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Bofors 40 mm

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2009)

Bofors 40 mm gun

Bofors 40 mm/L 0. This example includes the British designed Stiffkey Sight, !eing operated !y the aimer standing to the right of the loader "turned side#ays$. %t operates the trape&e seen a!ove the sights, moving the sights to ad'ust for lead.

!ype "lace of orig in

(utocannon )#eden

#ervice history $n service %sed by *+,-.present )ee users

&ars

World War %%, %ndo Pakistani #ars and conflicts, (ra! %sraeli conflict, /orean War, %ndonesia 0alaysia confrontation, 1ietnam War, )outh (frican Border War, Falklands War, 2ulf War, %ra3 War "roduction history

'esigner 'esigned (anufactur er

Bofors *+,4 Bofors "*+,5.5446$ B(7 )ystems (B "5446 on#ards$ *+,5.present )ee -4 mm 89:4 #pecifications

"roduced )ariants

&eight *rew #hell *aliber

8964: *,+;* kg "-,<6; l!s$ 89:4: <,*<4 kg "**,,<, l!s$ dependent on use -4x,**mm= "*.<: in$ -4 mm 8964 "actual cali!re varies from <6 :4, !ased on model$ <55 kg 8964: <>9?+4>"<<>9s$ 89:4: 54>9?;4>"<:>9s$ ,64> 8964: <4>9s 89:4: +5>9s 8964: *54 round9min 89:4: ,,4 round9min 8964: ;;* m9s "5,;+4 ft9s$ 89:4: *,4*5 m9s ",,,54 ft9s$

*arriage Elevation !raverse

+ate of fire (u,,le velo city

(a-imum r ange

8964: :,*64 m "5,,-+* ft$ 89:4: *5,<44 m "-*,4*4 ft$

The Bofors 40 mm gun is a famous anti aircraft autocannon designed !y the )#edish firm of Bofors. %t #as one of the most popular medium #eight anti aircraft systems during World War %%, used !y most of the #estern (llies as #ell as various other forces. %t is often referred to simply as the Bofors gun.

*ontents
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* -4 mm 8964 o *.* Bevelopment 5 British versions


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5.* (rmy versions 5.5 Caval versions

, D.). versions
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,.* Caval ,.5 (rmy

- Eaptured examples < Eontinued use 6 -4 mm 89:4 : Dsers ; =eferences


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;.* Books

+ )ee also *4 7xternal links

.edit/ 40 mm L/ 0
.edit/ 'evelopment

The )#edish Cavy purchased a num!er of 5 pounder Pom-Poms from 1ickers as anti aircraft guns in *+55. 8ooking for a smaller hand s#ung

#eapon to complement the heavy 1ickers, they asked Bofors (.B. to develop a 54 mm #eapon !ased on a similar mechanism "and generally similar to the 1ickers * pdr$. But this 54 mm design #as not put into production, the Cavy 3uickly soured on the Pom Pom and approached Bofors in *+5+ a!out the development of a much more capa!le replacement. Bofors #as initially reluctant, as the )#edish Cavy #as a fairly small market, !ut the Cavy eventually agreed to pay for the development of a prototype. Bofors responded #ith a gun that #as, to some extent, a smaller version of a <: mm "6 pounder$ semi automatic gun developed as an anti torpedo !oat #eapon in the late *+44s !y Finspong !efore Bofors drove them out of !usiness. Their first prototype #as in fact a re !arreled Cordenfelt version of the Finspong gun, adding an auto loader mechanism similar to the 1ickers Fmachine gunF mechanism using a moving !olt. Testing of the prototype in *+5+ demonstrated the ma'or pro!lem #as feeding the #eapon in order to maintain a reasona!le rate of fire. ( !olt that #as heavy enough to handle the stresses of firing the large round #as too heavy to move 3uickly enough to fire rapidly. Gne interesting attempt to solve this pro!lem used &inc shell cases that !urned up #hen fired. This proved to leave heavy &inc deposits in the !arrel, and had to !e a!andoned. %nstead they experimented #ith a ne#er mechanism that did a#ay #ith the !olt entirely and operated more like medium artillery piecesH #hen the !reech opened, the spent casing simply fell out to the rear. ( second mechanism reloaded the gun !y Fthro#ingF rounds from the maga&ine into the open !reech. This proved to !e the solution they needed, improving firing rates to an accepta!le level. Buring this period /rupp purchased a one third share of Bofors. /rupp engineers started the process of updating the Bofors factories to use modern e3uipment and metallurgy, !ut the -4 mm pro'ect #as kept secret. Cevertheless, many sources claim that the -4 mm design #as in fact adapted from a /rupp #eapon. Io#ever the only 2erman #eapon of similar cali!re "and role$ #as the ,.: cm Fla/ -,, made !y =heinmetallH it appears that historians have connected the development of the Bofors -4 mm and 2erman ,: mm #eapons #ithout any supporting evidence. %t should !e pointed out these t#o #eapons are 3uite different from each other and share fe#, if any, features.

Finnish Bofors -4 mm. This gun mounts the original reflector sights, and lacks the armor found on British examples. By June *+,4 testing #ith the prototype #as complete, and Bofors reported that full scale development could !egin. ( prototype #as completed and fired in Covem!er *+,*, and !y the middle of the month it #as firing strings of t#o and three rounds. Ehanges to the feed mechanism #ere all that remained, and !y the end of the year it #as operating at *,4 rounds per minute. Eontinued development #as needed to turn it into a #eapon suita!le for production, #hich #as completed in Gcto!er *+,,. )ince acceptance trials had !een passed the year !efore, this !ecame kno#n as the 40 mm akan (/01. 0ost forces referred to it as the Bofors 40 mm L/ 0, although the !arrel #as actually <6.* inches in length, not the 64 inches the name implies. The gun fired +44 g "5 l!$ high explosive -4 J ,**= "rimmed$ shell at ;<4 m9s "5,;44 ft9s$. The rate of fire #as normally a!out *54 rounds per minute "5.4 I&$, #hich improved slightly #hen the !arrels #ere closer to the hori&ontal as gravity assisted the feeding from the top mounted maga&ine. %n practice firing rates #ere closer to ;4.*44 rpm "*., *.: I&$, as the rounds #ere fed into the !reech from four round clips #hich had to !e replaced !y hand. The maximum attaina!le ceiling #as :,544 m "5,,644 ft $, !ut the practical maximum #as a!out ,,;44 m "*5,<44 ft$. The gun #as also nota!le due to its advanced sighting system. The trainer and layer #ere !oth provided #ith reflector sights for aiming, #hile a third cre# mem!er standing !ehind them Fad'ustedF for lead using a simple mechanical computer. Po#er for the sights #as supplied from a 61 !attery.

Polish made Bofors gun after the Battle of the B&ura. This gun also mounts the reflector sight that e3uipped the original Bofors versions. With the design no# reaching completion, the )#edish Cavy once again decided it needed a smaller hand s#ung #eapon of *, mm 5< mm si&e, and

started testing various designs from foreign suppliers. With the -4 mm #ell along in development, Bofors offered a 5< mm version in *+,5, #hich #as eventually selected as the 5< mm akan 09,5. The first version of the -4 mm the Cavy ordered #as intended for use on su!marines. The !arrel #as shorter at -5 cali!res long, #ith the effect of reducing the mu&&le velocity to a!out :44 m9s. When not in use, the gun #as pointed directly up and retracted into a #atertight cylinder. The first order for the FrealF 8964 #as made !y the Butch Cavy, #ho ordered five t#in gun mounts for the cruiser De Ruyter in (ugust *+,-. These guns #ere sta!ili&ed using a uni3ue system kno#n as the Hazemeyer mount, in #hich one set of layers aimed the gun, #hile a second manually sta!ili&ed the platform the gun sat on. (ll five mounts #ere operated !y one fire control system. Bofors also started the development of a suita!le to#a!le carriage #hich they displayed in (pril *+,< at a sho# in Belgium. The carriage caused something of a stir, as the gun could !e fired from the carriage #ith no setup re3uired, although #ith limited accuracy. %f time #as availa!le for setup, the gunners used the to# !ar and mu&&le lock as levers, raising the #heels off the ground and there!y lo#ering the gun onto supporting pads. T#o additional legs folded out to the sides, and the platform #as then leveled #ith hand cranks. The entire setup process could !e completed in under a minute. Grders for the land !ased versions #ere immediate, starting #ith an order for eight #eapons from Belgium in (ugust *+,<, and follo#ed !y a flood of orders from other forces including Poland, Cor#ay, and Finland. %t #as only accepted into the )#edish (rmy the next year, kno#n as the 40 mm lvakan m/0 , the lo#er case m indicating an (rmy model as opposed to the capital 0 for Cavy.

.edit/ British versions


.edit/ 2rmy versions

K.F. -4 mm 0k. * displayed at EFB Borden. This example mounts a )tiffkey )ight, and displays the additional armor protecting the gunners.

The gunnerLs seat of an (ustralian Bofors gun used in World War %% and no# housed in a )ydney #ar museum The British (rmy had first examined the #eapon #hen they received a num!er of Polish !uilt examples in *+,: for testing, kno#n as the 34 40 mm (ark $ "KF standing for FKuick FiringF$, or (ark $/1 after a minor change to the flash hider. ( license #as soon ac3uired and the arduous task of converting the gun from metric to imperial measurements #as started. While this #as taking place they also made numerous changes to the design to make it more suita!le to mass productionMthe original Bofors design #as intended to !e hand assem!led, and many parts #ere la!eled Ffile to fit on assem!lyF, re3uiring many manhours of #ork to complete. Testing sho#ed that aiming the guns #as a serious pro!lem against modern high speed aircraft. (lthough the gun could !e trained 3uickly, aiming accurately #hile doing so proved difficult. %n order to address this, the British introduced a complex mechanical analogue computer, the /errison Birector, #hich drove the laying electrically. ( three man team operated the Birector simply !y pointing it at the target and dialing in estimates for range and various atmospheric conditions. The Birector then aimed the guns directly through po#ered mounts, the gunners simply loaded the clips and #atched. Backup sights #ere fitted to the individual guns, replacing the former reflector sight and lead calculator #ith a simple ring and post sight kno#n as a FpancakeF. %n this form, the 34 40 mm (ark $$$ "there #as no 0k %%$, !ecame the (rmyLs standard light (( #eapon, operating alongside their , inch and ,.: inch heavy #eapons. The gun #as considered so important to the defence of 7ngland after the fall of France in *+-4 that a movie, The Gun, #as produced to encourage machinists to #ork harder and complete more of them. By the end of the #ar total production from British, Eanadian, and (ustralian factories #as over 5,*44, #hile D.). lend lease examples added a!out *<4. %n com!at it #as found that the /errison #as simply too difficult to set up to use in many situations, as #ell as making logistics more complex due to the need to keep its electrical generator supplied #ith fuel. %n most engagements only the

pancake sights #ere used, #ithout any form of correction, making the British versions less capa!le than those used !y other forces. 7ventually an anti aircraft gunnery school on the range at )tiffkey on the Corfolk coast delivered a #orka!le solution, a simple trape&e like arrangement that moved the pancake sights to offer lead correction, operated !y a ne# cre#mem!er standing !ehind the left hand layer. The #tiffkey #ight #as sent out to units in *+-,, arriving in Eanadian units in the midst of the Battle of the (leutian %slands. ( final #artime change to the elevation mechanism resulted in the 34 40 mm (ark 5$$. They also designed a much lighter t#o #heeled carriage for air!orne use. The (rmy also experimented #ith various self propelled (( systems ")P((2s$ !ased on various tank chassis. Ehanges to the !reech for this role created the 34 40 mm (ark )$, #hich #as used on the Erusader to produce the *rusader $$$ 22 (ark $. But the main self propelled version of the Bofors #as #ith the gun set on the chassis of a 0orris Eommercial four #heel drive lorry. )uch guns #ere used in support of (rmy divisions to provide s#ift protection against air attack #ithout the need to unlim!er. this #as kno#n as the FEarrier, )P, -x- -4mm, (( "Bofors$ ,4c#tF. They sa# service in Corth West 7urope, #here six )P Bofors of +5nd "8oyals$ 8ight (nti (ircraft =egiment, =oyal (rtillery, landed #ith the British ,rd %nfantry Bivision on )#ord Beach on B Bay to protect the vital !ridges over the Eaen Eanal and Grne =iver "Pegasus Bridge and Iorsa Bridge$, shooting do#n *: 2erman planes. 8ater in the campaign, )P Bofors #ere used extensively for ground shots as #ell as in an anti aircraft role. %n British army service the Bofors found a highly specialised role: during the Corth (frica Eampaign at the Battle of 7l (lamein, they #ere used to fire tracer hori&ontally to mark safe paths for units through the 2erman minefields.
.edit/ 6aval versions

T#in Bofors -4 mm a!oard G=P Cavy.

yska!i"a, a WW%% destroyer of the Polish

)ingle Bofors -4 mm Boffin mounting, displayed at EFB Borden The =oyal Cavy also made extensive use of the Bofors. Their first examples #ere air cooled versions 3uickly adapted to ships during the #ithdra#al from Cor#ay. With the fall of the #est in *+-4 the Butch minelayer #i$$em %an &er 'aan !rought them their first example of a #ater cooled gun on their Ia&emeyer tri axially sta!ilised mounting. 8ocally produced examples started arriving in *+-5, kno#n as the 34 40 mm (ark $) for use in t#in mounts, or the 34 40 mm (ark ) for single mounts. The Cavy ran through a variety of versions of the !asic Bofors gun over the #ar, including the 0ark 1%% to 0ark N%. The =oyal CavyLs home gro#n light anti aircraft #eapon, the KF 5 pounder gun, also had a cali!re of -4 mm, !ut #as referred to as the KF 5 pdr. The designation of models in =oyal Cavy service is confused !y the fact that the gun and its mounting received separate mark num!ers. The follo#ing mountings #ere usedH

(ark $: t#in mounting !ased on (merican design and using (merican !uilt guns, not #idely fitted. Fitted for remote fire control. (ark $$: 3uadruple version similar to 0ark % (ark $$$: a navalised version of the (rmy single mounting, hand #orked elevation and training. (ark $): a tri axially sta!ilised t#in mounting copied from, and usually kno#n as, the FIa&emeyerF. %t had on mounting fire control, and #as usually fitted #ith =adar Type 5;5 to provide target range information. (ark ): t#in mounting, that superseded and eventually replaced the 0ark %1, often referred to as the FutilityF mounting. This #as a simplified, unsta!ilised mounting !ased on the (merican t#in mounting 0ark %, and #as designed for remote fire control.

(ark )$: a six !arrelled #eapon feeding from large trays instead of clips and designed for remote control from a dedicated radar e3uipped director. (ark )$$: a single !arrelled, hydraulically po#ered mounting that superseded the 0ark %%% and entered service in *+-<. (ark $5: 0ark 1%% mount modified to electrical po#er, as the (ounting (ark $5, and in this form sa# service in the Falklands War.

Eonfusingly, the 0ounting 0ark 1 "0ark 1E for Eanadian !uilt examples$ for the 54 mm Gerlikon and KF 5 pounder guns #as also adopted as "initially$ an interim mount for the Bofors. %t #as a single !arrelled mounting #ith hydraulic po#er, and #as kno#n as the Boffin. The final British Bofors mounting that sa# service #as the #!227. )tanding for Sta(i$ise& Ta"hymetri" )nti )ir"raft Gun this #as an enormous t#in !arrelled affair that, as the name indicates, #as sta!ilised and carried its o#n tachymetric "i.e. predictive$ fire control system, !ased around the centimetric =adar Type 565. This latter set #as capa!le of Flocking onF to a target. Dnfortunately, this mounting #as grossly over#eight "*:.< tons$ and it #as found that the high vi!ration environment of the gun mounting #as a less than ideal location for sensitive valve electronics and mechanical computers. )T((2 0ark % carried the radar dish over the gun !arrels #here it #as su!'ect to damage during firing, therefore )T((2 0ark %% shifted the set to the roof of the control ca!in. (n am!itious #eapon that #as ahead of its time, )T((2 #as ultimately too difficult to maintain in the harsh environment of a #arship and #as later replaced !y the 0ounting 0ark 1 #ith the fire control e3uipment located remotely, the single 0ark 1%% and ultimately, #ith the )ea Eat missile.

.edit/ %8#8 versions


.edit/ 6aval

( 0/ *5 3uadruple mount of Bofors guns fires from Hornet The Dnited )tates CavyLs Bureau of Grdnance purchased a t#in mount air cooled example directly from Bofors, #hich arrived in Ce# Oork on 5; (ugust

*+-4. Buring that month another Butch ship, the %an *ins(ergen, demonstrated the Ia&emeyer mount to Cavy o!servers. The gun #as 3uickly chosen as the CavyLs standard anti aircraft #eapon, and the Cavy secretly imported a set of %mperial designs from 7ngland and started production illegally. ( formal contract #ith Bofors follo#ed in June *+-*. The resulting 0ark * and 0ark 5 #eapons #ere intended for the left and right side of a t#in mount, respectively. %t #as eventually replaced !y the ,F9:4 0ark 56 gun due to its pro!lem #ith kill stopping Japanese kamaka&e aircraft.
.edit/ 2rmy

The Dnited )tates (rmy had recently introduced a ,: mm gun of their o#n design, !ut found it to !e of limited performance. )ix British Bofors #ere imported for testing, along #ith the /errison Birectors, and proved to !e superior in all areas. %n order to supply !oth the (rmy and Cavy #ith much greater num!ers of the guns, Ehrysler #as !rought in to !e a ma'or producer. Gver the lifetime of the production, their engineers introduced numerous additional changes to improve mass production, eventually reducing the overall time needed to !uild a gun !y half. %n D.). (rmy service, the Bofors #as kno#n as the 40 mm 2utomatic 7un (9. The D.). version of the gun fired three variants of the British 0k. %% high explosive shell as #ell as the 0*;(* armor piercing round, #hich #as capa!le of penetrating some <4 mm of homogeneous armor plate at a range of <44 yards.

.edit/ *aptured e-amples


The Wehrmacht used a num!er of Bofors guns #hich had !een captured in Poland and France. The /riegsmarine also operated some guns o!tained from Cor#ay. Japan captured a num!er of Bofors guns in )ingapore and put them into production as the Type <. Both Japan and "West$ 2ermany continued to use the Bofors gun throughout the Eold War.

.edit/ *ontinued use

Ere#men loading ammunition in the Bofors of a 8ockheed (E *,4. (lthough the 8964 #as later replaced in production !y the 89:4, the 8964 remained in front line service #ell into the *+;4s. %n most cases these #ere the ground antiaircraft versions, as a suita!le replacement in this role did not come along until the introduction of truly effective 0(CP(B) missiles in the *+;4s. 8964s are still used in the Dnited )tates (ir ForceLs (E *,4 gunships in the air to ground role. The 8964 sa# active service #ith the (rgentine and British Cavies in the *+;5 Falklands War and continued to !e used into the *++4s, #hen it #as replaced !y modern 54 and ,4 mm artillery. The Eanadian Forces also used Bofors on their surface fleet, !ut removed the guns in the late *+;4s #hen they #ere considered to !e outdated. %n a some#hat em!arrassing episode, the navy #as forced to scour various military museums across Eanada to re e3uip their fleet during the 2ulf War, as replacements had never !een purchased. The 8964 Bofors continue to !e the main armament of the /ingston class coastal defence vessel, although the navy is in the midst of a search for a suita!le replacement.@*A %n (ugust 5446, the French navy uses 8964s on more than t#enty ships "patrols and auxiliaries$. )hips of the Cor#egian and %celandic Eoast 2uards continue to use the -4mm Bofors gun. The 8964 continued in use in the %rish (rmy until recent years, #hen it #as retired in favour of the radar controlled 89:4. Three vessels of the %rish Caval )ervice retain 8964s on !oard as their main #eapon. T#o retired 8964s can !e seen ad'acent the s3uare in )arsfield Barracks, 8imerick. From *+;4 until the final decommissioning in 544:, the =oyal (ustralian Cavy used the Bofors -4 mm964 as the main armament on their fleet of *< Fremantle class patrol !oats "FEPB$. This #as replaced !y the 5< mm Bushmaster cannon on the ne# (rmidale Elass Patrol Boats "(EPB$. They have also !een used in the =(C on the 64Ls era aircraft carriers +e$(ourne and Sy&ney. (s of 544;, some of Tai#anLs anti aircraft forces are still using the 8964.

.edit/ 40 mm L/:0

Bofors 89:4. By the end of World War %%, 'et aircraft had so increased the speed of attack that the Bofors simply could not get enough rounds into the air to counter the aircraft !efore it had already flo#n out of range. %n order to counter these threats, the gun #ould have to have longer range and a higher rate of fire, there!y increasing the num!er of rounds fired over the period of an engagement. Bofors considered either updating the -4 mm, or alternately making a much more po#erful <: mm design, and in the end did !oth. The ne# -4 mm design used a larger -4 J ,6-= round firing a slightly lighter ;:4g shell at a much higher *,4,4 m9s ",,,:+fps$ mu&&le velocity. The rate of fire #as increased to 5-4 rounds per minute "-.4 I&$, unusually high for such a large round. (dditionally the carriage #as modified to !e po#er laid, the po#er !eing supplied !y a generator placed on the front of the carriage. The first version #as produced in *+-:, accepted in *+-; as the 40 mm lvakan m/4;, and entered )#edish service in *+<*. (dditional changes over the years have improved the firing rate first to ,44 rpm "<.4 I&$, and later to ,,4 rpm "<.< I&$. Foreign sales started, as they had in the past, #ith Cetherlands and the Dnited /ingdom. %n Covem!er *+<, it #as accepted as the C(TG standard anti aircraft gun, and #as soon produced in the thousands. The 89:4 #as also used as the !asis for a num!er of )P((2s, nota!ly the D.). (rmyLs proposed 05-: )ergeant Oork. Breda "no# Gto 0elara$ of %taly uses Bofors -4 mm 89:4 gun in its anti aircraft #eapon systems Type 6-, Type *46, Type *4:, Type <6- and Type <54. (lso they have developed a E%W) system named B(=BG for the %talian (rmy and Cavy. ( ne#er development from Breda, the 4ast 4orty, has nearly dou!led the rate of fire to -<4 rpm ":.< I&$ "5 J -<4 in t#in mount$, normally e3uipped #ith a :,6 round maga&ine and a dual feed mechanism for naval use. %n the )#edish (rmy Eom!at 1ehicle +4 there is a cartridge fed, automatic version of the 89:4 gun installed. %n order to fit inside the vehicle, the gun is mounted upside do#n. Ce# armour piercing and programma!le ammunition have also !een developed. 2ermany has used 89:4 guns on its Elass ,<5 9 Elass ,,, and Elass ,,5 mine hunting vessels, although these #ill !e replaced !y =heinmetall 5:mm 082 gun systems until 544;. Dntil the early ;4s 89:4 guns

guided !y B:B radars #ere in #idespread use in the ((( role in the 2erman Cavy and (ir Force until replaced !y =oland )(0s. The 89:4 is also chosen as the default main gun for the /5* %F1 for the =epu!lic of /orea military.

.edit/ %sers

(!u Bha!i (lgeria (rgentina (ustralia (ustria Bangladesh Belgium Beli&e Bra&il Brunei Eam!odia Eanada Ehile Eroatia Eyprus Benmark Bu!ai 7cuador 7gypt Finland France 2ermany

%ndia %ndonesia %celand %reland %ra3 %srael %taly Japan Jordan 8i!ya 0alaysia 8atvia 8ithuania 0alta 0exico 0yanmar Cetherlands Cor#ay Ce# Pealand Gman Pakistan Panama

Poland Portugal Katar )audi (ra!ia )er!ia )ingapore )outh (frica )outh /orea )pain )ri 8anka )#eden )#it&erland =epu!lic of Ehina Thailand Turkey Dnited (ra! 7mirates Dnited /ingdom Dnited )tates Druguay )outh 1ietnam 1ene&uela Oemen

2reece Iungary

Peru Philippines

.edit/ +eferences
*. < )tephen Priestley. FThe /ingston Elass: L0id 8ifeL or 0ove Gver for the 0EB1QF. Eanadian (merican )trategic =evie#. http:99###.sfu.ca9casr9id mcdv midlife5.htm. =etrieved on Fe!ruary *+ 544:.

.edit/ Books

Eamp!ell, John. ,a%a$ #ea-ons of #or$& #ar T!o. (nnapolis: Caval %nstitute Press, *+;<. %)BC 4 ;:45* -<+ -.

.edit/ #ee also


(nti aircraft 8ist of artillery

.edit/ E-ternal links


Wikimedia Eommons has media related to: Bofors 40 mm gun -4 00 (ntiaircraft 2un, GP ;54, *+-, : Cavy )ervice 0anual placed online courtesy of Iistoric Caval )hips (ssociation Bofors -4 0/, Caval 2un )ystem B(7 )ystems Bofors official site

1ery thorough information on the Bofors 2un Gto 0elara small cali!er naval products page %ndian Grdnance -4mm 8 :4 (( 2un Bata and )pec comparison of various marks of Bofors -4mm 8964 Bata and )pec comparison of various marks of Bofors -4mm 89:4

Bofors 40 mm automatkanon
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Bofors 40 mm lvakan m/0

/anadensiska soldater med en Bofors -4 mm automatkanon. Beskrivning !yp %rsprungslan d (utomatkanon )verige

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@redigeraA

40 mm lvakan m/0

Dnder mellankrigstiden ledde flygets utveckling, frmst strt!om!tekniken till kade m'ligheter att trffa sm punktml, till exempel fartyg. Fr att mta detta uppstod !ehovet av vl fungerande sna!!sk'utande luftvrnskanoner. Dtlndska typer hade visat sig mindre vl lyckade, varfr marinfrvaltningen r *+5; gav ett uppdrag till (B Bofors att utveckla en prototyp till en luftvrnsautomatkanon av -4 mm kali!er. 7fter att frst ha studerat en halvautomatisk p's, lyckades fretaget ta fram en helautomatisk kanon som vid provsk'utningar uppndde eldhastigheten *,4 skott per minut. Dtvecklingen var klar i okto!er *+,, och kom att !enmnas -4 mm lvakan m9,6. /anonen kom att !li Bofors strsta framgng ngonsin. Ben kom att licenstillverkas av flera andra lnder, och under andra vrldskriget kom den ven att piratkopieras i tusentals exemplar och deltog p alla fronter under !eteckningen FThe Bofors 2unF.@5A /anonen fanns ocks i du!!ellavettage.

40 mm lvakan m/4; @redigeraA


Bofors 40 mm lvakan m/4;

Beskrivning !yp %rsprungsland #ervicehistoria Brukstid *+<* (utomatkanon )verige

2nvnds av

)e an%n&are "roduktionshistoria

"roduktionsperiod

*+-: Q

#pecifikationer )apentyp =aliber 2mmunition )ikt Eldhastighet (ynningshastighet Effektiv rckvidd (utomatkanon -4 mm -4 ,6-= <*<4 kg ,,4 skott9min *4*5 m9s *5 <44 m

2nvndning i #verige @redigeraA

40 mm Lvakan m/4; /anonen har !land annat ingtt i armfr!and ssom 8vakan kompanier och i 8v!atal'on -;. Fortfarande finns kanonen p flottans fartyg. 0ed en eldhasighet om fyra granater per sekund, i armn vanligtvis sprl'ussprnggranater med ett s kallat gon!lickligt hgknsligt spetsanslagsrr, kan kanonen ocks anvndas mot mark och s'ml. 8vakankompaniernas uppgift var vanligtvis att !ekmpa luftlandsttning medan kompanierna i 8v!atal'on -; oftast fick uppgiften att understd'a flygvapnets !as!atal'oner ven om uppgiften att skydda viktiga transportvgar "!roar etc$ ocks har frekommit.

-4 mm 8vakan m9-;, fartygsp's p I0) Sm$an& "J*+$.

2nvndare @redigeraA

(!u Bha!i (lgeriet (rgentina (ustralien sterrike Bangladesh Belgien Beli&e Brasilien Brunei /am!od'a /anada Ehile /roatien Eypern Banmark Bu!ai

%ndien %ndonesien %sland %rland %rak %srael %talien Japan Jordanien 8i!yen 0alaysia 8ettland 8itauen 0alta 0exiko Burma Cederlnderna

Polen Portugal Katar )audiara!ien )er!ien )ingapore )ydafrika )ydkorea )panien )ri 8anka )verige )ch#ei& Tai#an Thailand Turkiet Frenade ara!emiraten

7cuador 7gypten Finland Frankrike Tyskland 2rekland Dngern

Corge Cya Peeland Gman Pakistan Panama Peru Filippinerna

)tor!ritannien D)( Druguay )ydvietnam 1ene&uela Jemen

+eferenser @redigeraA
R Per %nsulander och Eurt ) Ghlsson: Pansarske--, EB 0arinlitteratur, Bors 544*. %)BC +* +:,*;: 5 ;. 2. R Folke Wedin: (miralitetskollegiets historia Band 1, *+54 *+6; "(rl v *+;,$ %)BC +* ,; 4:6<6 N
1.

40 $t=/0>-0? B Bofors
@40 mm antiaircraft gun models (/0> - (/0? BoforsA

P%ETD=7: -4 mm Bofors (( gun on its to#ed mount. "Photo taken in 0aneesi of )otamuseo$. E8%E/ TID0BC(%8 TG )77 8(=27= P%E "<, /B$. Calibre: Length of weapon: #arrel length: Length of rifling: 'eight in action: 'eight travelling: *ire(rate: /,00le velocit+: /aga0ine: Traver!e: 2levation: 40 mm x 311 R Travelling 625 cm n firing po!ition 51" cm 225 cm a$a L%56 1&3 cm 1&20 ( 2100 $g ) C+clic: 120 ( 140%min,te- .ractical: "0 ( &0%min,te "00 ( "50 m%!ec 4 ro,n1 clip! 360 1egree! T+picall+: ( 5 1egree!- 3 &0 1egree!- exception!: 40 t4%35: ( 10 1egree!- 3 &0 1egree! 40 t4%3" 5: ( 1 1egree!- 3 &0 1egree! 7ori0ontal range &000 m 8ertical range 5000 m 2ffective range v! air target! 2000 m 8ario,! !ight arrangement! 5we1en 72(tracer- pro:ectile &00 ( 1000 g- whole !hell 2150 g 9.- 9.(tracer

/ax6 range:

5ight !+!tem: Co,ntr+ of origin: 9mm,nition t+pe!:

4innish useB !he 4inns got first delivery of ? guns in spring of 9?0?8 !otal amount of >0 had been delivered before &inter &ar8 4innish license

production started in 9?498 !otal amount in 4innish use reached about 000 or so8 4innish 2rmy and 6avy used these guns during whole &orld &ar 18 2ll other than the ones used in ships and armoured trains were mobile8 2rmour "enetrationB - 4innish live fire testing year 9?40 @C40 psa - )j4CD 2"-!D ;;0 m/secAB distance hitting angle 100 m 200 m 300 m 400 m 500 m 600 m "00 m 1000 m 1500 m 2000 m 2500 m ;0 1egree! ;0 1egree! ;0 1egree! ;0 1egree! ;0 1egree! ;0 1egree! ;0 1egree! ;0 1egree! ;0 1egree! ;0 1egree! ;0 1egree! penetration 60 mm 5; mm 55 mm 53 mm 51 mm 50 mm 4" mm 45 mm 3" mm 32 mm 26 mm

This excellent anti aircraft gun #as designed !y 1ictor Iammar and 7manuel Jansson for Bofors factory and T. Wennerstrom designed ammunition for it. )tory of this legendary #eapon started from re3uest made !y )#edish Cavy in *+5< for Bofors to develop 54 mm automatic cannon for ship!oard use. Oear *+5; dou!ts a!out sufficiency of 54 mm cali!re surfaced "The !asic idea #as that single hit had to !e capa!le relia!ly destroying aircraft$, so development

goal #as changed to -4 mm automatic gun. The first prototypes #ere finished in *+,4 and first gun #as delivered to )#edish Cavy in year *+,5 "and named 09,5$. That same year developing of country !ased to#ed version started, that version named 09,- had t#o axle carriage #ith - #heels. The #eapon #as recoil action cannon #ith vertical !reech com!ined to loading done #ith round clips. (s clips could !e feed in one after another constant fire lo# firing rate could !e maintained. The gun could fire !oth single shots and semiautomatic fire, in automatic mode the gun kept firing as long as foot pedal #as hold do#n and ammunition #as fed in. 09,5 had already !een sold to four navies and 09,- to three armies, !ut it #as slightly improvised version of 09,- named 09,6 that really hit the 'ackpot. Eountries that !ought Bofors 09,6 anti aircraft guns in *+,4Ls included: (rgentina, Belgium, Ehina, Benmark, 7gypt, 7stonia, Finland, France, 2reece, Cor#ay, 8atvia, Cetherlands, Portugal, )#eden, D/, Thailand and Ougoslavia. (s production line of Bofors factory clearly #as una!le to satisfy such demand the company made deals for license production #ith Belgium, Finland, France, Iungary, Cor#ay, Poland and D/. Buring World War 5 !oth 2ermany and Japan used captured -4 mm Bofors antiaircraft guns and )oviet ,: mm antiaircraft gun 09,+ #as o!viously !ased to Bofors design. Gver *44,444 -4 mm Bofors antiaircraft guns #ere manufactured #orld #ide !y end of World War 5. Buring the #ar Bofors 09,6 and its versions !ecome the legendary classic #eapon from #hich the company is internationally kno#n. The huge ma'ority of Bofors -4 mm manufactured during World War 5 #ere made in D)(, even if D) had not ac3uired license for manufacture. The gun #as not only ahead of its time in many areas, !ut it appeared in right place at the right time a gap existed !et#een effective range and firepo#er of existing 54 mm automatic guns and heavy antiaircraft guns in *+,4Ls. -4 mm Bofors #as 'ust the #eapon needed for filling that gap. The guns "especially 09,6 variations$ have remained in use in many countries to this day and variations of ne#er 89:4 gun are still in production even today.

P%ETD=7: -4 mm Bofors (( gun on fixed mount. "Photo taken in %lmator'untamuseo$. E8%E/ TID0BC(%8 TG )77 8(=27= P%E ":: /B$.

Finland !ought license for manufacturing -4 Bofors guns in *+,:. %n fact the Finns intended -4 mm Bofors as one of the main products of ne#ly esta!lished 1TT "S 1altion Tykkitehdas S )tate (rtillery Factory$ already !efore World War 5 !roke out. 7ven the first order #as sent to 1TT already year *+,;. Io#ever, as 1TTLs production failed to start as fast as had !een earlier planned and as the international situation developed more serious the Finns decided to order guns from )#eden "Bofors$ and Iungary "0(1(2$ already !efore Winter War. First delivery of + guns came from )#eden and arrived in spring of *+,+. From Iungary -5 guns #ere ordered, 5- of them arrived via )#eden during Becem!er of *+,+, 'ust !arely getting past 2ermany !efore the 2ermans stopped #eapon transports through their territory to Finland. The next shipment of *5 guns from Iungary #as not so lucky the 2ermans stopped it. (fter secret negotiations "for details see 54 %t/9,4 negotiations and F(! )venska EastraF dummy company arrangement in previous page$ the 2ermans released the *5 guns shipment and it arrived to Finland in January of *+-4. The last 6 guns ordered from 0(1(2 never arrived. (ll in all the Finns managed to get <, guns !efore starting of Winter War. Buring Winter War )#eden #as the largest supplier of these guns and most of the guns it delivered #ere in fact loaned from )#edish (rmy. By *,th of 0arch *+-4 "the day Winter War ended$ the amount of -4 mm Bofors guns in Finnish use had reached *44. Cext large purchase happened #hen during %nterim Peace Finland managed to !uy +5 guns from 2ermany, these pro!a!ly originated from Poland, Cetherlands and (ustria, they arrived in Covem!er of *+-4. From these +5 guns coming from 2ermany <6 arrived #ith )9) 8ut'ehTrn +th of Covem!er *+-4 and ,6 #ith the same ship 54th of Covem!er *+-4. Finnish license production didnLt produce its first guns until year *+-* and #hole license production #as only :: guns. (s usual 8okomo manufactured !arrel !lanks for these guns #hile Erichton 1ulcan manufactured much of the parts needed for their gun carriages. Finnish license manufacturer 1TT "1altion Tykkitehdas S )tate (rtillery Factory$ delivered *5 guns in *+-*, -< guns in *+-5, *- guns in *+-- and 6 guns in *+-<. The total num!er of -4 mm Bofors guns in Finnish use during World War 5 reached around ,44 or so. )ome of the deliveries of -4 mm Bofors guns to Finland:
<eliver+ time: 5pring of 1&3& >ctober of 1&3& <ecember 1&3& >ctober ( <ecember 1&3& Ban,ar+ 1&40 *ebr,ar+ ( /arch 1&40 =,mber: & 20 24 24 12 4" #o,ght%loane1%1onate1 from: #ofor! ?5we1en@ 5we1en 5we1en /989A ?7,ngar+@ /989A ?7,ngar+@ 5we1en >ther 1ata: Ro,gh n,mber- exact not $nown 'ith 100-000 !hell! .art of 42 g,n! or1ere1 from /989A .art of 42 g,n! or1ere1 from /989A Loane1 from 5we1i!h 9rm+

=ovember 1&40 1&41 ( 1&45

&2 ;;

Aerman+ *inlan1

Capt,re1 from 7,ngar+ an1 =etherlan1! Licen!e pro1,ction

"Cotice: This chart might !e missing delivery or t#o, ho#ever the total it gives seems to !e pretty close to real num!er and most data is dou!le or triple verified. The total is ,46, from #hich ,44 delivered during the #ar as the last 6 guns of license production #ere not finished until only after it$.

P%ETD=7: Finnish manufactured "1TT made$ -4 mm Bofors anti aircraft gun -4 %t/9,; B "Photo taken in Bunkkerimuseo$. E8%E/ TID0BC(%8 TG )77 8(=27= P%E "*,< /B$.

(s usual Finnish military ended up #ith collection of -4 mm Bofors guns manufactured in variety of countries. Buring World War 5 the Finnish (rmy naming system used to separate these various models seems to have !een 3uite mixed. F-4 %t/9,;F seems to have !een used as a name for Finnish license made version already during the #ar, !ut other#ise the information looks 3uite sketchy. %n #artime naming system the letter FBF "like F-4 %t/9,6 BF$ meaning FBoforsF seems to have !een commonly used to separate these guns from 5 pound pom pom (( guns. 8etters FB/F #ere used in similar manner #ith to indicate fixed version of the gun and FB/ 5F for fixed dou!le !arrel version. The chart !elo# sho#s Finnish (rmy post #ar naming system. -4 mm Bofors guns used in Finland according Finnish (rmy post WW5 naming system:
2xact mo1el: 40 t4%35 # 40 t4%36 # 40 t4%36 #42 40 t4%3; # 40 t4%3" # 40 t4%3" C 40 t4%3" 5 40 t4%3& # Co,ntr+ of >rigin: =etherlan1! 5we1en 5we1en 5we1en *inlan1 7,ngarian ma1e .olan1 an1 ) DC4D ?E@ 5pecial 1ata: 5we1i!h an1%or .oli!h ma1e 5we1i!h ma1e /%34 fixe1 2(barrel =aval ver!ion fixe1 =aval ver!ion *inni!h licen!e ver!ion- ;; ma1e b+ 8TT 36 g,n! with Boha!0(Aamma on(carriage pre1ictor !ight! A,n! the Aerman! ha1 capt,re1 earlier in the war6 #ofor!(ma1e- originall+ inten1e1 to C4

"Cotice: -4 %t/9Bofors #as not really ho# Finns called these guns, !ut instead guns #ere called #ith exact models listed in this chart as guns had small differences, mainly in gun counters and sights$.

"U$ %t seems that these guns #ere actually made !y Bofors. They had !een ordered !y Dnited /ingdom, !ut had not !een delivered !efore World War 5 !roke. )ince 2reat Britain #as in #ar #ith 2ermany the neutral )#eden refused to deliver these guns to D/. %n this situation at Gcto!er of *+,+ Finland succeeded securing license of 2reat Britain for these guns to !e delivered to Finland instead. %t seems that at least *5 of the -- guns delivered from )#eden in Gcto!er and Becem!er *+,+ #ere these guns originally ordered !y 2reat Britain. Finnish military named the *5 guns as -4 %t/9,+. These guns had no predictor sights. 0any countries used some#hat simple sight arrangements "like annular sights$ #ith -4 mm Bofors during World War 5. Finland ho#ever #as some#hat exception in this, as the large ma'ority of Finnish guns #ere e3uipped #ith Bofors made FBofors course and speed correctorF, #hich #as small mechanical computer connected to sight and could !e used against targets #hich had speed up to <6, km9hour. (lso guns manufactured under license in Finland #ere e3uipped #ith m9,; version of FBofors course and speed correctorF. From all Finnish used -4 mm Bofors guns #ithout FBofors course and speed correctorF !oth Iungarian and (ustrian made guns had other mechanical computers connected to sights. The (ustrian made guns had 2oert& system and Iungarian made had F,-9,;0 Johas& 2amma 8oelemkep&oF on carriage predictor sight. From these three mechanical computers 2oert& #as least effective, #hile Bofors and Johan& 2amma #ere a!out e3ually effective, !ut Iungarian Johan& 2amma #as easiest to use. Gnly very fe# guns in Finnish use didnLt have any of these three mechanical computers. The influence of these sight systems #as very clear: They demanded #ell trained cre#s, !ut as the Finns managed to train their (( gun cre#s #ell they made -4 mm Bofors guns in Finnish use more effective and accurate than #hat #as average internationally during World War 5. The guns came #ith several mount versions, !ut they can !e roughly divided to mo!ile ones "t#o axle arrangement #ith four #heels attached to guns mount$ and fixed ones. The fixed single mounts #ere mainly used in ships of various si&es, !ut #ith Finnish military sa# also use in 8andsverk (nti %% antiaircraft tanks and armoured trains. Bou!le !arrel fixed mount #as very rare in Finnish use and it #as used only on some ships. Bofors -4 mm #as the gun #ith #hich Finnish soldiers #ere very happy. %t had good accuracy, enough range, firepo#er and very good relia!ility. Buring Winter War Finnish -4 mm Bofors guns shot do#n *5; planes #hile spending only ,+5 shots per do#ned aircraft. (s World War 5 progressed )oviets introduced )turmovik ground attack aircraft, #hich #as practically almost immune to I7 shells of 54 mm guns. This made -4 mm Bofors even more

important #eapon for Finnish air defence during late part of Eontinuation War. %n Finnish use -4 mm Bofors antiaircraft guns do#ned over <44 enemy aircraft during World War 5. Wartime use included also !eing used as direct fire support #eapon and "ho#ever very rarely$ also in antitank use. Finnish military used variety of ammunition #ith its -4 mm Bofors guns. Iigh explosive tracer "I7 T$ ammunition "ammunition type used against aircraft$ #as naturally the most used. They also seem to have !een the only ammunition type in use #hen Winter War started. Buring that #ar Finnish military !ought also armour piercing "(P$ and armour piercing tracer "(P T$ rounds, #hich !ecame #idely availa!le. )everal I7 T versions existed in Finnish use, the one #ith longest !urning tracer version had *4 second tracer, #hich !urn up to -,<44 meter distance. (fter World War 5 Finnish military continued using -4 mm Bofors (( guns. (fter the #ar Bofors also introduced 89:4 version, #hich had !oth longer !arrel and more po#erful ammunition. The old version !ecame kno#n as 8964 "name coming from rough !arrel length of each version$. Finnish military had the #artime -4 mm Bofors 8964 anti aircraft guns in training use for a long time and then storage them for possi!le #artime use until *++4Ls. 2alileo P ,6 counter e3uipped more modern version of 8964 called F-4 %t/9,6 <+F #as introduced in late *+<4Ls and remained in Finnish use until late *++4Ls.

E!FE+ (E'$%( 26!$2$+*+24! 7%6#B


0:/00 (a @0:-mm 6aval gun (a-imA @9-pound pom-pomAB This #ater cooled and !elt fed automatic gun #as real granddad of automatic cannons and gained its popularity in Boer War. %n Britain the gun #as rather #ell kno#n as * pound pom pom gun. %mperial =ussia !ought small num!er of these guns from 0axim Cordenfelt factory in *;+4Ls and during World War * =ussian Cavy ordered *54 more from =ussian G!uhov factory. (lso Finnish company )( H. )h$(erg / 0o 1y !uilt a!out 64 guns during World War * and #hen Eivil War of *+*; ended a!out half of these #ere still unfinished so they remained in Finland. Finnish White (rmy captured total of <4 64 guns in Eivil War of *+*;. The mount for these guns #as column mount designed for naval use. %t offered ,64 degree traverse and a!out :4 degree elevation, so in theory these guns could !e used as antiaircraft guns. The Finns managed to get !it over ,4 guns of the captured guns to #orking order and they #ere used in #arships and coastal artillery fortifications. T#o of these guns also sa# service in automatic cannon #agons of armoured trains from *+*; to late *+,4Ls. ,: mm 0axim automatic gun #as never popular in Finnish use as it #as unrelia!le and

had 3uite a short range. 0ain reason for the short range #as in ,: mm x +-= ammunition "#ith moderate mu&&le velocity of only a!out --4 m9sec$, #hich didnLt really have the !allistics needed for proper antiaircraft use. (s this #ould not have !een enough the relia!ility of old fuses used in their high explosive shells also proved 3uestiona!le. Buring World War 5 some of these guns #ere in coastal forts, #here their unsuita!ility for anti aircraft use !ecame painfully o!vious. Io#ever they #ere not totally useless the guns proved some#hat relia!le #hen fired #ith only lo# elevation. This #as likely !ecause shooting #ith lo# elevation didnLt stress their fa!ric ammunition !elts 3uite as much as shooting #ith higher elevation. %n either case, Finnish coastal defence decided to use them mainly as close range defence #eapons of its coastal forts against surface targets and these old guns proved some#hat successful in this role. )till, since the coastal forts had rather limited amount of anti aircraft #eaponry, sometimes these guns #ere also fired against enemy aircraft. (t least once this produced also results Iumal'oki Eoastal Battery do#ned )oviet !om!er #ith ,: mm 0axim automatic gun 5<th of Becem!er *+,+. (ny#ay, !y end of World War 5 they #ere terri!ly outdated. )o the last remaining *6 guns #ere ordered to !e scrapped soon after Eontinuation War ended in *+--.

0: $t=/0: @0D: cm 4lak 0:A @0: mm antiaircraft gun model 9?0:AB This 2erman anti aircraft gun #as !ased to earlier ,,: cm Flak *; and ,,: cm Flak ,6. Basically it #as earlier ,,: cm Flak ,6 gun adopted to use ne# Flakvisier -4 sight. Transporting e3uipment for mo!ile version #as t#o #heeled trailer 3uite similar to one used #ith 2erman mo!ile 54 mm antiaircraft guns. The gun #as other#ise good, !ut not its pro'ectiles #ere not as po#erful as the ones used in it num!er one competitor -4 mm Bofors. Finnish military ac3uired - of these guns and ,,544 ",: mm x 56,B cali!re$ shells for them in )eptem!er of *+--. Dsually 2erman antiaircraft guns !ought !y Finland #ere ne#, !ut exceptionally these guns #ere used. The guns #ere fixed version and had clearly seen a lot of use. (s the guns #ere in very poor shape they re3uired repairs !efore they could !e issued, !ut the #ar ended !efore these #ere ready. When the Eontinuation War ended, so did the interest of Finnish military to#ards these guns, #hich used different ammunition than all the other guns in Finnish use. Grganising maintenance and spare parts for only four guns didnLt make any sense during peacetime. The guns #ere never repaired or issued to military use.

P%ETD=7: Gne of the four Finnish !ought ,: %t/9,: #ith fixed mount. This gun #as never taken in use in Finland and still has the same 2erman camo as #hen it #as !ought. "Photo taken in %lmator'untamuseo$. E8%E/ TID0BC(%8 TG )77 8(=27= P%E "6: /B$.

0: $t=/0? ss @0: mm antiaircraft gun model 9?0?A @0: m/m Genitnaja "uska obr8 9?0? g8AB This )oviet antiaircraft gun #as !ased to Bofors design and its calculator #as pro!a!ly !ased to 2erman designs, !ut its aiming devices #ere )oviet designed. 7ven if the design #as heavily !ased to Bofors, the )oviets decided to !uild it in ,: mm cali!re. =educing cali!re allo#ed )oviets to increase rate or fire up to *64 shots per minute. Io#ever the !enefit of this #as 3uestiona!le, as their ,: mm ammunition "!ased to ,: mm Eolt Bro#ning$ #as less effective than -4 mm x ,**= used in Bofors guns. )oviets manufactured a!out *;,444 guns of this model during World War 5. The Finns captured only fe# of these guns intact. (s almost no ammunition #as captured #ith them and ammunition type #as not used or manufactured !y the Finns, only one of the captured guns sa# ever use #ith Finnish military. That one gun captured near /arhumVki Poventsa road in *+-* served shortly in Finnish use, as troops capturing it took it immediately to o#n use. The gun #as so close copy of -4 mm Bofors, that Finnish soldiers familiar #ith Bofors gun could easily use it. Io#ever as only **4 rounds #ere captured #ith the particular gun its career in Finnish use #as very short. The a!!reviation FssF in name of this gun is a!!reviation of term FsotasaalisF "captured$. (fter World War 5 also Ehina manufactured copy of the gun in very large num!ers.

P%ETD=7: Gne of the fe# Finnish captured ,: %t/9,+. Eompare to -4 mm Bofors !ehind it. "Photo taken in %lmator'untamuseo$. E8%E/ TID0BC(%8 TG )77 8(=27= P%E "<6 /B$.

40 $t=/9> )@40 mm 22-7un model 9?9> )ickersA aka 40/40 )9> @40 mm 6aval gun model 9?9> )ickersAB 40 $t=/04 ) @40 mm 22-7un model 9?04 )ickersA aka 40/40 )04 @40-mm 6aval gun model 9?04 )ickersAB @1-pound pom-pomA This !elt fed -4 mm automatic manufactured under license !y 1ickers. %n Britain it #as rather commonly kno#n as 5 pound pom pom gun. The gun #as !ased to the older * pound ",: mm$ version, #hich #as !asically enlarged version of 0axim machinegun. )u!sidiary company of 1ickers in %taly #as 1ickers Terni, #hich introduced the -4 mm version year *+*<. Besides cali!re and si&e these automatic guns had very similar characteristics to 0axim machineguns. Dnfortunately these shared characteristics included also unrelia!ility and short range "caused !y #eak !allistics of -4 mm x *<; = ammunition$. The inrelia!ility #as partly due to fa!ric ammunition !elts used in them. (fter World War * development of -4 mm 1ickers automatic gun continued and they sa# large scale use #ith British Cavy during World War 5. Buring World War * =ussian (rmy and (ir Force ordered the guns, #hich #ere also used in ships of =ussian Cavy. The Finns captured fe# in Eivil War of *+*;. Finnish military had t#o names for these guns -4 %t/9*< 1 "-4 mm antiaircraft gun model *+*< 1ickers$ and -49-4 1*< "-4 mm Caval gun model *+*< 1ickers$. Buring World War 5 Finnish military had four of these captured guns, for #hich Erichton 1ulcan had manufactured ne# column mounts year *+,-. 1ickers continued to further developing the guns and #as selling them actively in *+54Ls and *+,4Ls. Oear *+,5 Finnish Cavy !ought eight of these improved guns. They #ere called -4 %t/9,- 1 "-4 mm antiaircraft gun model *+,- 1ickers$ and -49-4 1,- "-4 mm Caval gun model *+,- 1ickers$. The ne# -49-4 1,- guns #ere installed to then !rand ne# Finnish armoured ships 1VinVmTinen and %lmarinen, #hich #ere the largest and most heavily armed ships of Finnish Cavy during World War 5. Finnish soldiers found the original trigger system complicated to use, so it #as replaced #ith pedal like trigger. Finnish military !ought additional four -49-4 1,- guns from )#edish Caval (dmistration in Gcto!er of *+,+. This increased the total num!er of -4 mm 1ickers guns in Finnish use during Winter War to *6 guns. Finnish Cavy has such a shortage of #eapons it found use to all of these *6 guns during Winter War. Besides the eight guns already installed to %lmarinen and 1VinVmTinen the other six guns #ere used to arm three Finnish ice !reakers "JVVkarhu, 1oima and )isu$ and the remaining t#o guns #ere installed to gun!oats Dusimaa and IVmeenmaa. The guns proved as poor in #artime use that the peacetime experiences had already earlier suggested. )o after Winter War the eight guns in

%lmarinen and 1VinVmTinen #ere replaced #ith -4 mm Bofors. Buring Eontinuation War -4 mm 1ickers automatic guns #ere mostly used in coastal fortifications. But t#o #ere also in auxiliary ships WVninen and 8aatokka. %n coastal fortifications they #ere mostly intended to !e used used against surface targets, !ut occasionally they also #ere used as antiaircraft guns. (fter World War T#o still *- guns remained, !ut they #ere so outdated, that they #ere no longer used after it. %t seems that at least some of the -49-4 1,- guns used in Finland had !een manufactured !y Terni in %taly. While the improvements introduced !y 1ickers after World War * included introducing ne# ammunition, #hich gave some#hat !etter !allistics. While the old ammunition had pro'ectiles, #hich #eight a!out +44 grams and had mu&&le velocity around 644 meters9second the pro'ectiles of ne# ammunition #eight only a!out :64 grams and had mu&&le velocity around :,4 meters9second. Io#ever all of the -4 mm 1ickers Caval guns ac3uired to Finland seem to have used the old ammunition.

P%ETD=7: -49-4 1,- 1ickers Caval gun #ith its fixed column mount. "Photo taken in %lmator'untamuseo$. E8%E/ TID0BC(%8 TG )77 8(=27= P%E "**4 /B$. http:99###.'aegerplatoon.net9((X2DC)5.htm

5we1en #ofor! 40 mm%60 ?165;D@ /o1el 1&36 ((( Cnite1 5tate! of 9merica 40 mm%56 ?165;D@ /ar$ 1- /ar$ 2 an1 /1 ((( #riti!h 40 mm%5663 ?165;D@ F* /ar$! - - 8- 8 - G- G- G - = an1 = %

((( Aerman 4 cm%56 ?165;D@ *la$ 2" ((( Bapane!e 4 cm%60 ?165;D@ T+pe 5
Updated 01 November 2010
.robabl+ the be!t heav+ /A 99 weapon of 'orl1 'ar - #ofor! g,n! of thi! t+pe are !till in !ervice even to1a+6 Thi! weapon wa! ,!e1 on almo!t ever+ ma:or C5 an1 C4 war!hip of 'orl1 'ar an1 wa! a ver+ potent 99 g,n6 The Aerman! ,!e1 =orwegian( pro1,ce1 #ofor! g,n! which the+ 1e!ignate1 a! the 4 cm%56 *la$ 2" an1 the Bapane!e copie1 a #riti!h 9rm+ air(coole1 #ofor! capt,re1 at 5ingapore to pro1,ce their 4 cm%60 T+pe 56

Thi! weapon trace! it! root! bac$ to a 1&1" 4r,pp 1e!ign ( the #ofor! Compan+ wa! partl+ owne1 b+ Aerman intere!t! ,ntil 1&30 ( b,t the fini!he1 pro1,ct wa! entirel+ a #ofor! 1e!ign owing little or nothing to 4r,pp infl,ence6 The fir!t #ofor! protot+pe wa! fini!he1 late in the !,mmer of 1&30 an1 the fir!t a,tomatic !hot! were fire1 on 1; >ctober 1&306 The!e initial trial! were ,n!,cce!!f,l an1 it wa! not ,ntil 10 =ovember 1&31 that a,tomatic !alvo! were fire16 >fficial trial! for the 5we1i!h =av+ too$ place on 21 /arch 1&326 The weapon wa! f,rther refine1 an1 the /o1el 1&36 wa! a1opte1 for pro1,ction6 The #riti!h 9rm+ fir!t !howe1 intere!t in the!e g,n! in 1&33 an1 place1 an or1er for 100 of them in 1&3;6 *ir!t Ro+al =av+ !hipboar1 ,!e of air(coole1 g,n! wa! in late 1&41 aboar1 the battle!hip! .rince of 'ale! an1 =el!on an1 on the cr,i!er! /anche!ter an1 2reb,!- altho,gh !ome !hip! ha1 earlier been temporaril+ arme1 with 9rm+ air(coole1 g,n! that ha1 been Dre!c,e1D 1,ring the evac,ation of the =orwa+ inva!ion force! in 1&406 The #riti!h water(coole1 ver!ion wa! 1evelope1 b+ cop+ing the <,tch 7a0eme+er mo,nting which ha1 arrive1 in #ritain in 1&40 aboar1 the <,tch minela+er Willem van der Zaan6 The fir!t i!!,e of locall+ pro1,ce1 water(coole1 #ofor! g,n! wa! to the #lac$ 5wan cla!! !loop 7/5 'himbrel in =ovember 1&426

The total n,mber of air(coole1 g,n! b,ilt b+ 9,!tralia- #ritain an1 Cana1a i! not acc,ratel+ $nown b,t wa! !omewhere between 2-100 an1 2-"00 pl,! abo,t 200 to 400 g,n! !,pplie1 from the Cnite1 5tate!6 'ater(coole1 g,n! are better 1oc,mente1 with 442 /ar$ 8 an1 342 /ar$ G in !ervice at the en1 of the war pl,! ;"6 water( coole1 g,n! !,pplie1 b+ the C596 The!e C59 weapon! ha1 been !ent to #ritain a! a part of Len1(Lea!e or el!e were in!talle1 on !hip! refitte1 in C59 !hip+ar1!6 The C5 9rm+ wa! al!o intere!te1 in thi! weapon an1 te!te1 a !ingle air(coole1 mo1el in 1&3;6 n 1&40 the Chr+!ler Corporation agree1 to begin man,fact,ring air(coole1 g,n! ,tili0ing #riti!h bl,eprint!6 The C5= acH,ire1 man+ of the!e 1,ring the war- altho,gh the H,antit+ ,!e1 wa! far le!! than that of the water(coole1 g,n!6 The C5 =av+ ha1 a goo1 1eal of pre(war intere!t in thi! weapon an1 #,>r1 p,rcha!e1 a !ample of an air(coole1 twin ver!ion from #ofor! in earl+ 1&406 Thi! arrive1 in =ew Ior$ from 5we1en on 2" 9,g,!t 1&406 <,ring the !ame month- the <,tch e!cort ve!!el van Kinsbergen 1emon!trate1 the!e weapon! to C5 ob!erver! in a te!t off Trini1a16 #,>r1 formall+ obtaine1 5we1i!h licen!e! in B,ne 1&41- altho,gh !ome man,fact,ring act,all+ !tarte1 prior to that time6 t !ho,l1 be note1 that the C5= con!i1ere1 the original #ofor! /o1el 1&36 1e!ign to be completel+ ,n!,itable for the ma!! pro1,ction techniH,e! reH,ire1 for the va!t n,mber of g,n! nee1e1 to eH,ip the !hip! of the C5 =av+6 *ir!t- the 5we1i!h g,n! were 1e!igne1 ,!ing metric mea!,rement ,nit!- a !+!tem all b,t ,n$nown in the C59 at that time6 'or!e !till- the 1imen!ioning on the 5we1i!h 1rawing! often 1i1 not match the act,al mea!,rement! ta$en of the weapon!6 5econ1l+- the 5we1i!h g,n! reH,ire1 a great 1eal of han1 wor$ in or1er to ma$e the fini!he1 weapon6 *or example- 5we1i!h bl,eprint! ha1 man+ note! on them !,ch a! Dfile to fit at a!!embl+D an1 D1rill to fit at a!!embl+-D all of which too$ m,ch pro1,ction time in or1er to implement6 Thir1- the 5we1i!h mo,nting! were man,all+ wor$e1- while the C5= reH,ire1 power( wor$e1 mo,nting! in or1er to attain the fa!t elevation an1 training !pee1! nece!!ar+ to engage mo1ern aircraft6 *o,rth- the 5we1i!h g,n! were air(coole1- limiting their abilit+ to fire long b,r!t!- a nece!!it+ for mo!t naval 99 engagement!6 *inall+- the C5= re:ecte1 the 5we1i!h amm,nition 1e!ign- a! it wa! not bore!afe- the

f,0e wa! fo,n1 to be too !en!itive for normal !hipboar1 ,!e an1 it! overall 1e!ign wa! 1etermine1 to be ,n!,itable for ma!! pro1,ction6 C5 man,fact,rer! ma1e ra1ical change! to the 5we1i!h 1e!ign in or1er to minimi0e the!e problem! an1 a! a re!,lt the g,n! an1 mo,nting! pro1,ce1 in the C59 bore little re!emblance their 5we1i!h ance!tor!6 *or example- all b,t the earlie!t C5 g,n! were b,ilt to 2ngli!h mea!,rement ,nit! rather than to metric ,nit!6 To give one a11itional example of the 1e!ign 1ifference! ma1e for C5 pro1,ce1 weapon!J the Chr+!ler Corporation re1e!igne1 ten component! to !,it ma!! pro1,ction techniH,e! an1 thi! wa! claime1 to have !ave1 !ome ;-500-000 po,n1! ?3-402-000 $g@ of material an1 1-"&6-;50 man ho,r! 1,ring a +earK! pro1,ction- a! well a! freeing ,p 30 machine tool! for the pro1,ction of other component!6 *or amm,nition- the f,0e 1e!igne1 an1 pro1,ce1 in #ritain wa! a1opte1 a! an interim mea!,re b+ the C59- b,t thi! wa! con!i1ere1 to be of an ,n!afe 1e!ign an1 ,n!,itable for ma!! pro1,ction techniH,e!6 *ort,natel+- thi! f,0e wa! almo!t imme1iatel+ replace1 b+ one 1e!igne1 b+ R6L6 Ara,mann of the =aval >r1nance Laborator+6 Thi! f,0e wa! !imple in 1e!ign an1 Di1eall+ !,ite1 to ma!! pro1,ction6D The new f,0e- 1e!ignate1 a! the /ar$ 2;- wa! fo,n1 to be &&6& percent efficient in balli!tic acceptance te!t!- a recor1 not eH,ale1 b+ an+ other f,0e of the time6 #oth the C5 9rm+ an1 the #riti!h a1opte1 thi! f,0e for their own pro1,ction line!6 The C5= e!timate1 that the a1option of the /ar$ 2; !ave1 !ome L250-000-000 1,ring the war6 >ne firm r,le a1opte1 earl+ in the re1e!ign proce!! wa! that an+ new 9llie1 m,nition for the!e weapon! nee1e1 to be completel+ interchangeable with exi!ting 1e!ign!6 Thi! allowe1 amm,nition pro1,ce1 b+ an+ 9merican or #riti!h or1nance man,fact,rer to be ,!e1 with an+ weapon pro1,ce1 b+ either co,ntr+- th,! greatl+ !implif+ing the logi!tic! problem! of a worl1(wi1e war6 The fir!t C5= pilot twin wa! complete1 in Ban,ar+ 1&42 an1 the fir!t H,a1 in 9pril 1&426 The fir!t !hipboar1 H,a1 in!tallation wa! on the g,nner+(training !hip ?ex(battle!hip@ C55 '+oming ?9A(1;@ on 22 B,ne 1&42- an1 the fir!t twin in!tallation wa! on the 1e!tro+er C55 Coghlan ?<<(606@ on 1 B,l+ 1&426 The C59 !tarte1 a ma!!ive

pro1,ction program for the!e weapon!- with a total of abo,t 3&-200 being b,ilt b+ the en1 of the war6 2ven !o- the 1eman1 wa! not f,ll+ met ,ntil well into 1&446 #+ that time- the pre(war 161D g,n ha1 been almo!t totall+ replace1 b+ #ofor! g,n!6 To ill,!trate how man+ of the!e weapon! were pro1,ce1 b+ the C59- note that o,t of the more than 400 1e!tro+er! b,ilt for the C5= between 1&34 an1 1&46- onl+ the fo,r 1e!tro+er! of the pre(war Ari1le+ cla!! ?<<(3"0@ an1 tho!e !,n$ earl+ in the war 1i1 not receive at lea!t !ome #ofor! g,n!6 Late in 'orl1 'ar - the C5= !tarte1 replacing 20 mm >erli$on g,n! with the #ofor! 40 mm g,n!- a! the !maller weapon wa! fo,n1 to be ineffective again!t Bapane!e 4ami$a0e!6 7owever- even the #ofor! wa! 1etermine1 to be ina1eH,ate again!t !,ici1e attac$! b+ earl+ 1&45- !o a! a re!,lt #ofor! g,n! were in t,rn replace1 1,ring the late 1&40! an1 1&50! with the new rapi1 fire 3D%50 ?;662 cm@ 1e!ign!6 t !ho,l1 be note1 that altho,gh thi! wa! probabl+ the be!t anti(aircraft heav+ machine g,n of 'orl1 'ar - the C5= con!i1ere1 it to be a front(line weapon for onl+ !ix +ear!6 t 1i1 remain in !ervice ,ntil the 1&;0! on a,xiliar+ an1 non(mo1erni0e1 !hip!- primaril+ beca,!e the 3D%50 R* ?;662 cm@ replacement program wa! never f,ll+ f,n1e16 9ll earl+ ver!ion! of thi! weapon ,!e1 friction(co,ple1 1rive!which H,ic$l+ wore o,t on naval !hip! 1,e to !alt contamination6 Later ver!ion! b,ilt in the C59 ,!e1 h+1ra,lic(co,ple1 1rive! which eliminate1 the problem6 The 1evelopment of the /ar$ 51 1irector !+!tem gave the C59 weapon! greatl+ improve1 acc,rac+6 *or example- half of all Bapane!e aircraft !hot 1own between 1 >ctober 1&44 an1 1 *ebr,ar+ 1&45 were cre1ite1 to the #ofor!%/ar$ 51 combination6 5ee the article on the /ar$ 51 1irector on the Technical #oar1 for a11itional information6 The C5= /ar$ 1 an1 /ar$ 2 #ofor! g,n! were both water(coole1 an1 were ,!e1 for all twin an1 H,a1 mo,nting!6 The /ar$ 1 wa! a left(han1 weapon while the /ar$ 2 wa! a right(han1 weapon6 2xcept for the barrel a!!emblie!- the component! were not interchangeable6 The!e weapon! co,l1 be fire1 in !ingle(!hot or a,tomatic mo1e via a !elector !witch on the !i1e of the !li1e6 The /1 wa! an air(coole1 ver!ion originall+ pro1,ce1 for the C5

9rm+6 The barrel a!!emblie! for the /1 were interchangeable with tho!e of #riti!h an1 Cana1ian pro1,ce1 air(coole1 weapon!6 9ll C5= !ingle mo,nting! ,!e1 a mo1ifie1 ver!ion of the /16 The!e g,n! are recoil operate1 an1 ,!e a monobloc barrel with a 1etachable breech ring- breech ca!ing an1 a,tomatic loa1er6 #reech bloc$ i! a vertical !li1ing t+pe6 9ltho,gh often li!te1 a! being 60 caliber! long- all of the!e g,n! except for the Bapane!e ver!ion were act,all+ 56625 caliber! in length6 911itional information on g,n! pro1,ce1 b+ all nation! ma+ be fo,n1 in the D/o,nt % T,rret <ataD !ection at the bottom of thi! page6

USA 40 mm/56 Quad Mount on USS Hornet CV-12 in 1 45 U!S! Nava" Hi#tori$a" Center %&oto'rap& ( )0-*-41+ 15
!

Clic$ here for a11itional pict,re! ! !

*un C&ara$teri#ti$# !
S-eden. /o0or# 40 mm/60 11!5234 Mode" 1 +6 *erman5. 4 $m/56 11!5234 6"a7 2) 8apan. 4 $m/60 11!5234 95pe 5 1Mode" 1 454 U:. 40 mm/56!+ 11!5234 Q6 Mar7# ;< ;;;< ;V< V;;;< ;=< =< =;< N; and N;/; USA. 40 mm/56 11!5234 Mar7 1< Mar7 2 and M1 A"mo#t a"" ma?or US and /riti#& -ar#&ip# o0 @or"d @ar ;; *erman Crui#er# and S-/oat# S-eden. 1 +6 *erman. N/A 8apan. 1 4+ U:. 1 41 USA. 1 41 S-eden. N/A *erman5. 1 44 8apan. Not in #ervi$e U:. 1 41 USA. 1 42 *erman. N/A 8apan. 1<01) "b#! 1462 7'4 Aair-$oo"edB U:. 1<120 to 1<16+ "b#! 150) to 52) 7'4 Adependin' upon Mar7B A-ater-$oo"edB USA Mar7 1 and Mar7 2. about 1<150 "b#! 1522 7'4 A-ater-$oo"edB USA M1. 1<0+6!5 "b#! 1420 7'4 Aair-$oo"edB *erman. N/A 8apan. N/A U:. 145!+ to 145!5 in 1+!6 1 to +!6 6 m4 Adependin' upon Mar7B USA. 14)!) in 1+!2)0 m4

,e#i'nation

S&ip C"a## U#ed >n

,ate >0 ,e#i'n

,ate ;n Servi$e

*un @ei'&t

*un Cen't& oa

/ore Cen't& 1#ee Note 4

*erman. N/A 8apan. 4!5 in 12!400 m4 U:. ))!52) in 12!250 m4 USA. ))!6 in 12!250 m4 *erman. 26!06 in 11! +2 m4 8apan. 2)!) in 12!000 m4 U:. 25!)5 in 11! 22 m4 USA. 25!)5 in 11! 22 m4 *erman. N/A 8apan. 1164 0!00 ) in deep 10!25 mm4 U:. 1164 0!2+6 in deep E 0!220 10!60 E 5!5 mm4 USA Mar7 1 and Mar7 2. 1164 0!02+6 in deep E 0!220 10!60 E 5!5 mm4 A-ater-$oo"edB USA M1. 1164 0!0225 in deep E 0!220 10!052 E 5!5 mm4 Aair$oo"edB *erman. N/A 8apan. N/A U:. 0!0) 2 in 12!66 mm4 USA. 0!0) 2 in 12!66 mm4 *erman. N/A 8apan. Uni0orm DH 1 in +0 U:. ;n$rea#in' DH 1 in 45 to 1 in +0 USA. ;n$rea#in' DH 1 in 45 to 1 in +0 U:. 2)!661 in+ 10!420 dm+4 USA. 2)!+ in+ 10!464 dm+4 120 round# per minute per barre" nomina" 140 to 160 round# per minute -&en &oriFonta" 1'ravit5 a##i#t4

Di0"in' Cen't&

*roove#

Cand#

9-i#t

C&amber Vo"ume Date >0 6ire 1#ee Note#4 Note#.

14 9&e pra$ti$a" rate o0 0ire 0or $"ip-0ed -ater-$oo"ed 'un# i# e##entia""5 t&e #ame a# t&e $5$"i$ rate< a# t&e $"ip# a""o- 0or a $ontinuou# ammunition 0eed and t&e re$ir$u"atin' -ater ?a$7et# 7eep t&e barre"# 0rom over-&eatin'! 24 A modi0i$ation 7it -a# produ$ed around 1 20 -&i$& in$rea#ed t&e rate o0 0ire to 1)0 round# per minute and t&e ma'aFine $apa$it5 to 20 round# b5 u#in' a banana 0eeder 0ed b5 #tandard 0our-round $"ip#! +4 Mar7 1 0ed 0rom t&e "e0t -&i"e t&e Mar7 2 'un# 0ed 0rom t&e ri'&t!

Manua""5 "oaded M1 'un# 0ed 0rom t&e "e0t! 44 9&e #tandard automati$ "oader &o"d# t-o 0our-round $"ip#! @&en t&e 0ir#t 0our-round $"ip i# in#erted into t&e 0eeder< t&e $"ip it#e"0 i# #tripped o00 and 0a""# out onto t&e de$7 1t&e $"ip $&ute i# a $ut out ?u#t be"o- t&e "oaderG "e0t #ide 0or a "e0t 'un and ri'&t #ide 0or a ri'&t 'un4! 9&e #e$ond $"ip i# t&en dropped into t&e "oader and pu#&ed do-n #o t&at it 0or$e# a round t&rou'& t&e "oader #tar -&ee"# and onto t&e rammer tra5! 9&i# 0ir#t round on"5 &ad to be manua""5 pu#&ed t&rou'& -&en t&e 'un -a# initia""5 "oaded< t&e "oader -i"" automati$a""5 0eed round# 0rom ne- $"ip#! 9&e #e$ond $"ip doe# not drop out unti" t&e 0ir#t t-o round# 1o0 ei'&t4 are 0ired! 54 9&e 'un "oader 0eed 'uide# norma""5 &e"d ei'&t round# 1t-o $"ip#4< a"t&ou'& ten round# $ou"d be "oaded -it& t-o "oo#e round# bet-een $"ip#! Mar7 1 and Mar7 2 'un# &ad a "oader inter"o$7 -&i$& automati$a""5 &a"ted 0irin' -&en t&ere -ere on"5 t-o round# remainin' in t&e "oader< one on t&e rammer tra5 and one in t&e #tar -&ee"#! 9&i# a""o-# 0irin' to be Hui$7"5 re#umed -&en a ne- $"ip i# dropped into t&e "oader! Un"i7e t&e Mar7 1 and Mar7 2 'un#< t&e M1 'un# &ad a #-it$& on t&e ba$7 o0 t&e "oader at t&e $enter< bottom rear! 9&i# #-it$& di#ab"ed t&e inter"o$7 #o t&at t&e M1 $ou"d 0ire a"" ei'&t round# in t&e 0eed $"ip# or it $ou"d be #et to #top t&e 'un -&en on"5 t-o round# -ere remainin'< #imi"ar to t&e Mar7 1 and Mar7 2! ;0 a"" ei'&t round# -ere 0ired< t&en t&e 0ir#t "oader -ou"d &ave to #tart 0rom t&e be'innin' to drop in t-o $"ip# and t&en pu#& on t&e top #o t&at t&e bottom round -ou"d rotate t&rou'& t&e "oader #tar -&ee"# and drop onto t&e rammer tra5! 9&e 'un -ou"d t&en re#ume 0irin' -&en t&e pointer pu#&ed &i# 0oot peda"! 64 ;t -a# up to t&e #e$ond "oader to proper"5 orientate ea$& $"ip -&en &e &anded it to t&e 0ir#t "oader #o t&at a"" t&e 0ir#t "oader &ad to do -a# drop it into t&e "oader! Sin$e t&e /o0or# 'un $5$"ed at 120 to 160 round# per minute 1one $"ip ever5 1!5 to 2 #e$ond#4< t&e 0ir#t "oader &ad to do a Hui$7 3pi$7 up< turn< and drop3 a$tion in order to 7eep up -it& it! ;0 t&e $"ip -a# not orientated proper"5 durin' t&e &and-over< t&en t&e 0ir#t "oader -ou"d &ave to ?u''"e it in order to po#ition it proper"5 be0ore it $ou"d be dropped into t&e "oader! /ein' too #"o-ou"d interrupt t&e 0irin' $5$"e - &en$e t&e rea#on 0or t&e "oader inter"o$7! 9&e /riti#& $on#idered t&at #7i""0u" "oader# $ou"d 7eep a 'un 0irin' 0or about 24 round# 1#iE $"ip#4 -it&out a pau#e!

24 %er&ap# unu#ua""5 0or US 'un#< t&e bore# o0 t&e#e -eapon# -ere not $&romium p"ated! )4 Ammunition i# per$u##ion 0ired! 4 ;n 3US Nava" 9e$&ni$a" Mi##ion to 8apan report >-421N4-23 it i# #tated t&at t&e 8apane#e in $op5in' a $aptured /riti#& air-$oo"ed 'un Iin$rea#eAd t&eB barre" "en't& 0rom 2160 mm 1)5!134 to 2400 mm 1 4!5234I! 9&i# dimen#ion i# u#ua""5 ta7en a# bein' t&e overa"" barre" "en't& in mo#t re0eren$e# 1#ee 0or eEamp"e 3Nava" @eapon# o0 @or"d @ar 9-o34! Ho-ever< t&i# dimen#ion $annot be t&e overa"" barre" "en't&< a# /riti#&-bui"t /o0or# 'un# &ad a bore "en't& o0 ))!52) in 12!250 m4 - 56!+ $a"iber#< -&i"e t&eir overa"" "en't& -a# about 145!+ in 1+!6 1m4! A# t&e ri0"in' "en't& 'iven in >-421N4-2 0or t&e 95pe 5 i# #i'ni0i$ant"5 "on'er t&an t&at 0or t&e /riti#& /o0or#< ; be"ieve t&at t&e dimen#ion# 'iven in >-421N4-2 0or barre" "en't&# mu#t a$tua""5 be 0or t&e bore "en't&# and u#e t&i# a##umption in $on#tru$tin' t&i# data pa'e!
!

Ammunition !
95pe %ro?e$ti"e 95pe# and @ei'&t# 6iEed /o0or# A/ 40 mm C/60 HJ-9 - 2!05 "b#! 10! + 7'4

USA HJ Mar7 1 Mod# 1 to 24 - 1! )5 "b#! 10! 00 7'4 HJ Mar7 2 Mod# 1 to +5 - 1! )5 "b#! 10! 00 7'4 A% M)1A1 and M)1A2 - 1! 60 "b#! 10!)) 7'4 U: HJ - 1! 20 "b#! 10!) 4 7'4 SA% - N/A *erman5

HJ - 2!105 "b#! 10! 55 7'4 8apan HJ - 2!21 "b#! 11!002 7'4


@ei'&t o0 Comp"ete Dound /o0or# - 4!6+ "b#! 12!1 7'4 U: - 4!)) "b#! 12!21 7'4 USA - 4!25 "b#! 12!15 7'4 >t&er# - N/A /o0or# 1modern da54 0!20 "b#! 10!0 2 7'4 HeEotona"

/ur#tin' C&ar'e

USA 1@or"d @ar ;;4 HJ Mar7 1 - 0!14) "b#! 10!062 7'4 Ca#t 9N9 HJ Mar7 2 - 0!150 "b#! 10!06) 7'4 Ca#t 9N9 A% - None 1So"id /u""et4 >t&er# N/A

%ro?e$ti"e Cen't&

USA HJ Mar7 1 and Mar7 2 - 2!25 in 11)!4 $m4 USA A% M)1A1 - 6!1 in 115!2 $m4 >t&er# - N/A /o0or# - 12!60 in 144!2 $m4 U: - 12!25 in 145!1 $m4 USA HJ - 12!62 in 144!25 $m4 >t&er# - N/A Mar7 1 - /ra##< 40 E +11 mm< 1! + "b#! 10!)) 7'4 Mar7 2 - /ra##< 40 E +11 mm< 1!) "b#! 10!)6 7'4 Mar7 + - Stee"< 40 E +11 mm< 1!5+ "b#! 10!6 7'4 USA - 0!6 4 "b#! 10!+14 7'4 NC 025 USA - 0!661 "b#! 10!+00 7'4 S%,N U: - 0!21 "b#! 10!+26 7'4 6NH/%>22 *erman5 - 0!66) "b#! 10!+0+ 7'4 Str %C/+)N 8apan - 0!612 to 0!661 "b#! 10!2)0 to 0!+00 7'4 USA Mar7# 1 and 2. 2<) 0 0p# 1))1 mp#4 U: Mar7 N;. 2<220 0p# 1)2 mp#4 *erman5 6"a7 2). 2<)01 0p# 1)54 mp#4 8apane#e 95pe 5. 2< 5+ 0p# 1 00 mp#4

Comp"ete Dound Cen't&

USN Cartrid'e Ca#e 95pe< SiFe and Jmpt5 @ei'&t

%rope""ant C&ar'e

MuFF"e Ve"o$it5 1#ee Note 64

@or7in' %re##ure 1#ee Note 64

8apan - 16!50 ton#/in2 12<600 7'/$m24 U: - 1 !6) ton#/in2 1+<100 7'/$m24 USA - 1 !5 ton#/in2 1+<020 7'/$m24 >t&er# - N/A USA - <500 Dound# U: - 10<000 Dound# *erman5 - 10<000 Dound# 8apan - N/A *erman Admira" Hipper and %rinF Ju'en. 2<000 round# *erman S-/oat#. 500 round#

ApproEimate /arre" Ci0e

Ammunition #to-a'e per 'un

U: HMS Van'uard. 1<26 round# 1in$"udin' +4 pra$ti$e4 Standard out0it 0or mo#t #&ip# -a# 1<564 round# per 'un USA Mo#t #&ip#. 2<000 round# >t&er#. N/A

Note#.

14 Ammunition 0or mo#t 'un# i# &e"d in 0our-round $"ip#! 9&e 0eed 'uide# atop ea$& 'un $an &o"d t-o $"ip# at a time! 9-o "oo#e round# $an be in#erted bet-een $"ip#! A 0our-round $"ip -ei'&# about 1 !0 "b#! 1)!6 7'4! 24 9&e man5 Mod# o0 USN ammunition -ere primari"5 boo77eepin' de#i'nation# u#ed to indi$ate t&e manu0a$turer! USN A% &ad a -ind#$reen! USN HJ ammunition -a# i##ued in HJ-9/S,< HJ/S,< HJ-;-9/S, and HJ-;/S, 0orm#! %"u''ed 0orm# 0or trainin' purpo#e# -ere a"#o manu0a$tured! 9&ere -a# a"#o a Mar7 + HJ round t&at did not $ontain a tra$er< but t&i# -a# u#ed on"5 0or a brie0 time durin' @or"d @ar ;; and -a# rep"a$ed in 1 45 b5 ,ar7 1non-"uminou# tra$er4 and ,ar7 ;'nition 1de"a5ed i'nition tra$er4 ammunition! ,ar7 9ra$er -a# i##ued on"5 in HJ/S, and HJ-;-9/S, 0orm#! ,ar7 ;'nition ammunition -a# i##ued on"5 in HJ-;-9-S, 0orm! +4 USN tra$er burned out at 5<000 5ard# 14<520 m4 &oriFonta"< 15<000

0eet 12<240 m4 verti$a"! 44 USN bourre"et diameter -a# 1!520 in$&e# 1+ !)) mm4! 54 Modern ammunition. /o0or# introdu$ed a 40 mm %6HJ proEimit5 round durin' t&e 1 )0# #imi"ar to t&o#e deve"oped 0or t&eir "ar'er 'un#! /o0or# $"aim# a maEimum e00e$tive bur#tin' radiu# o0 1) 0eet 15!5 m4 a'ain#t air$ra0t #iFe tar'et# -it& automati$ #en#itivit5 $ontro" to redu$e t&e bur#t ran'e to #iE 0eet 12 m4 a'ain#t mi##i"e# 0"5in' at "o- a"titude#! MuFF"e ve"o$it5 i# 2<)20 0p# 1)60 mp#4 and t&e tota" #&e"" -ei'&t i# 2!16 "b#! 10! ) 7'4 in$"udin' +!2 oF 1 0 'm#4 o0 o$to" eEp"o#ive! /o0or# $urrent"5 produ$e# HJ9< %9 and A%HC-9 1armor pier$in' &i'& $apa$it5 - tra$er4 round# 0or t&e#e -eapon#! 9&e A%HC-9 round i# unu#ua" in t&at it $arrie# an armor-pier$in' #"u' -it&in an a"uminum bod5! /o0or# $"aim# t&at t&i# round penetrate# #ome +0K deeper t&an t&e ear"ier A%C-9 round and t&at t&e a"uminum bod5 &a# an in$endiar5 e00e$t on t&e tar'et! 64 ;n 3US Nava" 9e$&ni$a" Mi##ion to 8apan report >-421N4-23 it i# #tated t&at t&e muFF"e ve"o$it5 -a# 2<)22 0p# 1)60 mp#4 be0ore t&e barre" -a# "en't&ened and t&e prope""ant $&ar'e in$rea#ed! Ho-ever< ; mu#t Hue#tion i0 t&e -or7in' pre##ure 'iven in t&i# do$ument - 16!50 ton#/in2 12<600 7'/$m24 - i# $orre$t< a# it #eem# to be mu$& "o-er t&an t&at 0ound 0or ot&er nationI# -eapon#!
!

USN 40 mm Ammunition Co"or Code# !


T+pe A% A%-9 HJ-% HJ-9/S, HJ/S, 1,94 HJ-;-9/S, #o1+ /"a$7 /"a$7 *reen *reen *reen *reen #an1 /"a$7 @&ite *reen @&ite /"a$7 @&ite Tip /"a$7 /"a$7 *reen *reen *reen Ded Remar$! %"u' in tra$er None %"u' in ba#e None ,ar7 9ra$er None

HJ-;-% HJ-;/S, 1,94 HJ-;-9 /CL9 /CL% HJ-;-9-S, 1,;4 Note#.

*reen *reen *reen -it& /"a$7 /and Ded Ded *reen

Ded /"a$7 @&ite @&ite Ded @&ite

Ded Ded Ded Ded Ded Ded

%"u' in ba#e ,ar7 9ra$er No S, 0un$tion ,umm5 6uFe ,umm5 6uFe and %"u' ,ar7 ;'nition

14 9&e Mar7 and Mod< manu0a$turerI# initia"# or #5mbo"< and "ot number are #tamped around t&e bod5 o0 t&e pro?e$ti"e! 24 Co"or p&oto'rap&# o0 #ome o0 t&e#e pro?e$ti"e# ma5 be #een on t&e additiona" pi$ture# pa'e!
!

Dan'e - USA !
2levation Dan'e M 10 de'ree# Dan'e M 15 de'ree# Dan'e M 20 de'ree# Dan'e M 25 de'ree# Dan'e M +0 de'ree# Dan'e M +5 de'ree# Dan'e M 40 de'ree# Dan'e M 45 de'ree# 'ith 16&"5 lb!6 ?06&00 $g@ 72 /ar$ 2 5hell 6<)44 5ard# 16<25) m4 )<222 5ard# 12<52+ m4 <2 5 5ard# 1)<4 m4 'ith 16&60 lb!6 ?06""& $g@ 9. /"191 5hell 6<466 5ard# 15< 1+ m4 2<5)0 5ard# 16< +1 m4 )<+) 5ard# 12<621 m4 )< 5 5ard# 1)<1 2 m4 <+5) 5ard# 1)<552 m4 <56) 5ard# 1)<24 m4 <61) 5ard# 1)<2 5 m4 <4 2 5ard# 1)<62 m4

10<10+ 5ard# 1 <2+) m4 10<6 1 5ard# 1 <226 m4 11<052 5ard# 110<111 m4 11<20) 5ard# 110<24 m4 11<1++ 5ard# 110<1)0 m4

AA Cei"in' Note#.

22<2

0eet 16<2 2 m4

---

14 USA produ$ed HJ-S, ammunition -a# #et to detonate at 4<000 5<000 5ard# 1+<200 - 4<520 m4 #o a# to minimiFe prob"em# due to 30riend"5 0ire!3 HJ and A% round# t&at did not #e"0-de#tru$t -ere a"#o manu0a$tured! 24 9ime o0 0"i'&t 0or 1! )5 "b#! 10! 00 7'4 HJ #&e"" -it& MV N 2<) 0 0p# 1))1 mp#4 4<200 5ard# 1+<)40 m4. )!5 #e$ond# 4<500 5ard# 14<110 m4. 10!5 #e$ond#
!

Dan'e - U: !
2levation MuFF"e ve"o$it5 o0 2<)00 0p# 1)5+ mp#4 Dan'e M 45 de'ree# AA Cei"in' 'ith 16&; lb!6 ?06"&4 $g@ 72 5hell with no !elf( 1e!tr,ct 10<250 5ard# 1 <)+0 m4 2+<500 0eet 12<160 m4

Note. /riti#& round# norma""5 #e"0-de#tru$ted at +<000 - +<500 5ard# 12<200 - +<200 m4< but t&i# -a# in$rea#ed to 2<000 5ard# 16<400 m4 in #ome ammunition t5pe#! !

Dan'e - *erman5 !
2levation MuFF"e ve"o$it5 o0 2<)00 0p# 1)5+ mp#4 Dan'e M 45 de'ree# AA Cei"in' ! 'ith 26105 lb!6 ?06&55 $g@ 72 5hell about 10<500 5ard# 1 <600 m4 22< 20 0eet 12<000 m4

Dan'e - 8apan !
2levation MuFF"e ve"o$it5 o0 2< 5+ 0p# 1 00 mp#4 Dan'e M 50 de'ree# AA Cei"in' M 0 de'ree# MaEimum e00e$tive ran'e 1#ee Note4 'ith 2621 lb!6 ?16005 $g@ 72 5hell 10< 00 5ard# 110<000 m4 26<250 0eet 1)<000 m4 +<2)0 5ard# 1+<000 m4

Note. 9&e USN attributed t&i# "o- e00e$tive ran'e to 3poor 0uFe de#i'n!3 ;t i# un$"ear a# to &o- t&e 0uFe de#i'n a00e$ted t&e e00e$tive ran'e< but ; -ou"d a##ume t&at t&i# meant t&at t&e 0uFe -a# o0 poor aerod5nami$ #&ape! Se"0-de#tru$tin' ammunition -a# not u#ed! !

Armor %enetration -it& 1! 60 "b#! 10!)) 7'4 A% M)1A1 J#timated 0or 3C"a## /3 Homo'eneou# Armor !
Range MuFF"e ve"o$it5 o0 2<) 0 0p# 1))1 mp#4 0 5ard# 10 m4 2<000 5ard# 11<)2 m4 4<000 5ard# 1+<65) m4 6<000 5ard# 15<4)6 m4 8ertical 9rmor 2!203 16 mm4 1!203 1+0 mm4 0!603 115 mm4 0!453 111 mm4

Note. 9&i# data i# 0rom 3/att"e#&ip#. United State# /att"e#&ip# 1 +5-1 23 and i# ba#ed upon t&e USN Jmpiri$a" Armor %enetration 0ormu"a! A"t&ou'& not #tated a# #u$&< ; be"ieve t&at t&e penetration va"ue# -ou"d be 0or 0 de'ree impa$t#! !

Mount / 9urret ,ata !

C59(#,ilt /o,nting! <e!ignation /ar$ 1 Twin /ar$ 2 F,a1 /ar$ 3 5ingle /ar$ 4 F,a1

@ei'&t 1no #&ie"d4

2+<200 - 2+<)00 2<440 - 4<200 22<2 5 - 24<55+ <)00 - 1+<000 "b#! "b#! "b#! "b#! 110<524 - 10<2 6 11<102 - 1< 05 110<+40 - 11<1+2 14445 - 5) 2 7'4 7'4 7'4 7'4 -15 / O 0 de'ree# 24 de'ree# / #e$ond +60 de'ree# 26 de'ree# / #e$ond )in 120 - 22 $m4 -15 / O 0 de'ree# 24 de'ree# / #e$ond +60 de'ree# 26 de'ree# / #e$ond -6 / O 0 de'ree# See Note 1 +60 de'ree# See Note 1 -15 / O 0 de'ree# 55 de'ree# / #e$ond +60 de'ree# 50 de'ree# / #e$ond

J"evation

J"evation Date 9rain 9rain Date De$oi"

=ote! on C59(b,ilt 'eapon! an1 /o,nting!

14 Mar7 + #in'"e mount# u#ed air-$oo"ed 'un#< -&i$& -ere modi0ied ver#ion# o0 t&e US Arm5 M1 /o0or# 'un! 9&ree ver#ion# o0 t&e Mar7 + -ere u#ed on #ur0a$e #&ip#< t&e Mod 0< Mod 4 and Mod < -&i"e #ubmarine# u#ed t&e 3-et mount3 Mod 5 and Mod 6! Mod 0 -a# t&e ba#i$ Arm5 mount and -ei'&ed 2<440 "b#! 11<102 7'4 in$"udin' 'un and #i'&tin' me$&ani#m#! 9&e Mod 0 "a$7ed po-er drive# and #o -a# manua""5 trained and e"evated! Cre- 0or t&e Mod 0 -a# u#ua""5 0ive to #iE men! Mod 4 added 1 &p po-er drive# 0or trainin' and e"evation and &ad t&e #ame $re- #iFe a# t&e Mod 0! Submarine Mod# 5 and 6 -ere manua""5 -or7ed mountin'#! Mo#t #in'"e mount #&ipboard in#ta""ation# &ad #a0et5 rai"# around t&em to 7eep t&e 'un $re-# 0rom a$$identa""5 0irin' into t&e #&ip! 9&e Mar7 + Mod -a# a mu$& "ater de#i'n u#in' rebui"t M1 'un#! 9&e Mod -a# de#i'ned 0or u#e on river and $oa#ta" patro" $ra0t and 0or one man operation $re- -a# a$tua""5 a pointer-trainer and a mount $aptain! 9&i# mount u#ed inte'ra" train and e"evation po-er drive# and -a# #tabi"iFed! @ei'&t in$rea#ed to 4<200 "b#! 11< 05 7'4! 9&i# Mod -a# in#ta""ed aboard 12 %/ Mar7 ;;; Sea Spe$tre patro" boat# durin' t&e mid1 )0#! >ri'ina""5< Mod u#ed a "ar'e 4)-round drum ma'aFine< but t&i# -a# not o0ten u#ed a# it inter0ered -it& vi#ion 0rom t&e pi"ot &ou#e! 9&i# drum "oo7ed #omet&in' "i7e t&e one# u#ed on 20 mm

>er"i7on# but< o0 $our#e< mu$& "ar'er! ,urin' t&e 1 )0# 39an7er @ar3 in t&e %er#ian *u"0< it -a# a"#o reported t&at t&e drum did not 0eed re"iab"5< #o it -a# removed and t&e $re-# -ent ba$7 to manua" "oadin'! 24 A"" USN t-in and Huad mountin'# u#ed -ater-$oo"ed Mar7 1 and Mar7 2 /o0or# 'un#! An5 mod o0 t&e Mar7 1 or Mar7 2 /o0or# 'un# $ou"d be u#ed in an5 mod o0 USN t-in or Huad mountin'#G t&e#e USN 'un# -ere de#i'ned to be $omp"ete"5 inter$&an'eab"e in t&at re'ard#! 9-in mount# $on#i#ted o0 a "e0t-&and 'un 1Mar7 14 and a ri'&t-&and 'un 1Mar7 24 ?oined to'et&er! 9&e 'un aEe# -ere !56) in 124!+ $m4 apart! J"evation and trainin' motor# -ere + or 5 &p! +4 Quad mount# -ere ba#i$a""5 t-o t-in mount# ?oined to'et&er< -it& ea$& pair &avin' a "e0t-&and 'un 1Mar7 14 and a ri'&t-&and 'un 1Mar7 24! 9&e 'un pair# aEe# -ere 60!0 in 11!524 m4 apart! J"evation motor# -ere 5 &p and trainin' motor# -ere 5 or 2!5 &p! A# noted above< &5drau"i$ drive 'ear -a# u#ed on mo#t unit#! A"t&ou'& bot& pair# o0 'un# e"evated to'et&er< in #ome Mod# t&e pair# $ou"d be un$oup"ed in $a#e o0 dama'e! 44 9&ere -ere man5 Mod number# a##i'ned to t&e t-in and Huad mountin'#< -it& mo#t &avin' to do -it& detai"# o0 t&e po-er drive#! An a#teri#7 1P4 indi$ated t&at t&e mount in$"uded a radar antenna and -a# u#ed -it& t&e Mar7 6+ dire$tor! 54 9&e Mar7 4 Huad mount -a# a "o---ei'&t ver#ion t&at u#ed a "i'&ter amp"id5ne 'enerator mounted be"o- de$7 and a *J D%C #5#tem! 9&i# mountin' &ad mu$& 0a#ter trainin' and e"evation #peed# t&an ear"ier mount#< but on"5 100 &ad been de"ivered b5 t&e end o0 t&e -ar! 64 US #&ip# $arried "ar'e Huantitie# o0 t&i# -eapon -it& USS Sarato'a CV-+ probab"5 &avin' t&e mo#t at 100 'un# in 25 Huad mount#! J##eE $"a## $arrier# $arried bet-een 10 and 1) Huad mount# and mo#t ;o-a $"a## batt"e#&ip# $arried 20 Huad mount#! 24 9&e USN bui"t more t&an 2<+00 Huad mount#< ?u#t under 10<000 t-in mount# and more t&an 10<000 #in'"e mount# durin' t&e -ar! 9&i# ma## produ$tion 'radua""5 redu$ed t&e $o#t# durin' t&e -ar< -it& Huad mount# droppin' 0rom Q)6<000 do-n to Q62<250 and t-in mount# droppin' 0rom Q62<+00 do-n to Q4+<640!

=ote! on #riti!h(b,ilt 'eapon! an1 /o,nting!

14 Seriou# /riti#& intere#t in t&i# -eapon -a# 0ir#t #&o-n b5 t&e Arm5 in 1 ++ and -a# 0o""o-ed b5 an order 0or 100 'un# in 1 +2! Cater< a manu0a$turin' "i$en#e -a# pur$&a#ed 0rom /o0or#! 9&e /riti#& ver#ion i# o00i$ia""5 "i#ted a# 56!+ $a"iber# "on'! ;n #pite o0 t&e man5 di00erent Mar7 number#< a"" /o0or# 'un# u#ed b5 t&e Do5a" Nav5 -ere ba#i$a""5 #imi"ar! 9&e5 -ere re$oi" operated -it& a monob"o$ barre" and deta$&ab"e bree$& rin'< bree$& $a#in' and automati$ "oader -it& a verti$a" #"idin' bree$& b"o$7! 9&e air-$oo"ed Mar7# ;< ;P and ;;; di00ered in detai"# o0 t&e automati$ "oader! 9&e Canadian-bui"t mode"# -ere 'iven a 3C3 #u00iE a# in t&e Mar7 ;C and Mar7 ;PC! 9&e Au#trai"ian-bui"t Mar7 ;P -a# identi$a" to t&e /riti#&-bui"t 'un o0 t&at de#i'nation! 9&e -ater-$oo"ed Mar7# ;V< V;;;< ;=< =< =; and po#t--ar N; and N;/; a"" &ad -ater ?a$7et# -it& $ir$u"atin' pump# and di00ered on"5 in re'ard# to t&e mountin' t&e5 -ere to be u#ed on! Sin'"e #&ot# $ou"d be 0ired in a"" but t&e Mar7 V;;;< ;=< = and probab"5 t&e N; and N;/; 'un#! Un"i7e USN pra$ti$e< t&e "e0t and ri'&t ver#ion# o0 t&e#e -eapon# -ere not 'iven #eparate Mar7 number#! ;n#tead< t&e5 -ere 'iven "etter #u00iEe#< t&e #pe$i0i$# o0 -&i$& ; "a$7 at t&i# time< a"t&ou'& it appear# t&at t&e Mar7 ;V -a# 95pe , 0or t&e "e0t 'un and 95pe J 0or t&e ri'&t 'un! 9&i# "ar'e number o0 variation# o0 /riti#& /o0or# 'un# $ompared to t&e t&ree produ$ed 0or t&e USN -ou"d #eem to #&oon$e a'ain t&e "a$7 o0 intere#t b5 t&e Do5a" Nav5 in -eapon #tandardiFation durin' t&e @or"d @ar ;; period! 9&e /riti#& $on#idered t&e /o0or# to be at "ea#t t-i$e a# e00e$tive a# t&eir o-n 2pdr a'ain#t torpedo bomber#< but not mu$& better t&an t&at -eapon a'ain#t 7ami7aFe#! 24 9&e USA provided + + ea$& o0 t&eir Mar7 1 1"e0t-&and4 and Mar7 2 1ri'&t-&and4 'un#! 9&e#e -ere u#ed in /riti#& D% Mar7 ; 19-in4 and D% Mar7 ;; 1Quad4 mountin'#! 9&e t-in mount -a# 0ir#t u#ed on t&e Cend-Cea#e Atta$7er $"a## e#$ort $arrier# in 8anuar5 1 4+! 9&e Huad mount -a# 0ir#t in#ta""ed on HMS %&oebe in 8une 1 4+! 9&e USA a"#o #upp"ied air-$oo"ed 'un# -&i$& -ere u#ed main"5 on CS9#! +4 9&e Mar7 ;;; #erie# o0 &and-operated #in'"e mountin'# -ere t&e Arm5 de#i'n adapted 0or Nava" u#e and -ere -ide"5 u#ed< -it& #ome 500 in #ervi$e b5 t&e end o0 @or"d @ar ;;! U#ua""5 de#i'nated a# CS Mar7 ;;; 1Cand Servi$e4! 9&e 0o""o-in' mountin'# do not appear to &ave entered nava" #ervi$e< a"t&ou'& t&e5 do appear on nava" 'un "i#t#. Mar7 ;;;P 1&and operated -it& '5ro #i'&t# 0or "a5er and trainer4< D%CS Mar7 ;;; 1Demote %o-er Cand Servi$e4 and 9oad#too" 1?o5#ti$7

$ontro""ed po-er operation u#in' Arm5 $omponent#4! J"evation "imit# 0or t&e Mar7 ;;; -ere -5 to O 0 de'ree#! A# o0 8une 1 42< +14 Mar7 ;;; mountin'# -ere in #ervi$e< o0 -&i$& +01 -ere on ,JMS! /5 Ma5 1 45< t&ere -ere about 1<+ 2 in #ervi$e -it& 56) on ,JMS! 9&o#e Arm5 mountin'# modi0ied at "ea#t #ome-&at 0or nava" #ervi$e -ere de#i'nated a# Mar7 ;;; CN and t&ere -ere 500 o0 t&e#e in #ervi$e at t&e end o0 t&e -ar< -it& 2 1 on ,JMS! Mountin' -ei'&t 0or t&e CS Mar7 ;;; in$"udin' t&e 'un -a# 1!2 ton# 11!22 mt4! 44 9&e Mar7 ;V t-in mountin' -a# derived 0rom t&e HaFeme5er triaEia" mountin' -&i$& &ad it# ori'in# in t&e 1 40 arriva" in /ritain o0 t&e ,ut$& mine"a5er Willem van der Zaan! 9&e Mar7 ;V -a# a #e"0$ontained t-in mountin' t&at &ad it# o-n ran'e0inder< radar and ana"o' $omputer on t&e mount! 9&i# mountin' u#ed Mar7 ;V -ater$oo"ed 'un# and uti"iFed a tra$7 and pinion #5#tem 0or e"evatin' and trainin'< po-ered via a @ard-Ceonard #5#tem 0or automati$ tar'et tra$7in'! 9&e Mar7 ;V -a# probab"5 too advan$ed 0or it# da5 and proved to be #ome-&at de"i$ate 0or u#e on de#tro5er# and #"oop#! 9&e "ater S9AA* and /u#ter de#i'n# -ere more robu#t< but ver5 mu$& &eavier! A$$ordin' to #ervi$e note#< t&e Mar7 ;V -a# apparent"5 u#ed more o0ten in manua" mode t&an in po-er mode! J"evation -a# -10 to O 0 de'ree# -it& $ro##-"eve" o0 O/- 14 de'ree# -it& $ontro" $uttin' out at O/- 12 de'ree#! MaEimum e"evatin' #peed -a# 25 de'ree# per #e$ond -it& t&e manua""5 $ontro""ed ?o5#ti$7< but trainin' and e"evation $ontro" via automati$ $ontro" -a# "imited to "itt"e more t&an 10 de'ree# per #e$ond! @ei'&t -a# 2!05 ton# 12!16 mt4! 9&e "ater Mar7 ;VP mountin' di00ered in detai"# o0 t&e $ontro"# and '5ro#! 9&e 0o""o-in' de#$ription ta7en 0rom 3,e#tro5er @eapon# o0 @or"d @ar 23 i# o0 intere#t.
I9&e 2-ton 3Ha#"emere<3 a# it -a# 'enera""5 7no-n< -a# a bri""iant $on$ept< but un0ortunate"5 it needed more advan$ed te$&no"o'5 t&an t&en eEi#ted! ;t $annot $"aim to &ave been t&e mo#t popu"ar o0 -eapon# but at "ea#t it provided a "itt"e "i'&t re"ie0 on o$$a#ion#! @&en #tationar5 in t&e 3po-er-o003 mode durin' maintenan$e< a $ombination o0 trainin'< depre##ion and $ro##-ro"" made it "oo7 0or a"" t&e -or"d a# t&ou'& it -a# about to 0a"" o00 it# 'unde$7! >b#ervation# "i7e 3; #ee t&e Ha#"emere i# i"" a'ain3 -ere $ommon!I

54 9&e de#i'n o0 t&e Mar7 V t-in -a# ba#ed upon t&e USN Mar7 1 t-in mountin' adapted to u#e /riti#& $omponent# in$"udin' #ome $omponent# o0 2-pdr mountin'# and D%C 'ear 0rom t&e 4!53 111!4 $m4 Mar7 V! 9&i# mount u#ed t&e Mar7 =; 'un and -a# 0ir#t

introdu$ed on t&e Hunt $"a## de#tro5er HMS Me5ne"" on + 6ebruar5 1 45! 9&e Mar7 V -a# po-er operated -it& e"evation "imit# o0 -15 to O 0 de'ree# and -ei'&ed 6!4 ton# 16!5 mt4 -it& 12 0our-round $"ip# $arried on mount! 9&e Mar7 V proved Huite popu"ar in #ervi$e and -a# retained "on' a0ter t&e more #op&i#ti$ated S9AA* -a# retired! ;t# "ar'e#t dra-ba$7 -a# t&e "a$7 o0 a b"ind 0ire $apabi"it5! 9&e D%50 Mar7 V &ad a maEimum trainin' #peed o0 +5 de'ree# per #e$ond and e"evatin' #peed o0 2) de'ree# per #e$ond! 9&e D%50 Mar7 VC 1Canadian4 &ad a maEimum e"evation #peed o0 +5 de'ree# per #e$ond! 64 9&e Mar7 V; -a# a #eEtup"e mount u#in' t&e Mar7 ;= 'un and u#ed a +6-round ammunition tra5 0or ea$& 'un rat&er t&an t&e u#ua" 0ourround $"ip#! 9rainin' and e"evatin' #peed# o0 t&e D%50 Mar7 V; -ere bot& +0 de'ree# per #e$ond! @ei'&t -a# 21!24 ton# 121!5) mt4! 9&i# mount did not enter #ervi$e unti" a0ter t&e -ar! 24 9&e Mar7 V;; -a# an adapted Arm5 #in'"e mount -it& a -ei'&t o0 1!40 ton# 11!42 mt4! %rodu$tion order# 0or t&e#e -ere not p"a$ed unti" 2 Ma5 1 45 a"t&ou'& one protot5pe -a# ordered on 12 Mar$& 1 45! Simi"ar in de#i'n to t&e 3/o00in3 mountin'< de#$ribed be"o-< but ab"e to e"evate to O 0 de'ree# and $ou"d train $ontinuou#"5 a# it u#ed a #"ip rin' 0or e"e$tri$a" po-er! )4 9&e Mar7 V;;; -a# an un#u$$e##0u" de#i'n u#in' batter5 po-er and did not enter #ervi$e! 4 9&e Mar7 ;= -a# an up'raded Mar7 V;; mount -it& e"e$tri$ drive! 9&e Mar7 ;= mount u#ed t&e Mar7 N; 'un and &ad #iE read5-u#e $"ip# on mount! Mar7 ;= -a# u#ed #u$$e##0u""5 durin' t&e 6a"7"and# @ar and #timu"ated rene-ed intere#t in automati$ -eapon# in t&e Do5a" Nav5< eventua""5 "eadin' to t&e pur$&a#e o0 ne-er 20 mm and +0 mm -eapon#! 104 9&e /o00in mountin' -a# a t-in 20 mm >er"i7on Mar7 V or Mar7 VC mountin' modi0ied to ta7e a #in'"e /o0or# 40 mm 'un! J"evation -a# -10 to about O20 de'ree#! 9&e#e u#ed an oi" &5drau"i$ #5#tem and -ere 0itted -it& a '5ro 'un#i'&t! J"evation -a# re#tri$ted $ompared to ot&er /o0or# mountin'# a# t&e po#ition o0 t&e e"evatin' trunnion aEi# -a# "o-er< due to t&e #ma""er nature o0 t&e >er"i7on 'un#! Some o0 t&e#e -ere #ti"" bein' u#ed b5 t&e Canadian Nav5 in

0 durin' t&e %er#ian *u"0 -ar!

114 9&e po#t--ar S9AA* Mar7 ;; t-in mountin' 1"ater de#i'nated a# Mar7 24 u#in' t&e t5pe 262 radar -a# ver5 a$$urate< but a"#o ver5 unre"iab"e! %art o0 t&i# unre"iabi"it5 appear# to &ave derived 0rom t&e de$i#ion to mount t&e radar eHuipment dire$t"5 to t&e 'un mount< t&u# eEpo#in' it to a &i'& "eve" o0 vibration! At 12!5 ton# 112!) mt4< it -a# a"#o Huite &eav5 0or on"5 a t-in -eapon! U#ed t&e Mar7 = 'un! 9&e &5drau"i$a""5 po-ered Mar7 ;; -a# $a""ed a 3p#eudo-triaEia"3 mountin' and -a# unu#ua" in t&at t&e t&ird aEi# -a# a "atera" de0"e$tion movement in#tead o0 bein' $ro##-ro""! 9rainin' and e"evatin' #peed# -ere bot& +5 de'ree# per #e$ond! S9AA* -a# 0ound to be over"5 $omp"i$ated and di00i$u"t to maintain and did not en?o5 a "on' #ervi$e "i0e a# a re#u"t! 124 9&e /u#ter 1/o0or# Univer#a" Stabi"iFed 9a$&5metri$ J"e$tri$ Dadar4 t-in -a# anot&er @or"d @ar ;; attempt at a #e"0-$ontained mountin'< but at approEimate"5 20 ton# 120!+ mt4 t&i# -ei'&ed 0ar too mu$& 0or on"5 a t-in arran'ement and t&e pro?e$t -a# $an$e""ed! U#ed t&e Mar7 V;;; 'un!
=ote! on 9,!tralian 'eapon! an1 /o,nting!

Au#tra"ia u#e# t&e /riti#& Mar7 V;; mountin' 0itted -it& a "o$a""5 de#i'ned up'rade pa$7a'e on 6remant"e patro" boat#! J"evation i# -5 / O 0 de'ree# and train i# +60 de'ree#! 9rainin' #peed o0 20 de'ree# per #e$ond and e"evation #peed o0 40 de'ree# per #e$ond!
=ote! on 5o,th 4orean 'eapon! an1 /o,nting!

Sout& :orea &a# deve"oped a modi0i$ation 7it 0or t&e USA Mar7 1 t-in mount -&i$& add# a #tabi"iFation #5#tem bot& to t&e 'un mount and to t&e Mar7 51 6CS! 9&i# 7it improve# t&eir e00e$tivene## a'ain#t #ur0a$e tar'et#! 9&e#e modi0ied mountin'# are u#ed on 6DAM de#tro5er# and "o$a""5 bui"t $orvette#!
=ote! on =etherlan1! 7a0eme+er 'eapon! an1 /o,nting!

HaFeme5er -a# a ,ut$& #ub#idiar5 o0 Siemen# Ha"#7e! %rior to @or"d @ar ;;< t&i# 0irm deve"oped a ver5 advan$ed triaEia" mountin' to'et&er -it& a ta$&5metri$ $ontro" #5#tem! A# noted above< upon t&e ,ut$& de0eat in 1 40< t&i# mountin' -a# brou'&t to /ritain -&ere it -a# immediate"5 $opied and introdu$ed into produ$tion!
=ote! on Aerman 'eapon! an1 /o,nting!

9&e#e -ere manu0a$tured at t&e Nor-e'ian :on'#ber' Ar#ena"! 9&e Ar#ena" #tarted "i$en#e produ$tion o0 t&i# -eapon 0or t&e Do5a" Nor-e'ian Nav5 in t&e 1 +0# and -a# 7ept in "imited produ$tion t&rou'&out t&e -ar! ;ntrodu$ed into *erman nava" #ervi$e about "ate 1 4+ and -a# u#ed to arm t&e $rui#er# Admira" Hipper and %rinF Ju'en a# -e"" a# #ome S$&ne""boote#! A# 0ar a# i# 7no-n< on"5 #in'"e mountin'# -ere ever u#ed on -ar#&ip# and on"5 HJ tra$er -a# i##ued!
=ote! on Bapane!e 'eapon! an1 /o,nting!

9&e 95pe 5 1Mode" 1 454 ori'inated 0rom t&e $apture o0 a /riti#& /o0or# air-$oo"ed 'un in a #in'"e &and--or7ed mountin' at Sin'apore in 1 42! A 8apane#e $op5 under-ent protot5pe 0irin' tria"# in 1 4+ at t&e 9ori'a#a7i ran'e o0 t&e Ro7o#u7a Nava" Ar#ena" and "imited produ$tion be'an in t&at 5ear< but t&e 'un -a# never per0e$ted and it did not 'o into 'enera" #ervi$e u#e! Ho-ever< #ome 5 to 2 -eapon# a mont& -ere bein' produ$ed in "ate 1 44< apparent"5 0or #ervi$e eva"uation purpo#e#! 9&e main a"teration 0rom t&e /riti#& /o0or# de#i'n -a# to in$rea#e t&e bore "en't& to 4!4 in 12!400 m4 - 60 $a"iber# - and to add D&ienmeta""-#t5"e 0"a#& #uppre##or#< -&i$& proved un#ati#0a$tor5! %rodu$tion -a# at t&e Ro7o#u7a Nava" Ar#ena" and at t&e Hita$&i Manu0a$turin' Compan5! U#ed on"5 in manua""5--or7ed #in'"e mountin'#< -&i$& &ad an e"evation ran'e o0 -10 / O 5 de'ree# and a -ei'&t o0 1<)20 "b#! 1)50 7'4! De$oi" -a# )!53 121!6 $m4! Ma?or prob"em# 0ound b5 t&e USN a0ter t&e #urrender -ere t&at poor manu0a$turin' $au#ed improper #eatin' o0 round# and ?ammin' o0 part#< and t&at t&e #tar -&ee"# and eEtra$tor# -ere 0reHuent"5 mi#mated! Nomen$"ature Note. A"t&ou'& t&e 8apane#e de#i'nation i# norma""5 de#$ribed a# t&e 95pe 5 1Mode" 1 454< 3US Nava" 9e$&ni$a" Mi##ion to 8apan report >-421N4-23 at one point 1pa'e 164 de#$ribe# t&e Me$&ani#m de#i'nation a# 395pe 5 11 4+4<3 -&i$& $annot be $orre$t a# t&e number# do not mat$&! 9&i# error ma5 imp"5 t&at t&e de#i'nation -ou"d a$tua""5 be 395pe +3 1Mode" 1 4+4 -&i$& -ou"d #eem to be more in 7eepin' -it& t&e a$tua" 8apane#e de#i'n date o0 1 4+! Ho-ever< it #&ou"d be noted t&at t&e 8apane#e Mode" number #5#tem< norma""5 ba#ed upon t&e 5ear t&e bree$& de#i'n -a# #tarted< be$ame ver5 $&aoti$ to-ard# t&e end o0 @or"d @ar ;;< -it& ne-eapon# &avin' 95pe 5ear# t&at &ad no re"ation#&ip to t&e a$tua"

5ear t&at t&e bree$& de#i'n -a# #tarted! So< t&i# -eapon ma5 indeed &ave been de#i'nated a# 95pe 5!
=ote! on 5oviet 'eapon! an1 /o,nting!

Some 200 Nava" Mode" /o0or# 'un# and 6)0 Arm5 Mode" /o0or# 'un# manu0a$tured in t&e USA -ere #ent to t&e Soviet Union a# a part o0 Cend-Cea#e!
! ,ata 0rom 39&e ,e#i'n and Con#tru$tion o0 /riti#& @ar#&ip# 1 + -1 45. Vo"ume ;3 edited b5 ,!:! /ro-n 3Nava" @eapon# o0 @or"d @ar 9-o3 b5 8o&n Campbe"" 38oinin' t&e @ar at Sea3 b5 6ran7"5n J! ,ai"e5 8r!< Capt! USND 1Det!4 39&e ;""u#trated Jn$5$"opedia o0 20t& Centur5 @eapon# and @ar0are3 b5 /ernard 6itF#immon# 3US /att"e#&ip#. An ;""u#trated ,e#i'n Hi#tor5<3 3US Nava" @eapon#3 and 39&e Nava" ;n#titute *uide to @or"d Nava" @eapon S5#tem# 1 1/ 23 a"" b5 Norman 6riedman 3*erman @ar#&ip# 1)15-1 45 Vo"ume ; and Vo"ume ;;3 b5 Jri$& *rSner 3Sma"" Arm#< Arti""er5 L Spe$ia" @eapon# o0 t&e 9&ird Dei$&3 b5 9err5 8! *ander 38aneI# Ammunition Handboo7. Nint& Jdition 2000-20013 edited b5 9err5 8! *ander and C&ar"e# Q! Cut#&a3,e#tro5er @eapon# o0 @or"d @ar 23 b5 %eter Hod'e# and Norman 6riedman 3Dadar at Sea3 b5 ,ere7 Ho-#e 3@eapon ,ire$tion in t&e Do5a" Nav53 arti$"e b5 H!@! %out in 39&e ,eve"opment o0 Dadar JHuipment# 0or t&e Do5a" Nav5< 1 +5-453 edited b5 6!A! :in'#"e5 3U!S! Nav5 /ureau o0 >rdnan$e in @or"d @ar ;;3 b5 Ct! Cmdr! /u0ord Do-"and< USND< and Ct! @i""iam /! /o5d< USND 3C&ampion# o0 t&e %a$i0i$3 arti$"e# in 3@ar#&ip Vo"ume ;;3 b5 Ca-ren$e So-in#7i 3;o-a C"a## /att"e#&ip#3 b5 Dobert 6! Sumra"" 3*erman Crui#er# o0 @or"d @ar 9-o3 and 3*erman Coa#ta" 6or$e# o0 @or"d @ar 9-o3 bot& b5 M!8! @&it"e5 --3Nava" >rdnan$e and *unner5 - 1 523 Navper# 16116-/ 3>rdnan$e Maintenan$e 40-MM Automati$ *un M1 9M -12523 b5 ,epartment o0 t&e Arm5 3U!S! JEp"o#ive >rdnan$e. >rdnan$e %amp&"et 1664 - Ma5 1 423 b5 ,epartment o0 t&e Nav5 US Nava" 9e$&ni$a" Mi##ion to 8apan report >-421N4-2. 8apane#e Nava" *un# and Mount# Arti$"e 2< AA Ma$&ine *un# and Mount# --Spe$ia" &e"p 0rom Mar7 6itFpatri$7< Dobert Hur#t< C"i00 M$Mu""en< Dobert Stoner and V"adimir Ra7ubov

%a'e Hi#tor5

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