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This article proposes a new modified anisotropic diffusion scheme for automatic defect detection in radiographic films. The new diffusion method allows to enhance, to sharpen anomalies, and to smooth the background of the image. This new technique is based on the modification of the classical diffusion rule by using a nonlinear sigmoidal function. Experimental results are carried out on multiple real radiographic recorded films of Gaz pipelines of the "Tunisian Society of Electricity and Gas distribution: STEG" and the society "Control offices--chemical and industrial analysis laboratories: Saybolt-Tunisia". The new automatic defect detection method shows good performance in comparison with other existing algorithms.

anisotropic diffusion defect detection radiographic images contrast enhancement image sharpening

1. Introduction
!ndustrial radiography is now a well"established technique for the identification and the e#aluation of defects such as discontinuities, cracks, porosities, burn thru, and lack of penetration found in welded $oints %&igure '(. These radiographic films are mainly used in petroleum, petrochemical, nuclear, and power generation industries especially for the inspection of welds in the pipelines.

Figure 1. Type of defects in welded joints) (a) burn thru, (b) porosity, (c) lack of penetration, (d) internal undercut, (e) lack of fusion, (f) external undercut. *ntil now and in se#eral real industrial applications radiographic film analysis are done exclusi#ely by the radiograph inspector, such as in the society "Control offices-chemical and industrial analysis laboratories: Saybolt-Tunisia". The radiograph inspector is then required to #isually inspect each film and detect the presence of possible defects which he must then identify and measure. This study is made a

tedious task because of the low dimensions of certain defects %some fissures can ha#e a thickness around +,, -m(, the low contrast and a noised nature of some radiographic films. .onsequently, the detection decision can be sub$ecti#e in some cases and work conditions. /e#eral generic systems, able to carry out automatic inspection, are already marketed 0'"12. 3ut their capacity to fault detection is limited to simple and specified applications for which the defects are well marked by only some changes in the grayle#el or the form. /ome of the most important achie#ements in this area are presented below. !n 0'2, the authors proposed a digital image processing algorithm based on a global and local approach for detecting the nature of defect in radiographic images. This algorithm is based first on smoothing the image using a filter and then a dynamic stretching procedure is applied to the region of interest %45!( by a look up table transformation. /econd, they extract the defect by applying the morphological operations which eliminate small holes, spots, and connect the closely regions. 6uthors of 07,82 proposed a fuzzy k"nearest neighbor method based on multilayer perceptron neural network and a fuzzy expert system for the classification of welding defect types. The features used for the classification are distance from center, circularities, compactness, ma$or axis width and length, elongation, 9eywood diameter, the intensity a#erage, and its standard de#iation. 6 typical method for automated recognition of welding defects was presented in 0+2. The detection algorithm follows a pattern recognition methodology steps as follows) /tep ') Segmentation) different regions are found and isolated from the rest of the :" ray image using a watershed algorithm and morphological operations %erosion and dilation(. /tep +) Feature extraction) regions are measured and shape characteristics are quantified such as diameter #ariation and main direction of inertia based on in#ariant moments.

/tep 7) Classification) the extracted features of each region are analyzed and classified using a k"nearest neighbor classifier. 6ccording to the literature, the method is robust and achie#es good detection rate. !n 0;2, a welding defect classification method is proposed. !n a first step, called image pre"processing, the quality of the image is impro#ed using a median filter and a contrast enhancement technique. 6fter that the e#aluation of the characteristic parameters following a rele#ance criterion in discriminating welding defect classes by using a linear correlation coefficient matrix is then used. <iao and =i 0>2 proposed a weld extraction method based on the obser#ation of the intensity plot where the plot of a weld seems to be a Gaussian cur#e with respect to the other ob$ects in the image. Then, a weld detection approach based on a cur#e fitting was proposed. Their main idea is to simulate a +? background for a bad characterized normal welding by low spatial frequencies in comparison with the high spatial frequencies defect image. Thus, a +? background is estimated by fitting each #ertical line of the weld by a polynomial function, and the obtained image is subtracted from the original one. 6 two step technique to detect flaws automatically is proposed in 012 where the authors used a single filter. This method allows first to identify potential defects in each image of the sequence, and second to match and track them from image to image. @any other weld defect detection methods are so far presented and proposed in the literature. 9owe#er, each technique presents its own ad#antages and drawbacks. 6 comprehensi#e re#iew paper to compare these techniques is now missing in the literature. !n this article, we shall focus our attention on a well"known technique namely the anisotropic diffusion model used to the weld detection defects 0A2. 6nisotropic diffusion has widely been used as an adapti#e edge"preser#ing smoothing technique for edge detection 0B2, image restoration 0',2, image smoothing 0''2, image segmentation 0'+2, and texture segmentation 0'72. !n this study, we extend the work of /hin"@in .hao and Tsai 0'12 used to defect detection in T&T"<.? screen %Thin &ilm

Transistor""<iquid .rystal ?isplays( to tackle the problem of defect inspection in radiographic films. .onsequently, a new anisotropic diffusion scheme is proposed. 3esides that the anisotropic technique has some drawbacks, but it is seen by the users as the appropriate and most used one. 9ence, this article is de#oted to the impro#ement of this technique and its application to the identification of weld defects in the gas distribution pipelines of the "Tunisian Society of Electricity and Gas distribution: STEG." The main impro#ement of the method is the use of a more complex exponential diffusion function multiplied by a standard used rule. The effecti#eness of the new modification exhibits high detection le#el of the obtained experimental results. This article is organized as follows. !n /ection +, a pre#iew of the characteristics of the radiographic films on welds and the corresponding images prepared by the "Control offices--chemical and industrial analysis laboratories: Saybolt-Tunisia" is gi#en as well as the principle of Gamma 4ay %"ray( radiography. The preprocessing steps are presented in /ection 7. 6 re#iew of the Cerona"@alik anisotropic diffusion rules and the impro#ed diffusion model proposed by /hin"?u 0'12 are de#eloped in /ection 1. /ection 8 presents the new proposed anisotropic diffusion model and presents experimental results on many radiographic images with #arious defects. &inally, the main conclusions of this study are gi#en in /ection ;.

2. re!iew of t"e #ray radiograp"y and radiograp"ic fil$s on welds

To assess the quality of the welded $oints, radiography is among the most useful of thorough and non"destructi#e tests. !t is based upon exposing the target area to the short wa#elength. !n the society Saybolt-Tunisia the "ray is used from the !ridium" 'B+. The corresponding wa#elength is about 8',"> to 7',"1 -m. De shall note that the "ray can penetrate and then inspect $oints of bigger thickness than treated by :"ray. To produce effecti#e "ray a small pellet of !ridium"'B+ sealed in an appropriate capsule is used. This latter is placed on one side of the ob$ect being screened, and a photographic film is placed on the other side. The "rays pass through the target area and create an image on this film which will be later de#eloped and examined.

6s it is well known, the quality of radiography images depends on se#eral parameters such as %and not limited to( the emplacement of the source, the exposure time of the film to gamma radiations, the film quality, etc 0'82. !n radiograph the radiation intensities transmitted by the source through the target area are rendered as difference densities in the image. The difference of densities from one region to another constitutes the radiographic contrast. .onsequently different films ha#e different contrast characteristics. To check the film quality, the following parameters are mainly considered 0';2) E The radiographic density or the optical density which is a measure of the film darkening. E The radiographic contrast that e#aluate the capacity to distinguish different tones of gray in the film itself. !n the purpose of measuring the radiographic density the society Saybolt Society uses a densitometer of type /@"'+ "Pocket Pal". !n the &igure + some characteristics of this de#ise are gi#en. !n practice the acceptable density #alues lie in the range of '.A and 7.8.

Figure 2. %"aracteristics of t"e densito$eter &'#12 ( oc)et al(. The usual method of measuring the radiographic contrast is to include some standard details in the image which can gi#e an indication of the image quality. /uch de#ices are known as "!mage Fuality !ndicators %!F!s(" or "penetrameters". 6n !F! must be small and relati#ely cheap to manufacture if it is to be used on e#ery radiograph and should be as sensiti#e as possible to changes in the radiographic technique. !n Saybolt-Tunisia the Dire"Type !F! is used %@ore precisely the !F! ?!= 81',B(. !n &igure 7 a scheme of the wire !F! and some related characteristics are gi#en.

Figure *. T"e +ire#Type I,I -I. /0 112) Three types exist for the ?!= 81',B according to the operating range. 1 I&3 4) 1,"';, mm and e#en bigger. 5 I&3 12) '+.8"8, mm. 11 I&3 15) 8"+, mm.

*. reprocessing steps
*.1. -igiti6ation &ilm digitizing is a critical part of the weld recognition system. 9ence, selecting optimized resolution of scanning and acceptable quality of digitizing plays an important role in whole system performance. !n this study, real radiographic films are extracted from the database of a standard films pro#ided by the /ociety of Saybolt-Tunisia. These radiographic films are considerably dark and their density is rather large. 6fter digitization the fundamental characteristics of these images are E <ack of the contrast between the defect and the background of the image. E Cresence of a gradient in the background of the image, characterizing the #ariation of thickness of the part being inspected. This gradient can affect the detection of small size andGor low contrast defects. E Granular aspect of the background of the image is seen as a background noise. This is due to the granular nature and the thickness of the emulsion and the digitization operation. 6s a result, these images are difficult to process and segment, and consequently con#entional methods such as thresholding, edge detection, texture analysis, and others fail to gi#e interesting results.

The second step after the image digitization is the filtering process. *.2. 'edian filtering The median filtering allows mainly the attenuationGelimination of noise. !ndeed the acquired images should pass through a stage of image filtering in order to remo#e distracting and useless information 0'>2. &or example, the existence of impulsi#e noise in the images is one of the most encountered problems that should be treated. The application of a low"pass filter is used to remo#e noise in radiographic images. The median filter is a nonlinear filter used to remo#e the impulsi#e noise from an image 0'A"+,2. &urthermore, it is more robust than the traditional linear filtering, because it preser#es the sharp edges. @edian filter is a spatial filtering operator it uses a +? mask applied to each pixel in the input image. This filter performs better than the ma$or a#eraging filters because it can remo#e noise from inputting images with a minimum amount of blurring effect. The median filter operation can be expressed as)

g%x,y(H@E?!6=%i, (!%x,y(f%i, (%'(

where, f%i, ( represents the gray le#el #alue of the input image at the pixel %i, (, g%x, y( represents the gray le#el #alue of the smoothed image, !%x, y( represents a "I" window centered at the pixel %x, y( and @E?!6= stands for the median of the gray le#el #alues within the specified window. !n order to simplify the defect detection procedure, the ma$ority of works begin by localizing the 45! and then applying the weld detection algorithm steps. *.*. 7ocali6ation of t"e 83I &or the multiple reasons e#oked abo#e, it is difficult, e#entJs impossible, to detect the presence of small defects and determine accurately their sizes, during the radiogram #isualization. .onsequently, for the seeking of simplifying the task, one could begin by selecting the 45!, i.e., which can be considered as the parts of the image where the radiograph interpreters suspect the presence of imperfections. The selection of the

45! pre#ents the operator to make treatments on the irrele#ant regions of the image and allows, furthermore, to reduce the computing time for real"time applications. &igure 1 presents a typical example of the selection of the 45! in a radiographic image.

Figure 0. &election of t"e 83I. =ote that the technique of 45! localization is commonly used by researchers in se#eral works, see 0',+,+'2. !n the following, we shall present the classical diffusion model followed by the new proposed anisotropic weld defect detection algorithm.

0. &tudy of t"e erona#'ali) anisotropic diffusion $odel ( 'A-)

0.1. Funda$ental sc"e$e !n 'BB,, Cerona and @alik 0A2 proposed to consider the intensity of the image as a concentration of fluid e#ol#ing toward equilibrium. .onsequently, they proposed the new anisotropic diffusion model based on the use of the classical heat equation of diffusion. 4ecall that diffusion is a natural physical phenomenon that moderates the concentration of differences without creating or destroying mass. Then authors introduced a diffusion coefficient depending on the pixel position and the corresponding magnitude and the gradient direction. This diffusion coefficient is considered as a tuning parameter that go#erns the diffusion. !t is chosen so that it permits diffusion in homogenous areas but not between boundaries. To de#elop an efficient algorithm for automatic defect detection in radiographic films and since weld defect can be of #ery small sizes in the 45!, it is important to take the image at the highest possible contrast. !n the sequel, we shall present an anisotropic diffusion scheme for a contrast enhancement. 6nisotropic diffusion was proposed by Cerona and @alik 0A2 for scale"space description of images and edge detection. 6nisotropic diffusion remo#es noise from

an image by modifying the image #ia a partial differential equation. Cerona"@alik introduced the following diffusion rule)

where #t%x, y( is the gray le#el at coordinates %x, y( of a digital image at the iteration t, di# is the di#ergence operator, and #t%x, y( is the gradient of the image. ct%x, y( is the diffusion coefficient considered as a function of the gradient #it%x,y( in the C@6? model, i.e.,

g is a non"negati#e monotonically decreasing function #erifying)

This anisotropic diffusion rule can discretely be implemented by using four nearest" neighbors and the <aplacian operator 0'>2)



where #it%x,y( i H '...1, represents the gradient of four neighbors in the north, south, east, and west directions, respecti#ely)

#'t%x,y(H#t%x,yP'(P#t%x,y(%;( #+t%x,y(H#t%x,yN'(P#t%x,y(%>( #7t%x,y(H#t%xN',y(P#t%x,y(%A( #1t%x,y(H#t%xP',y(P#t%x,y(%B(

!t looks like an adapti#e diffusion procedure, the C@6? beha#ior is a function of the local #ariations of the intensity of the image. Thanks to the function ct%x, y( it allows a large"smoothing in the zones of low gradient, and a weak"smoothing in the zones of

large gradient %contour(. 9ence, a thresholding coefficient $ allows to distinguish between the zones with large gradient #alues and those with weak gradient ones. Cerona"@alik 0A2 proposed for example the following exponential functions %known as edge stopping function()


The in#erse proportion edge stopping function in Equation %',( remo#es the noise in the large area efficiently, because its diffusion is the in#erse function of the image gradient. 3ut unfortunately, this function cannot preser#e edge information. The exponent edge stopping function in Equation %''( allows to o#ercome this matter. Dith the finite difference scheme and the central differencing in spatial domain, the +? anisotropic diffusion rule can be then expressed as)

#%i, ,tN'(H#%i, ,t(N%0c&#&%i, ,t(NcS#S%i, ,t(Nc"#"%i, ,t( NcE#E%i, ,t(2%'+(

where , Q % Q ,.+8 go#erns the rate of the diffusion and &, S, E, " are the mnemonic subscripts for north, south, east, and west, respecti#ely, and

c&Hg%R#&R(%'7( cSHg%R#SR(%'1( cEHg%R#ER(%'8( c"Hg%R#"R(%';(

The choice of the threshold $ is somewhat difficult it can be fixed arbitrarily or by estimating the noise. &or this purpose, the authors in 0A2 proposed to choose it using the cumulated histogram of the gradient. Generally speaking, if $ is big, the preser#ation of the edge will be better howe#er, the noise will not be sufficiently

remo#ed but if $ is small, the noise will be well remo#ed, but the edges of the image will be blurred. <et '%#( be the flux function as defined in 0A2)

6 large flux #alue indicates a strong effect of smoothness. &igure 8 presents the e#olution of the diffusion coefficient function and the flux function gi#en by Equations %',( and %'>(, respecti#ely.

Figure /. -ifferent cur!es of t"e erona 'ali) $odel) (a) .ur#e of the diffusion coefficient function) g%#( H 'G'N%R# RG$(+ (b) .ur#e of the flux function) g%#( H 'G'N%R# RG$(+S#. &or a gi#en #alue of $, it is shown from &igure 8a that the cur#e of the diffusion coefficient function in Equation %',( decreases intensi#ely and becomes near zero when the gradient magnitude R#R is greater than 1$. Therefore, the diffusion stops when R#RT1$. The maximum smoothness occurs at R#RH'$, as can be seen in the corresponding flux function in &igure 8b. The classical model of C@6? can actually smooth intra"regions in the image. .onsequently, in a low contrast image, the C@6? model can smooth the background but it cannot clearly enhance the defects. Therefore, the result of diffusion still a low contrast image and defects will not be reliably identified in the diffused image. The algorithm of the C@6? model is gi#en in Table '.

Table 1. 6lgorithm of the C@6? model /ome simulation results of the C@6? applied to images of weld are gi#en in &igures ; and >. !ndeed &igures ;a', a+ and >a', a+ represent four radiographic images of weld with internal undercut, external undercut, lack of fusion, and lack of penetration defects, respecti#ely. &igures ;b', b+ and >b', b+ show the restoration results of the diffusing process using C@6? model with a parameter $ H +, and &igures ;c', c+ and >c', c+ represent the result of the binarization of these images with the 5tsu method 0++2.

Figure 5. -iffusion results of t"e radiograp"ic i$ages) (a19 a2) defecti#e radiographic images (b19 b2) respecti#e diffusion results using the C"@ model (d19 d2) respecti#e diffusion results using the /hin"?u model (f19 f2) respecti#e diffusion results using the proposed model (c19 c2)9 (e19 e2)9 (g19 g2) thresholding results using 5tsu method.

Figure 4. -iffusion results of t"e radiograp"ic i$ages) (a19 a2) defecti#e radiographic images (b19 b2) respecti#e diffusion results using the C"@ model (d19 d2) respecti#e diffusion results using the /hin"?u model (f19 f2) respecti#e diffusion results using the proposed model (c19 c2)9 (e19 e2)9 (g19 g2) thresholding results using 5tsu method. &rom these results one can see clearly that this first method fails to detect weld defects. This means that the traditional C@6? model cannot enhance sufficiently anomalies by smoothing low"gradient regions and preser#ing high"gradient edges. /ome impro#ements of these results will be found with the /hin"?u model. 0.2. &"in#-u $odel This model was proposed by /hin"@in .hao and Tsai 0'12, it incorporated a sharpening strategy in the classical diffusion model in order to enhance the anomalies effecti#ely in defected surfaces. The /hin"?u model is then expressed as)

#tN'%x,y(H#t%x,y(N'1 P'1



where the third term on the right"hand side is the sharpening operator. The sharpening diffusion coefficient function has (%#it%x,y(( in order to ensure non"negati#e monotonically increasing function with (%,(H,andlim#itLM(%#it(H'

The function (%#it%x,y(( maintains a high coefficient #alues at image edge ha#ing large magnitudes and low coefficient #alues. The considered image edge should belong to an image region showing low gradient magnitudes. This (%#it%x,y(( is defined as)

where ) is the weight of sharpening coefficient function, and , Q ) Q '. !t go#erns the degree of sharpness process. Table + gi#es the algorithm of the different steps of this method. Table 2. 6lgorithm of the /hin"?u model &igure Aa, b represents the diffusion coefficient function g%#("(%#( and the flux function '%#( H 0g%#("(%#(2S # for the model proposed by /hin"?u, respecti#ely. &or a gi#en U and $, it can be seen in &igure Aa that the diffusion coefficient function decreases dramatically and crosses zero when the gradient magnitude R# R is bigger than $G)V.

Figure :. -ifferent cur!es of t"e &"in#-u $odel: (a) ;rap" of t"e diffusion coefficient function: g( I)#v( I) wit" < = 1.1> (b) ;rap" of t"e flu? function: ( I) = @g( I)#v( I)AB I wit" < = 1.1. The flux function in &igure Ab shows that the flow increases with the gradient strength to reach a maximum. 6nd then it decreases and crosses zero to reach negati#e #alues. This beha#ior shows that the diffusion process performs smoothing for lower gradient area %when R#RW$G)V( and proceeds sharpening for higher gradient area %when R

&or defect detection in a low"contrast glass substrates image 0'>2, the model can effecti#ely enhance defects in the diffused image. 3ut, as shown in &igures ;d', d+, >d', d+ and ;e', e+, >e', e+, the /hin"?u impro#es the weld defect detection but it does not show drastic results for the localization of these defects. 0.*. %"oice of t"e para$eters and K /ince the parameters U and $ should be fixed beforehand for a particular application, the experiments are conducted to find appropriate #alues of $ and U for the detection of defects in the radiographic images. Dhen U is too large, anomalies cannot be enhanced in the resulting diffusion image. !n contrast, when U is too small the diffusion results show that the proposed diffusion model will o#er sharpen the image. Dhen $ is too large, the resulting images are se#erely smoothed. =ot only the background area is smoothed, but also the default form is lost. Dhen $ is too small and U is too large, the diffusion process cannot reduce noise. These results fail the inspection of defects in radiographic images.

/. T"e proposed $odified anisotropic diffusion $odel

&rom &igure ', it is clear that the gray le#els of defects and faultless backgrounds are painfully distinguishable and really merged together. !n 0+72, the authors used a sigmoidal function to produce different degrees of edge sharpening. Then a weighting function was used for the experimental implementation gi#en by

+%x( is a sigmoidal function whose #alues are '+ for x H ,, and clumbs to a #alue of ' with increasing x, and where the r T , is a free parameter that controls the steepness of +%x(, i.e., the strength of edge sharpening. &or sol#ing the later cited problem, and preser#ing the same context of using a sigmoidal function, we intend to modify the diffusion function to reach the $oint goal namely good gray le#el and good sharp edge of the fault. Then a new anisotropic diffusion model based on a new stopping edge function is proposed. !n these new models two main modifications on the /hinJs one are proposed. " &irst, a filtering procedure is applied to the image gradient as follows)

" /econd, a sharpening function is added to the edge stopping rule. Then the new proposed formula is gi#en by Equation %++(

&igures B and ', represent the diffusion coefficient function g%#("(%#( and the flux function '%#( H 0g%#("(%#(2S # for the proposed diffusion model, respecti#ely.

Figure 2. ;rap" of t"e proposed diffusion coefficient function g( I)#v( I): wit" < = 1.1.

Figure 11. ;rap" of t"e flu? function for t"e proposed $odel ( I) = @g( I)#v( I)A wit" < = 1.1. &or gi#en U, $, and a, it can be seen that the diffusion coefficient function increases to a maximum and then decreases dramatically and crosses zero to achie#e a minimum %when the gradient magnitude R# R is bigger than ,(. Table 7 shows the different steps of the proposed model. &igures ;a', a+ and >a', a+ represent four radiographic images of weld with internal undercut, external undercut, lack of fusion, and lack of penetration defects, respecti#ely. &igures ;f', f+ and >f', f+ show the restoration results of the diffusing process using the proposed model with a parameter $ , 7 and U H ,.8. Table *. 6lgorithm of the proposed model 5ne can note from &igures ;f', f+ and >f', f+ that defects become #isible in the diffused image. This indicates that the proposed model can sufficiently enhance hardly #isible anomalies by simply smoothing low"gradient regions and preser#ing high"gradient edges. To show furthermore the effecti#eness of the proposed method, experiments ha#e been carried on many radiographic images with defects. The algorithms are implemented on a personal computer. !mages were +8; I +8; pixels wide with A"bit grayscale. The #alues of parameters U and $ were set at fixed #alues of ,.8 and 7, respecti#ely. The number of iterations is +, for all test images. &igures ;a', a+ and >a', a+ represent the original images of welded $oints, &igures ;f', f+ and >f', f+ represent the diffusion results and &igures ;g', g+ and >g', g+ illustrate the simple thresholding 0+12 results of the filtered images. &igures '', '+, '7, and '1 show different +? intensity profiles taken from the regions where the possible defects are suspected. &or each cur#e we gi#e the mean and the standard de#iation. &rom these plots and by inspecting the standard de#iation #alues one can clearly see that the new method allows to enhance and to sharpen different

details of the weld defects without affecting the background or the neighboring regions.

Figure 11. 2- intensity profiles of t"e line 5 in t"e 83I of t"e internal undercut defect. (a) C@6? model (b) /hin"?u model (c) proposed model.

Figure 12. 2- intensity profiles of t"e line 4 in t"e 83I of t"e e?ternal undercut defect. (a) C@6? model (b) /hin"?u model (c) proposed model.

Figure 1*. 2- intensity profiles of t"e line * in t"e 83I of t"e lac) of fusion defect. (a) C@6? model (b) /hin"?u model (c) proposed model.

Figure 10. 2- intensity profiles of t"e line 2 in t"e 83I of t"e lac) of penetration defect. (a) C@6? model (b) /hin"?u model (c) proposed model.

5. conclusion
!n this article, the anisotropic diffusion scheme for defect detection in the T&T"<.? screens is extended to the defect detection in radiographic images. These later are used in the inspection of welds in the pipelines. *ntil now and in se#eral industrial applications radiographic film analysis are done exclusi#ely by the radiograph inspector who is required to #isually inspect each film and detect the presence of possible defects. .onsequently the automatization of such a procedure becomes necessary. The new proposed method allows to automatically detect the possible defects through enhancing and sharpening the radiographic images. The multiple

simulations carried out show good performance of the proposed detection scheme. Clots of multiple +? intensity profiles taken from the areas containing the defects show that the new method highlights the defect details and allows efficient distinctions between the faultless background and the defect details.