we turn to God with unfeigned contrition, confession, and supplication for mercy (3); at the same time heartily receiving the Lord Jesus Christ as our Prophet, Priest, and King, and relying on him alone as the only and all-sufficient Saviour.1 Genuine Repentance & Faith in the Lord Jesus Christ: receiving Him as sole Savior and relying on Him as uniquely Prophet, Priest & King By Greg W . Parsons
(Mark 1:1, 4-5, 14-18? ; Acts 20:17-21)

I. Essence of Genuine Faith & Repentance:

This doctrine is based on a long history beginning with Jesus (Mk 1:15) to Paul (quoted in Acts 20:21) and the author of Hebrews (chap. 6:1 ) down to ?? A frustrating variety of key Greek terms (translated repent/ repentance, turn/turning, and

faith/believe) are used to describe genuine response to the Gospel,

A problem exists concerning what is necessary for salvation_2 (Acts 3:19; repent_ & turn (cf. 9;35; 14:15; 15:19; 26:18,20;); 11:21 believe_/turned; Acts 16:31 believe_; Acts 20:21 repentance_//faith_ ; cf. Acts 2:38 (repent and be baptized)
Sometimes the summons is, Repent! Thus, John the Baptist came preaching in the wilderness of Judea, Repent for the kingdom of heaven is at hand (Matt. 3:12). Again, Peter urged the hearers on the day of Pentecost, Repent and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ (Acts 2:38). Later, Paul urged the Athenians to repent in response to the message of the risen Christ (Acts 17:30).

A central passage portraying repentance is Luke 5:3032. where Jesus described His mission as calling sick sinners to repentance. Though this passage has parallels in the synoptics (cf. Matthew 9:13 and Mark 2:17) only Luke mentioned repentance here.. To repent includes an awareness that as a sinner one has an unhealthy relationship with God-- which needs healing. Repentance involves recognizing that a person is a sinner (spiritually sick and impotent, unable to help oneself).. Repentance is turning to Jesus. the Great Physician who alone can heal the relationship and deal with sin and its consequences. (Bock 130) Such transformation in a sinner brought joy even to Jesus, since heaven rejoices to see such repentance (Lk.15:7,10). Thus He also employed the word "repentance" in His Great

See Darrell Bock in Bibliotheca Sacra (April 1986):149-50 & notes 4-5 (154); also Bock in Biblical Theology of the NT, ed. Roy B. Zuck, 129-30, 131-34, esp. 130, n. 36

Commission to the disciples about their future message (Lk 24:47). to show that the term is an appropriate summary for proclaiming the gospel message today. Luke continues this idea in Acts: According to Peter's apostolic preaching, repentance for forgiveness of sin is available for Israel through Christ the Prince and Savior (Acts 5:31); but it is also for Gentiles, leading to life (11:18); and it was prepared for by Johns baptism of repentance (13:24; 19:4). 3 At the same time the word "turn" may be used examples?? Also sometimes only faith/believe is mentioned: Acts. 16:31 As Darrell Bock notes: "Salvation is not to be seen as the accumulation of these various responses. Rather the one true response to the message has these elements bound up in it, though each term highlights an ingredient in that response. Any one term can summarize a genuine response, while highlighting an element in it."4 In a few places dual terms are used in Acts to help us see that they repentance is offered to Jews and Greeks through faith in Jesus (20:21). In fact, in 26:18, 20 Paul told Agrippa that those turn from darkness to light will repent and turn to God and prove their repentance by their deeds, a comment similar in tone to Luke 3:314. This parallelism shows a continuity between John the Baptist and Paul--that deeds are the natural and expected product of genuine repentance. The linkage between repentance & faith (by Jesus Mk. 1:15) and Paul (preaching in Acts 20:21) illustrates indeed they are "inseparable graces" given by the regenerating Holy Spirit. (cf. John 16:8-9; Acts 2:37-38). Here in Mk. 1:15 & Acts 20:21, repentance and faith belong
together as two equally essential aspects of conversion. Thus, either term implies the presence of the other because each reality (repentance or faith) is the sine qua non of the other.

Although theologians have long debated which comes first: repentance or faith, John Murray was right, that this issue raises:
an unnecessary question and the insistence that one is prior to the other is futile. There is no priority. The faith that is unto salvation is a penitent faith and the repentance that is unto life is a believing repentance saving faith is permeated with repentance and repentance is permeated wit h saving faith. (Redemption-Accomplished and Applied, p. 113).

Two illustrations of repentance & faith; 1) For a long time I have used the illustration of 2 sides of the same coin (Acts 20:21); MacArthur notes "that coin is conversion. Repentance turns from sin to Christ, and faith embraces Him as the only hope of salvation and righteousness."5 Sinclair Ferguson correctly

Bock in Roy B. Zuck, A Biblical Theology of the New Testament,, 130131.

Darrell Bock, "A Theology of Luke-Acts," in Roy B. Zuck, ed. A Biblical Theology of the New Testament, (Chicago: Moody Press, 1994), 129.

John MacArthur "What is biblical repentance?"

states: We cannot separate turning from sin in repentance and coming to Christ in faith. They
describe the same person in the same action, but from different perspectives. In one instance (repentance), the person is viewed in relation to sin; in the other (faith), the person is viewed in relation to the Lord Jesus. But the individual who trusts in Christ simultaneously turns away from sin. In believing he repents and in repenting believes.6

2) Chas Haddon Spurgeon & others call repentance and faith "conjoined twins": "The repentance which is commanded in Mk. 1:15 is the result of faith; it is born at the same time with faiththey are twins, and to say which is the elder-born passes my knowledge. It is a great mystery; faith is before repentance in some of its acts, and repentance before faith in another view of it; the fact being that they come into the soul together." 7 Ferguson notes; Entwined within any theology of conversion lies a psychology of conversion. In
any particular individual, at the level of consciousness, a sense of either repentance or trust may predominate. What is unified theologically may be diverse psychologically. Thus, an individual deeply convicted of the guilt and bondage of sin may experience turning from it (repentance) as the dominant note in his or her conversion. Others (whose experience of conviction deepens after their conversion) may have a dominant sense of the wonder of Christs love, with less agony of soul at the psychological level. Here the individual is more conscious of trusting in Christ than of repentance from sin. But in true conversion, neither can exist without the other Yes, repentance and faith are two essential elements in conversion. They constitute twin graces that can never be separated. As John Calvin well reminds us, this is true not only of the beginning but of the whole of our Christian lives. We are believing penitents and penitent believers all the way to glory.8

Like faith, repentance has intellectual, emotional, and volitional ramifications. Berkhof describes the intellectual element of repentance as "a change of view, a recognition of sin as involving personal guilt, defilement, and helplessness." The emotional element is "a change of feeling, manifesting itself in sorrow for sin committed against a holy God." The volitional element is "a change of purpose, an inward turning away from sin, and a disposition to seek pardon and cleansing." (Berkhof, Systematic Theology, 486) Each of those three elements is deficient apart from the others. Repentance is a response of the total person; therefore some speak of it as total surrender.9
II. The Object of Faith: Receiving and Relying on the Lord Jesus Christ as one's only & all-sufficient Savior (uniquely Prophet, Priest & King)
6 in Tabletalk Magazine June 1, 2013

7 8 sermon on Mk. 1:15 Ferguson, op cit 9 John MacArthur "What is biblical repentance?"

4 Acts 3:19-22; Hebrews 1:1-4 (or vv. 1-13 if time?) In the Old Testament, a person could be a prophet, a priest or a King, but it was impossible to be all three. Yet Scripture attributes all three of these offices to Christ.

The Book of Hebrews urges its recipients to move on to maturity past merely being saved (the basics foundation of the Christian faith including "repentance from dead works and faith in God" 6:1-2). The author emphasizes the superiority of Christ the Son of God in several ways; in the first chapter alone one sees echoes of the superiority of Christ as Prophet, High Priest and King.
It was apparently Eusebius in his Ecclesiastical History (1.3.8) who first described the concept of these three-fold offices of Christ. He said Jesus is "the only high priest of all, and the only King of every creature, and the Father's only supreme prophet of prophets." 10 However Calvin was the first major theologian to apply these 3 aspects to Christ's work. 11 "Therefore, that faith may find in Christ a solid ground of salvation, and so rest in him, we must set out with this principle, that the office which he received from the Father consists of three parts. For he was appointed both Prophet, King, and Priest;:12

The first role is. Prophet: In the Old Testament Moses said in Deut. 18:15, The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your countrymen, you shall listen to him. This prophecy is quoted by Peter in Acts 3:22-23 in reference to Jesus, Moses said, The Lord God shall raise up for you a prophet like me from your brethren; to Him you shall give heed in everything He says to you. 23 And it shall be that every soul that does not heed that prophet shall be utterly destroyed from among the people." The context of Acts 3:22 is clear that it is speaking of Jesus.13 Yes, Jesus was a prophet but he was more than a prophet; thus this is not emphasized in the epistles.but is implied in Heb. 1:1.

I. Introduction (or Prologue) 1:1-3 (or in Grk. 1:1-4one long sentence) Essentially summarizes the main themes of the Book of Heb. including the 3-fold character of the Sons Messianic office: (see Hughes 49 + n.2) In v. 1 because Jesus is superior to the prophets of OT (he is much more than a prophet). 1) Prophet (but much better and much more) (v. 1) 2) Priest 3) Prince & King

10 Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology, 624 ( n. 1) John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion[ Book 2, chap. 15 (section 1)(Logos Bible Software, 1997). Matt Slick

11 12


5 The prologue may be viewed as a chiasm as suggested by Robinson and followed by Hughes, Lane, Ebert and Ellingworth.14 Eberts proposal differed from previous writers in that the symmetrical pattern has a central, unmatched point [D] which is thus highlighted by the author.15 A The Son contrasted with the prophets (vv. 12a) B The Son as messianic heir (v. 2b) C The Sons creative work (v. 2c) D. The Sons threefold mediatorial relationship with God (vv. 3ab) C The Sons redemptive work (v. 3c) B The Son as messianic king (v. 3d) A The Son contrasted with angels (v. 4)

Further details: 1) Prophet par excellence (v. 1) 2) Divine Procreator and P____________ of all things (vv. 2b-3) a) Created the worlds b) His Divine nature: v3a Radiance of Gods glory Exact representation of His being c) Controls and sustains (lit. upholds---ongoing action) 3) Perfect priest?_ (v. 3b) This is will be a major theme in the argument of Hebrews; He is a superior High priest after the order of Melchizedek (see vv. in LTJohnson, 49 + David Allen Hebrews argument in GWP notes+ ) 4) Prince of peace (v. 2b) & King (v. 3c) II. Jesus Superiority to the Angels (1:52:18) A. Proved from the OT (1:5-14)


D. W. B. Robinson, Literary Structure, 178185; P.E. Hughes, Hebrews, 49; Wm. Lane, Hebrews 18, 67; D. Ebert, The Chiastic Structure of the Prologue to Hebrews TrinJ 13 (1992): 163179; and P. Ellingworth, Hebrews, 95. 15 See David Allen, Hebrews NAC [forthcoming B&H] (1:1-4):[175-176]

6 The author utilized 7 OT citations Ps. 2:7; 2 Sam. 7:14; Deut. 32:43; Ps. 104:4; 45:6 7; 102:2527; 110:1 (in sequence) from the LXX..
According to Bateman, the author wove together the seven Old Testament quotations in the form of a conceptual chiasm to make a theological statement about the Son: A The Sons Status as Davidic King (Ps 2:7; 2 Sam 7:14) B The Sons Status as God (Deut 32:43; Ps 104:4) (1:5) (1:67)

C The Sons Status as Divine Davidic King (Ps 45:67) (1:89) B The Sons Status as God (Ps 102:2527) (1:1012)

A The Sons Status as Davidic King (Ps 110:1) (1:13) Batemans conclusion is that two Jewish concepts about a future Davidic king and God are merged 16 hermeneutically and exegetically and thereby find fulfillment in one person, the Son.

1, Superior in His Sonship (v. 5) 2. Preeminent in His Priesthood? (implied from vv. 7, 14 where the angels were only priestlike in their ministry in contrast to the Son, see v. 3 and Heb. 8:1-2) 3. Crowned as Divine King over all kings (vv. 5b, 8-9, 13) (in contrast to angels who must worship Him, v. 6) 4. Dominant in His Deity (vv. 8-9; 10-12) Conclusion: Christ holds these offices eternally. As the ultimate revelation of the Prophet, He speaks the word of God to us; as Priest, He represents us fully to the Father and brings the supreme atoning sacrifice (of Himself) that placates the Father's holy and just wrath against us for our sin; and as the conquering and reigning King, He is forever worthy of our worship and adoration. He is King of Kings and Lord of Lords.17
Herman Bavinck,[GWP 1854-1912] eloquently summarizes Christ's 3 fold office:

"Christ, both as the Son and as the image of God, for Himself and also as our Mediator and Saviour, had to bear all three offices. He had to be a prophet to know and to disclose the truth of God; a priest, to devote Himself to God and, in our place, to offer Himself up to God; a king, to govern and protect us according to God's will. . . . . all three are essential to the completeness of our salvation. In Christ's God-tohumanity relation, He is a prophet; in His humanity-to-God relation He is a priest; in His headship over all humanity He is a king. Rationalism acknowledges only His prophetic office; mysticism only His priestly office; millennialism only His royal office. But Scripture, consistently and simultaneously attributing all three offices to Him, describes Him as our chief prophet, our only [High] priest, and our eternal king. Though a king, He rules not by the sword but by His Word and Spirit. He is a prophet, but His word is power and really happens. He is a priest but lives by dying,

Allen [256] quoting H. Bateman, Early Jewish Hermeneutics, 244; and his Two First-Century Messianic Uses of the OT, 1127, esp. 2627. 17

7 conquers by suffering, and is all-powerful by His love. He is always all these things in conjunction, never the one without the other: mighty in speech and action as a king and full of grace and truth in His royal rule."18