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Chapter 4 Section 3

Objectives
 Explain how cells produce more cells

 Describe the process of mitosis

 Explain how cell division differs in animals and plants


The Life of a Cell
 Your body is constantly making new cells

 Cells pass through different stages in their cell cycle

 Cell cycle begins: when the cell is formed

 Cell cycle ends: when cell divides


Life Cycle of a Cell
 Before a cell divides: it must make a copy of its DNA

 DNA is organized Into structures called: chromosomes


 Copying chromosomes ensures exact copy of parent cell

*How does a cell divide??


 Depends on if it is prokaryotic or eukaryotic
Making More Prokaryotic Cells
 Less complex: ribosomes, singular circular DNA
molecule, no membrane bound organelles

 Cell division in bacteria is called: binary fission


(splitting into 2 parts)

• Results in 2 cells, each with one copy of the circular


DNA
Binary Fission

http://www.lakemichigancollege.edu/liberal/bio/pics2/fission_an.gif
Eukaryotic Cells & their DNA
 More complex than prokaryotic cells

 Contain more DNA

 Different kinds of eukaryotes have different # of


chromosomes (varies: fruit flies (8), potato (48),
humans(46)

 Homologous chromosomes: pairs of similar


chromosomes
Homologous Chromosomes
 46 chromosomes; 23 pairs

http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Images/graphs/2003/2003-0330humankaryotype.jpg
Making more Eukaryotic Cells
 3 stages:
 Interphase (copying DNA)

 Mitosis (4 sub-phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase,


telophase)

 Cytokinesis (cell splits)


Stage 1: Interphase
 Cell grows and copies its organelles and chromosomes

http://student.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/biotutorials/dna/images/u4fg26a.jpg
Mitosis phase 1: Prophase
 X shape forms as chromosomes twist and coil
 X shape is made of 2 chromatids held together by the
centromere
 PROPHASE: chromosomes condense from long
strands into rod-like structures
Mitosis phase 2: Metaphase
 Chromosomes are condensing and separating
 METAPHASE: nuclear membrane is dissolved. Paired
chromatids align at the cell’s equator
Mitosis phase 3: Anaphase
 ANAPHASE: The chromatids separate and move to
opposite sides of the cell
Mitosis phase 4: Telophase
 TELOPHASE: a nuclear membrane forms around each
set of chromosomes, and the chromosomes unwind.
Mitosis is complete!
 Each new cell receives a copy of each chromosome
Cytokinesis
 The cell splits into 2 cells – division of the cytoplasm
 These cells are identical to each other and to the
original cell

http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/labbench/lab3/images/cytokin.gif
Cytokinesis
 Cells with a cell wall reproduce differently (plants,
algae, fungi)
 A cell plate forms in the middle of the cell
 New cell wall forms where the cell plate was

http://www.sep.alquds.edu/biology/scripts/Biology_english/part_3_4_files/image010.jpg
Quick Quiz
 What is cell division?

 How do prokaryotic cells make more cells?

 How do eukaryotic cells make more cells?