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Acids and Bases 1. Properties a. Acids i. ii. iii. iv.

Sour Turn litmus red pH less than 7 Reactions with Carbonates and hydrogen carbonates produce carbon dio ide! salt! and water 1. CaC"#$a%& ' ( HCl$a%& CaCl($a%& ' C"($g& ' H("$l& 2. )aHC"#$a%& ' HCl$a%& )aCl$a%& ' C"($g& ' H("$l&

v. Reactions with metals produce salts and hydrogen gas 1. *n$a%& ' HCl$a%& *nCl($a%& ' H($g& vi. Corrode metals vii. +issolves carbonate roc,s viii. Conducts electricity b. -ases i. -itter ii. Turn litmus blue iii. pH greater than 7 iv. Soluble al,ali metals ma,e strong bases and hydrogen gas 1. ()a ' (H(" ()a"H ' H( v. Slippery c. Acids and bases neutrali.e each other to /orm a salt i. 0 ample1 HCl ' )a"H )aCl ' H(" ii. Reactions o/ acids and bases are called neutralization reactions (. Strong vs. wea, a. Strength depends on amount o/ dissociation2ioni.ation i. HA ' H(" H#"+ ' A3 $acid& $base& $con4ugate acid& $con4ugate base& b. Strong 5 complete dissociation2ioni.ation i. 0 ample! when HCl is dissolved in water! all o/ it becomes H ' $actually! H#"'& ' Cl3 ii. 6a 77 1 iii. Strong acids to ,now1 )itric! sul/uric! hydrochloric iv. Strong bases to ,now1 All group 1 hydro ides! barium hydro ide c. 8ea, 5 incomplete dissociation2ioni.ation i. 6a 99 1 ii. Acetic acid $vinegar& is a wea, acid iii. CH#C""H! small amounts dissociate into H' and CH#C""3& iv. :se the 6e% to determine strength o/ wea, acids Acid Keq Acetic Acid 1.7; 1<3= Phosphoric Acid 7.= 1<3# v.

Keq =

[ H +][ A] HA

vi. 6e% is also called 6a or acid dissociation constant since it is the e%uilibrium e pression /or the dissociation o/ an acid vii. 6e% /or the dissociation o/ a base 5 6b The larger 6e%! the more dissociation viii. >ore dissociation 5 stronger acid i . There/ore! phosphoric acid is stronger than acetic acid . 8ea, acids to ,now1 ethanoic $acetic& CH#C""H! carbonic i. 8ea, bases to ,now1 ammonia $)H#&! ethylamine $C(H=)H(& d. >ore dissociation 5 more conductivity i. Strong acids and bases are more conductive then wea, acids and bases

ii. Conductivity increases with the number o/ ions in solution iii. Conductivity is measured in Siemens. The higher the value! the more conductive! the stronger the acid2base. #. :nless there are ions present a substance cannot be an acid a. Acids are not acids until they are dissolved in water b. Acids must be dissolved in water in order to create the H #"' ion through dissociation. c. A substance that is a solid but will /orm an acid when it dissolves is called an acid anhydride d. $-ronsted ?owry Acids and -ases can be gases! however& @. Classi/ication a. Arrhenius Acid i. Acids donate protons ii. HA H' ' A3 iii. HA 'H(" H#"' ' A3 iv. Presence o/ H' $really H#"'! hydronium ion& ions in solution creates acidic solution v. +e/inition weAve been using vi. 0 amples1 1. Sul/uric1 H(S"@ (. Hydrochloric1 HCl #. )itric1 H)"# @. Perchloric1 HCl"@ =. Phosphoric1 H#P"@ ;. Acetic1 CH#C""H b. Arrhenius -ase i. -ases donate hydro ide ion ii. -"H -' ' "H3 iii. Presence o/ hydro ide $"H3& ions in solution creates basic solution iv. +e/inition weAve been using v. 0 amples 1. Sodium Hydro ide1 )a"H (. Potassium Hydro ide1 6"H #. Calcium Hydro ide1 Ca$"H&( @. c. -ronsted3?owery i. Acids donate protons $same as Arrhenius& ii. -ases accept protons $di//erent /rom Arrhenius& 1. 0 ample1 Ammonia 2. )H# ' H(" )H@' ' "H3 #. Ammonia ta,es a proton /rom a water molecule which creates a hydro ide ion @. Presence o/ "H3 creates basic solution d. >onoprotic vs Polyprotic i. Acids that have one proton to lose are monoprotic 1. 0 ample1 HCl! H)"# ii. Acids that have more than one proton to lose are polyprotic 1. +iprotic1 H(S"@ (. Triprotic1 H#S"@ e. " yacids 5 acids involving a polyatomic o yanion $anion containing o ygen& i. 0 1 H(S"@ ii. )on e ample1 HCl /. Amphoteric compounds

i. Compounds that can act as both acid and base 1. 0 ample1 8ater 2. H(" ' C"#(3 "H3 ' HC"#31 $water acts as proton donor& 3. H(" ' H' H#"' $water acts as proton acceptor& =. pH a. presence o/ H#"' tells the strength o/ the acid b. This is measured by pH c. pH 5 3log BH#"'C d. pH 9 7 5 acid e. pH 7 7 5 base /. 8hyD Et comes /rom the dissociation o/ water Keq = [ H 3 O + ][OH ] =1x10 14

log[ H 3 O + ] + log[OH ] = log(1x10 14 ) log[ H 3 O + ] + log[OH ] = 14 log[ H 3 O + ]+ log[OH ] =14 pH + pOH =14 En a neutral solution there is 4ust as much H#"' as "H3! there/ore the pH must be 7 when the solution is neutral

Keq = [ H 3 O + ][OH ] = 1x10 14 If solution is neutral, [ H 3 O + ] = [OH ] [ H 3 O + ] 2 = 1x10 14 [ H 3 O + ] = 1x10 14 = 1x10 7 log(1x10 7 ) = 7
How does 6w change with temperatureD Since the dissociation2ioni.ation o/ water is endothermic! as temperature is increased e%uilibrium shi/ts to the right $towards the products& and the dissociation o/ water increases. There/ore! 6a increases with temperature. Calculations involving pH 1. Find pH given BH#"'C a. E/ the concentration o/ BH#"'C is 1.# 1<37 b. pH 5 3 log $1.# 1<37& 5 ;.G (. Find p"H given pH a. E/ pH 5 ;.G b. p"H 5 1@ H ;.G 5 7.1 #. Find BH#"'C given pH a. E/ pH 5 = b. BH#"'C 5 1<I$3pH& 5 1 1<3= > @. Find B"H3C given BH#"'C a. E/ BH#"'C 5 1 1<3= > b. 1 1< 31@ > 5 BH#"'CB"H3C B"H3C 5$1 1< 31@ >&2 $1 1<3= >& 5 1 1<3G > =. 8hen pH changes by 1! this indicates a 1< /old change in hydrogen ion concentration a. pH is a log scale! so a change o/ 1 means the change in BH'C 51< 15 1<

b. pH change o/ ( BH'C 51<25 1<<


)eutrali.ation o/ Acids and -ases 1. Reaction with acid and base can ma,e a neutral solution (. H' ions o/ acid cancel out "H3 ions o/ base #. This property can be used to determine concentrations E/ it ta,es 1< ? o/ HCl to neutrali.e (< ? o/ @ > )a"H! what is the concentration o/ HClD 1. write a balanced neutrali.ation reaction a. HCl ' )a"H )aCl ' H(" (. Find the number o/ moles o/ )a"H used a. @ > 5 2(< ? 5 J< moles )a"H #. Find the moles o/ HCl a. According the reaction! there is a 111 ratio o/ HCl to )a"H b.

0mol !a"H

1 mol HCl = 0mol HCl 1 mol !a"H

@. Find molarity a. >olarity 5 J< mole2 1< ? 5 J >