Anda di halaman 1dari 7

Christiane Cardoza

Page 1
Mobile Money: Haiti Case Study
Following the deadly 2010 Haitian earthquake, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
partnered with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to jumpstart mobile
money in Haiti.
1
The Haiti Mobile Money Initiative (HMMI) provided a $2.5 million award in
January 2011 to mobile operator Digicel for launching the first mobile money service, TchoTcho
Mobile, in Haiti.
2
Seven months later, Voila was given a $1.5 million award for the second
mobile money service, T-Cash.
3
As the two operators scaled and reached 5 million transactions,
they received several monetary awards for their growth.
4
As of January 2012, TchoTcho Mobile
and T-Cash had a network of 2,270 agents.
5

Six of the fourteen nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) implementing mobile money
were located in Haiti in 2011.
6
These six NGOs were Catholic Relief Services (CRS), Mercy
Corps, CONCERN International, World Vision, Oxfam, and Help Age International.
7
These
NGOs worked to integrate mobile money into the community as a means to promote savings,
with both successes and failures. In 2012, the Associated Press shared World Visions progress,
which explained they registered 6,000 Haitians for mobile money, but only 1,000 used it.
8

The NGOs used mobile money for a variety of transactions, including livelihood and
cash-for-work (CfW) programs. Livelihood programs provided participants with the ability to
purchase particular goods from a set list of vendors, and include food security and housing
programs.
9
Mobile money, alternatively, allowed cash-for-work programs to deliver direct daily
wage payments to participants mobile money e-wallets.
10
In 2012, CfW programs distributed
$500,000 to approximately 5,500 individuals.
11

Catholic Relief Services CfW launched immediately following the earthquake. The
program provided wages to Haitians who worked on recovery efforts. Initially, CRS
administered the programs payroll with a payment courier service called Fonkoze.
12
In 2011,
Christiane Cardoza
Page 2

CRS changed its payroll services in order to T-Cash.
13
For the pilot, CRS chose two groups of
CfW beneficiaries to receive biweekly wages through T-Cash for seven payrolls.
14

To utilize T-Cash, CRS was required to create a CRS Wallet by opening a bank
account with Unibank.
15
CRS then trained beneficiaries how to use T-Cash in order to provide a
comprehensive understanding of the system. Beneficiaries were expected to provide their own
mobile phones, although some rural beneficiaries were given phones for free. In enrolling
beneficiaries for T-Cash, CRS decided to administer Know Your Customer (KYC) forms in
order to raise the maximum transaction size from 2,500 Haitian gourdes to 10,000 gourdes.
16

During enrollment, CRS found that not every beneficiary provided a correct mobile
phone number.
17
In order to ensure this mistake was not repeated, CRS required beneficiaries to
present their phones while registering to ensure the correct number was provided. Further,
program managers performed a check to ensure the bank accounts were linked correctly to their
phones.
18

After establishing an account, beneficiaries were required to sign a form for each day
worked. These forms were sent to the Finance Department of CRS-Haiti to enter into the T-Cash
online system to provide payments to workers.
19
Two initial issues the program ran into were
compatibility of data and the availability of cash.
20
The CfW program managers did not initially
input data into Excel in a way that was compatible with the T-Cash website. Data had to be
reentered to address this issue. The program managers also found that it was imperative to
inform Voila of its intentions to perform payroll transactions to ensure that all tellers had
sufficient funds at their stations.
21

In regards to the effectiveness of implementing T-Cash in CfW, CRS expected faster,
cheaper, safer, and more convenient CfW payments.
22
Overall, these expectations were both met
Christiane Cardoza
Page 3

and exceeded. CRS found that while under the Fonkoze system, payments took eight to ten days
to process.
23
Under T-Cash, it only took a maximum of two days to process payments.
24
This
decrease in time allowed CRS to spend fewer resources on payroll distribution. Switching to T-
Cash also saved CRS a total of 21,498 gourdes (Table 1 and 2).
25

In terms of safety, T-Cash allowed staff to perform fewer direct deliveries, which
decreased risk to CRS personnel.
26
Beneficiaries also found T-Cash to be safer for them, and
many people expressed satisfaction with the system because it increased confidentiality. Most
importantly, beneficiaries expressed that T-Cash tellers were conveniently located and the
program was accessible and understandable.
27
Overall, beneficiaries and CRS staff alike
expressed their approval of the pilot system.
CRS took away many lessons from this pilot. The program revealed the importance of a
comprehensive stakeholder analysis and good communication between all parties. It also
emphasized that ensuring country staff is up to date on the process of payroll, employing the
country program finance department to prepare cost figures, and employing community members
already knowledgeable about local mobile money is vital to success.
28
The importance of
verifying phone numbers and the activation of mobile money accounts was also critical.
CRS also recommends considering phone reception range, phone utilization, transfer and
account limits, liquidity, effective training materials, and a contingency plan in the case of a
payroll transaction failure.
29
The interoperability of the mobile money program is important to
consider.
30
Is it possible for the program to be interoperable with multiple mobile money
providers? These considerations can help tailor a more successful program for new regions.
In early 2012, Better than Cash released a report on HMMI entitled Plugging into
Mobile Money Platforms: Early Experiences of NGOs in the Field, which They included
Christiane Cardoza
Page 4

several similar lessons for NGOs interested in mobile money. In order for mobile money services
to work for NGOs, it is vital for MNOs to be committed to the project. NGOs operate in areas
with weaker mobile money systems, and MNOs must be willing to address this need for
success.
31

As with CRS, Better than Cash emphasized the importance of education programs for
mobile money in order to fully implement programs. Several programs ran into difficulties in
opening new accounts, and so MNOs agreed to accept NGO-issued identification cards for KYC
requirements in order to open accounts.
32
Better than Cash also expressed the importance of
communicating with cash agents in order to be prepared for each payroll or benefit rollout.
Without this communications, agents are unprepared for the large spike in customers.
Better than Cash reminds NGOs of the importance of understanding that more resources
will be needed at the start of a mobile money project if there is no fully developed market for it.
33

NGOs must educate donors and maintain records to evaluate the effectiveness of mobile money.
Including all stakeholders and maintaining a partnership is vital to success. Better than Cash
advises that NGOs consider the limitations of mobile money. There are several options available
for cash-based programs. The organization cites SMS-based e-vouchers as a popular option.
34

In April 2012, Digicel acquired Voila.
35
While the two companies continue to run
separately, this merger did affect mobile money programs. Unfortunately, the change presented
several obstacles for CRS. Around the same time, HMMI funding concluded. As a result, the
most updated information about the successes and failures of these programs is from 2012.
36

Nonetheless, mobile money continues to exist in Haiti through the work done by these NGOs
and continues to impact Haitian lives. We learn from this case study that it is important to keep
market factors in mind when initiating a program while also ensuring to educate all stakeholders.
Christiane Cardoza
Page 5

Table 1. Counterfactual Cash for Work Costs without T-Cash Pilot Project, August 3, 2011 October 28,
2011 (Haitian gourdes)

Note: Table shows what it would have cost CRS to have made all CfW payments from August 3, 2011, to October
28, 2011, with Fonkoze.
Fokoze charged 37 gourdes per transfer. The figure shown reflects 561 T-Cash beneficiaries and 659 Fonkoze
beneficiaries.
CfW program managers estimated that four vehicles were being used every payroll before introduction of the T-
Cash pilot. The rate was $3.02 per kilometer driven (the cost per kilometer was provided by CRS Haitis
finance department).


Table 2. Actual Cash for Work Costs After Launch of T-Cash Pilot Project, August 3, 2011 October 28,
2011 (Haitian gourdes)

After the pilot project was launched, T-Cash performed 659 transactions. The transfer fee of 50 gourdes per
transaction was paid by CRS Haiti.
After the pilot project was launched, Fonkoze made 561 transfers. Fonkoze charged a fee of 37 gourdes per cash
transfer, which was paid by CRS Haiti.
T-Cash charged the recipient of funds a fee of 45 gourdes-a cost that was borne by CRS Haiti. The cost shown
is for 659 transactions at this rate.
CfW program managers estimated that, on average, CRS Haiti vehicles were drive 37.5 kilometers for each per
payroll delivery. From August 3, 2011 to October 28, 2011, 14 vehicles were used for CfW payments executed
by Fonkoze, billed at a rate of $3.02 per kilometer driven (the cost per kilometer was provided by CRS Haitis
finance department).




(Note: Tables and explanations were taken from MacDonald, Brian, and Hemely Gedeon. Banking with Mobile
Phones in Haiti: A Report on a T-Cash Pilot Project. Rep. CRS, 2012.)
!"
!"# %&'(' )*&+',*- .&/'01. 23 456789 12:)-*.;
4<
=>* =?!&.> @)2A*B( C&. (>*)*32)*
*33*B('/* '0 @)2/'-'01 !"# %&'(' C'(> & +*.. *D@*0.'/* !3E @&FG*0( @)2B*..; H3 (>*
1*21)&@>'B&+ .B2@* 23 =?!&.>I. 2@*)&('20. >&- J**0 *0>&0B*-6 (>* B2.( .&/'01.
C2:+- +'K*+F >&/* '0B)*&.*- 3:)(>*);
#$%&' ") *+,-$& .$/0 123 4235 .2/,/ *1,'3 6$-7+0 21 #8.$/0 9:&2, 932;'+,<
*-=-/, >< "?!!@A+,2%'3 "B< "?!! CD$:,:$7 =2-3E'/F
#8 .$/0 G2752H'
IJK'7/' :,'L .2/, IJK'7/' :,'L .2/,
=)&0.&B('20.
&
L468M< =)&0.&B('20.
J
4<6NMN
Benetoiary subsidy
@*) ()&0.&B('20
B
486OMM P*>'B+* B2.(.6 .*/*0
@&F)2++.
-
OL674<
=2(&+6 =?!&.> O46O<M =2(&+6 Q20K2,* 9765NN
#2,$& .14 +2/,/ /:7+' #8.$/0 &$-7+0M !NO<PB"
&
R3(*) (>* @'+2( @)2A*B( C&. +&:0B>*-6 =?!&.> @*)32)G*- OM8 ()&0.&B('20.; =>* ()&0.3*) 3** 23 M<
12:)-*. @*) ()&0.&B('20 C&. @&'- JF !"# %&'(';
J
R3(*) (>* @'+2( @)2A*B( C&. +&:0B>*-6 Q20K2,* G&-* MO5 ()&0.3*). ; Q20K2,* B>&)1*- & 3** 23 LN
12:)-*. @*) B&.> ()&0.3*)6 C>'B> C&. @&'- JF !"# %&'(';
B
=?!&.> B>&)1*- (>* )*B'@'*0( 23 3:0-. & 3** 23 7M 12:)-*.S& B2.( (>&( C&. J2)0* JF !"# %&'(';
=>* B2.( .>2C0 '. 32) OM8 ()&0.&B('20. &( (>'. )&(*;
-
!3E @)21)&G G&0&1*). *.('G&(*- (>&(6 20 &/*)&1*6 !"# %&'(' /*>'B+*. C*)* -)'/*0 LN;M
K'+2G*(*). 32) *&B> @*) @&F)2++ -*+'/*)F; Q)2G R:1:.( L6 4<556 (2 TB(2J*) 496 4<556 57 /*>'B+*.
C*)* :.*- 32) !3E @&FG*0(. *D*B:(*- JF Q20K2,*6 J'++*- &( & )&(* 23 UL;<4 @*) K'+2G*(*) -)'/*0
(the oost per kilometer was provided by CR3 aiti's tnanoe department).
#$%&' >) .2-7,'31$+,-$& .$/0 123 4235 .2/,/ Q:,02-, #8.$/0 9:&2, 932;'+,<
*-=-/, >< "?!!@A+,2%'3 "B< "?!! CD$:,:$7 =2-3E'/F
IJK'7/' : , 'L .2-7, '3 1 $+, -$& +2/,
=)&0.&B('20.
&
75677<
P*>'B+* B2.(.6 .*/*0 @&F)2++.
J
54O697<
#2,$& +2-7,'31$+,-$& .14 +2/,/ !OB<"B?
V2(*W =&J+* .>2C. C>&( '( C2:+- >&/* B2.( !"# (2 >&/* G&-* &++ !3E @&FG*0(. 3)2G R:1:.( L6 4<556
(2 TB(2J*) 496 4<556 C'(> Q20K2,*;
&
lonkoze oharged 37 gourdes per transfer. 1he tgure shown reteots 561 1-Cash benetoiaries and
659 lonkoze benetoiaries.
J
!3E @)21)&G G&0&1*). *.('G&(*- (>&( 32:) /*>'B+*. C*)* J*'01 :.*- */*)F @&F)2++ J*32)*
introduotion of the 1-Cash pilot. 1he rate was $3.02 per kilometer driven (the oost per kilometer
was provided by CR3 aiti's tnanoe department).
4< using 1-Cash instead of lonokoze saved the differenoe of 168,280 gourdes (lonkoze
oost of doing business) and 146,782 gourdes (1-Cash oost of doing business), or
456789 12:)-*.;
!"
!"# %&'(' )*&+',*- .&/'01. 23 456789 12:)-*.;
4<
=>* =?!&.> @)2A*B( C&. (>*)*32)*
*33*B('/* '0 @)2/'-'01 !"# %&'(' C'(> & +*.. *D@*0.'/* !3E @&FG*0( @)2B*..; H3 (>*
1*21)&@>'B&+ .B2@* 23 =?!&.>I. 2@*)&('20. >&- J**0 *0>&0B*-6 (>* B2.( .&/'01.
C2:+- +'K*+F >&/* '0B)*&.*- 3:)(>*);
#$%&' ") *+,-$& .$/0 123 4235 .2/,/ *1,'3 6$-7+0 21 #8.$/0 9:&2, 932;'+,<
*-=-/, >< "?!!@A+,2%'3 "B< "?!! CD$:,:$7 =2-3E'/F
#8 .$/0 G2752H'
IJK'7/' :,'L .2/, IJK'7/' :,'L .2/,
=)&0.&B('20.
&
L468M< =)&0.&B('20.
J
4<6NMN
Benetoiary subsidy
@*) ()&0.&B('20
B
486OMM P*>'B+* B2.(.6 .*/*0
@&F)2++.
-
OL674<
=2(&+6 =?!&.> O46O<M =2(&+6 Q20K2,* 9765NN
#2,$& .14 +2/,/ /:7+' #8.$/0 &$-7+0M !NO<PB"
&
R3(*) (>* @'+2( @)2A*B( C&. +&:0B>*-6 =?!&.> @*)32)G*- OM8 ()&0.&B('20.; =>* ()&0.3*) 3** 23 M<
12:)-*. @*) ()&0.&B('20 C&. @&'- JF !"# %&'(';
J
R3(*) (>* @'+2( @)2A*B( C&. +&:0B>*-6 Q20K2,* G&-* MO5 ()&0.3*). ; Q20K2,* B>&)1*- & 3** 23 LN
12:)-*. @*) B&.> ()&0.3*)6 C>'B> C&. @&'- JF !"# %&'(';
B
=?!&.> B>&)1*- (>* )*B'@'*0( 23 3:0-. & 3** 23 7M 12:)-*.S& B2.( (>&( C&. J2)0* JF !"# %&'(';
=>* B2.( .>2C0 '. 32) OM8 ()&0.&B('20. &( (>'. )&(*;
-
!3E @)21)&G G&0&1*). *.('G&(*- (>&(6 20 &/*)&1*6 !"# %&'(' /*>'B+*. C*)* -)'/*0 LN;M
K'+2G*(*). 32) *&B> @*) @&F)2++ -*+'/*)F; Q)2G R:1:.( L6 4<556 (2 TB(2J*) 496 4<556 57 /*>'B+*.
C*)* :.*- 32) !3E @&FG*0(. *D*B:(*- JF Q20K2,*6 J'++*- &( & )&(* 23 UL;<4 @*) K'+2G*(*) -)'/*0
(the oost per kilometer was provided by CR3 aiti's tnanoe department).
#$%&' >) .2-7,'31$+,-$& .$/0 123 4235 .2/,/ Q:,02-, #8.$/0 9:&2, 932;'+,<
*-=-/, >< "?!!@A+,2%'3 "B< "?!! CD$:,:$7 =2-3E'/F
IJK'7/' : , 'L .2-7, '3 1 $+, -$& +2/,
=)&0.&B('20.
&
75677<
P*>'B+* B2.(.6 .*/*0 @&F)2++.
J
54O697<
#2,$& +2-7,'31$+,-$& .14 +2/,/ !OB<"B?
V2(*W =&J+* .>2C. C>&( '( C2:+- >&/* B2.( !"# (2 >&/* G&-* &++ !3E @&FG*0(. 3)2G R:1:.( L6 4<556
(2 TB(2J*) 496 4<556 C'(> Q20K2,*;
&
lonkoze oharged 37 gourdes per transfer. 1he tgure shown reteots 561 1-Cash benetoiaries and
659 lonkoze benetoiaries.
J
!3E @)21)&G G&0&1*). *.('G&(*- (>&( 32:) /*>'B+*. C*)* J*'01 :.*- */*)F @&F)2++ J*32)*
introduotion of the 1-Cash pilot. 1he rate was $3.02 per kilometer driven (the oost per kilometer
was provided by CR3 aiti's tnanoe department).
4< using 1-Cash instead of lonokoze saved the differenoe of 168,280 gourdes (lonkoze
oost of doing business) and 146,782 gourdes (1-Cash oost of doing business), or
456789 12:)-*.;
Christiane Cardoza
Page 6


1
"Haiti Mobile Money Initiative Reaches the Five Million Transaction Milestone and Awards Final Prize in
Incentive Program." U.S. Agency for International Development. USAID, Web. 14 Nov. 2013.
<http://www.usaid.gov/news-information/press-releases/haiti-mobile-money-initiative-reaches-five-million-
transaction>.
2
"Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation." Million Transaction Milestone and Awards Final Prize in Incentive Program.
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Web. 14 Nov. 2013. <http://www.gatesfoundation.org/media-center/press-
releases/2012/07/haiti-mobile-money-initiative-reaches-the-five-million-transaction-milestone>.
3
"Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation." Million Transaction Milestone and Awards Final Prize in Incentive Program.
4
"Haiti Mobile Money Initiative." U.S. Agency for International Development.Web. 17 Nov. 2013.
<http://www.usaid.gov/news-information/fact-sheets/haiti-mobile-money-initiative>.
5
"Haiti Mobile Money Initiative." U.S. Agency for International Development. N.p., Web. 13 Nov. 2013.
<http://www.usaid.gov/news-information/fact-sheets/haiti-mobile-money-initiative>.
6
"Humanitarian Exchange Magazine." Innovation in Emergencies the Launch of 'mobile Money' in Haiti. Web. 14
Nov. 2013. <http://www.odihpn.org/humanitarian-exchange-magazine/issue-54/innovation-in-emergencies-the-
launch-of-mobile-money-in-haiti>.
7
Plugging into Mobile Money: Early Experiences of NGOs in the Field. Rep. Better Than Cash, Jan. 2012. Web.
Nov. 2013. <http://betterthancash.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/HMMI_-
_Plugging_Into_Mobile_Money_Platforms_FINAL.pdf>.
8
Daniel, Trenton. "MOBILE MONEY PLAN STUMBLES AT START IN HAITI." The Big Story. Associated
Press, 10 June 2012. Web. 14 Nov. 2013. <http://bigstory.ap.org/article/mobile-money-plan-stumbles-start-haiti>.
9
MacDonald, Brian, and Hemely Gedeon. Banking with Mobile Phones in Haiti: A Report on a T-Cash Pilot
Project. Rep. CRS, 2012. Web. 13 Nov. 2013.
<http://www.crsprogramquality.org/storage/pubs/microfinance/banking_with_mobile_phones.pdf>.
10
MacDonald, Brian, and Hemely Gedeon. Banking with Mobile Phones in Haiti: A Report on a T-Cash Pilot
Project. Rep. CRS, 2012.
11
MacDonald, Brian, and Hemely Gedeon. Banking with Mobile Phones in Haiti: A Report on a T-Cash Pilot
Project. Rep. CRS, 2012.
12
MacDonald, Brian, and Hemely Gedeon. Banking with Mobile Phones in Haiti: A Report on a T-Cash Pilot
Project. Rep. CRS, 2012.
13
MacDonald, Brian, and Hemely Gedeon. Banking with Mobile Phones in Haiti: A Report on a T-Cash Pilot
Project. Rep. CRS, 2012.
14
MacDonald, Brian, and Hemely Gedeon. Banking with Mobile Phones in Haiti: A Report on a T-Cash Pilot
Project. Rep. CRS, 2012.
15
MacDonald, Brian, and Hemely Gedeon. Banking with Mobile Phones in Haiti: A Report on a T-Cash Pilot
Project. Rep. CRS, 2012.
16
MacDonald, Brian, and Hemely Gedeon. Banking with Mobile Phones in Haiti: A Report on a T-Cash Pilot
Project. Rep. CRS, 2012.
17
MacDonald, Brian, and Hemely Gedeon. Banking with Mobile Phones in Haiti: A Report on a T-Cash Pilot
Project. Rep. CRS, 2012.
18
MacDonald, Brian, and Hemely Gedeon. Banking with Mobile Phones in Haiti: A Report on a T-Cash Pilot
Project. Rep. CRS, 2012.
19
MacDonald, Brian, and Hemely Gedeon. Banking with Mobile Phones in Haiti: A Report on a T-Cash Pilot
Project. Rep. CRS, 2012.
20
MacDonald, Brian, and Hemely Gedeon. Banking with Mobile Phones in Haiti: A Report on a T-Cash Pilot
Project. Rep. CRS, 2012.
21
MacDonald, Brian, and Hemely Gedeon. Banking with Mobile Phones in Haiti: A Report on a T-Cash Pilot
Project. Rep. CRS, 2012.
22
MacDonald, Brian, and Hemely Gedeon. Banking with Mobile Phones in Haiti: A Report on a T-Cash Pilot
Project. Rep. CRS, 2012.
Christiane Cardoza
Page 7


23
MacDonald, Brian, and Hemely Gedeon. Banking with Mobile Phones in Haiti: A Report on a T-Cash Pilot
Project. Rep. CRS, 2012.
24
MacDonald, Brian, and Hemely Gedeon. Banking with Mobile Phones in Haiti: A Report on a T-Cash Pilot
Project. Rep. CRS, 2012.
25
MacDonald, Brian, and Hemely Gedeon. Banking with Mobile Phones in Haiti: A Report on a T-Cash Pilot
Project. Rep. CRS, 2012.
26
MacDonald, Brian, and Hemely Gedeon. Banking with Mobile Phones in Haiti: A Report on a T-Cash Pilot
Project. Rep. CRS, 2012.
27
MacDonald, Brian, and Hemely Gedeon. Banking with Mobile Phones in Haiti: A Report on a T-Cash Pilot
Project. Rep. CRS, 2012.
28
MacDonald, Brian, and Hemely Gedeon. Banking with Mobile Phones in Haiti: A Report on a T-Cash Pilot
Project. Rep. CRS, 2012.
29
MacDonald, Brian, and Hemely Gedeon. Banking with Mobile Phones in Haiti: A Report on a T-Cash Pilot
Project. Rep. CRS, 2012.
30
MacDonald, Brian, and Hemely Gedeon. Banking with Mobile Phones in Haiti: A Report on a T-Cash Pilot
Project. Rep. CRS, 2012.
31
Plugging into Mobile Money: Early Experiences of NGOs in the Field. Rep. Better Than Cash, Jan. 2012. Web.
Nov. 2013. <http://betterthancash.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/HMMI_-
_Plugging_Into_Mobile_Money_Platforms_FINAL.pdf>.
32
Plugging into Mobile Money: Early Experiences of NGOs in the Field. Rep. Better Than Cash, Jan. 2012. Web.
Nov. 2013. <http://betterthancash.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/HMMI_-
_Plugging_Into_Mobile_Money_Platforms_FINAL.pdf>.
33
Plugging into Mobile Money: Early Experiences of NGOs in the Field. Rep. Better Than Cash, Jan. 2012. Web.
Nov. 2013. <http://betterthancash.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/HMMI_-
_Plugging_Into_Mobile_Money_Platforms_FINAL.pdf>.
34
Plugging into Mobile Money: Early Experiences of NGOs in the Field. Rep. Better Than Cash, Jan. 2012. Web.
Nov. 2013. <http://betterthancash.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/HMMI_-
_Plugging_Into_Mobile_Money_Platforms_FINAL.pdf>.
35
"DIGICEL GROUP ACQUIRES VOIL IN HAITI - DIGICEL GROUP ACQUIRES VOIL IN HAITI."
DIGICEL GROUP ACQUIRES VOIL IN HAITI - DIGICEL GROUP ACQUIRES VOIL IN HAITI. Web. 13 Nov.
2013. <http://www.digicelgroup.com/en/media-center/press-releases/achievements/digicel-group-acquires-voil-in-
haiti>.
36
"Global Health Question." Message to the author. 8 Nov. 2013. E-mail.