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Art and Design

Advanced Subsidiary
Unit 2: AS xternaIIy Set Assignment
You do not need any other materiaIs.
6AD02-6CC02
Paper Peference
7imed xamination: 8 hours
dexceI CC

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20l3 Pearson Lducatlon Ltd.
l/l/l/l
Instructions to 7eacher-xaminers
Centres wlll recelve thls paper ln 1anuary 20l3. |t wlll also be avallable on the
secure content sectlon of the Ldexcel webslte at thls tlme.
Thls paper should be glven to the teacher-examlner for confldentlal reference
as soon as it is received in the centre ln order to prepare for the externally set
asslgnment. 7his paper may be reIeased to candidates from1 February 2013.
There ls no prescrlbed tlme llmlt for the preparatory study perlod.
The 8 hour tlmed examlnatlon should be the culmlnatlon of candldates' studles.
Instructions to Candidates
Thls paper ls glven to you ln advance of the examlnatlon so that you can make
sufflclent preparatlon.
Thls booklet contalns the theme for the Unlt 2 Lxternally Set Asslgnment for the
followlng speclflcatlons:
8AD0l Art, Craft and Deslgn (unendorsed)
8PA0l Plne Art
8TD0l Three-Dlmenslonal Deslgn
8P0l Photography - Lens and Llght-8ased Medla
8TL0l Textlle Deslgn
8GC0l Graphlc Communlcatlon
8CC0l Crltlcal and Contextual Studles
Candidates for aII endorsements are advised to read the entire paper.
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Lach submlsslon for the AS Lxternally Set Asslgnment, whether unendorsed or endorsed,
should be based on the theme glven ln thls paper. You are advised to read through
the entire paper, as heIpfuI starting points may be found outside your chosen
endorsement.
|f you are entered for an endorsed speclflcatlon, you should produce work predomlnantly
ln your chosen dlsclpllne for the Lxternally Set Asslgnment.
|f you are entered for the unendorsed speclflcatlon, you may have been worklng ln two or
more dlfferent dlsclpllnes ln Unlt l. For the xternaIIy Set Assignment, you may choose
to produce work in one discipIine onIy.
7he starting points in each section wiII heIp you generate ideas. You may
foIIow them cIoseIy, use them as background information or deveIop your
own interpretation of the theme. Read the whoIe paper as any section may
provide the inspiration for your focus.
ou should provlde evldence that each of the four Assessment Ob[ectlves has been
addressed. |t ls antlclpated that AS candldates wlll show ln the Lxternally Set Asslgnment
how thelr knowledge, skllls and understandlng have developed through thelr work ln Unlt l.
The Assessment Ob[ectlves requlre you to:
Develop your ldeas through sustalned and focused lnvestlgatlons lnformed by contextual
and other sources, demonstratlng analytlcal and crltlcal understandlng.
Lxperlment wlth and select approprlate resources, medla, materlals, technlques and
processes, revlewlng and reflnlng your ldeas as your work develops.
Pecord ln vlsual and/or other forms ldeas, observatlons and lnslghts relevant to your
lntentlons, demonstratlng your ablllty to reflect on your work and progress.
Present a personal, lnformed and meanlngful response demonstratlng crltlcal
understandlng, reallslng lntentlons and, where approprlate, maklng connectlons between
vlsual, oral or other elements.
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Preparatory Studies
our preparatory studles may lnclude sketchbooks, notebooks, worksheets, deslgn
sheets, large-scale rough studles, samples, swatches, test pleces, maquettes, dlgltal
materlal. anythlng that fully shows your progress towards your outcomes.
Pteotototy stuJ|es shoulJ show:
your development of a personal focus based on the theme
a synthesls of ldeas
evldence of your development and control of vlsual language skllls
crltlcal revlew and reflectlon, recordlng your thoughts, declslons and development
of ldeas
the breadth and depth of your research from approprlate prlmary and contextual
sources
relevant selectlon wlth vlsual and/or wrltten analyses rather than descrlptlve
copylng or llstlng of processes
7imed xamination
our preparatory studles wlll be used to produce an outcome(s) under examlnatlon
condltlons ln eight hours.
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7he 7heme: CDVR7 AND DSCURD
Concealed wlthln any artefact or work of art ls the hand of lts creator and each ob[ect
leaves preclous clues to hls or her ldentlty and lntentlons. On a pottery vessel you may
flnd thelr flngerprlnt frozen ln tlme by the transformatlon of the flred clay. A carved
scrlmshaw walrus tusk may have a sallor's or shlp's name etched lnto lts surface. A flne
cablnet may have exqulslte copperplate handwrltlng on a secret label at the back of
a concealed drawer. These hldden pleces of evldence can exclte the lmaglnatlon and
mentally transport the dlscoverer to dlstant tlmes and exotlc locatlons.
Palntlngs allow lntlmate communlcatlon wlth the artlst as brushstrokes can form
a complex surface of lndlvldual marks and declslons. These subllmlnal messages
sometlmes only become accesslble when standlng wlthln an arm's length of the actual
work. Concealed wlthln every plece there are two storles, the flrst ls the one the artlst
wants you to percelve, the other conceals elements of personallty and ldentlty that are
more dlfflcult to access.
The human condltlon ls one that loves a mystery, and art that hldes a secret, elther
lntentlonally or unlntentlonally, wlll keep lts audlence perpetually enthralled. Large
museums and gallerles wlll occaslonally hold retrospectlve exhlbltlons documentlng
an artlst's career. vlewlng a slngle collectlon glves a great lnslght lnto the artlst's
personal [ourney and can be a fasclnatlng experlence.
Urban and rural locatlons can provlde a refuge for artlsts who wlsh to avold the
dlstractlon of soclal lnteractlon.
|ronlcally, large metropolltan cltles often offer more effectlve anonymlty. Graffltl artlsts
use the vast tracts of bland archltecture and concrete to demonstrate thelr aesthetlc
skllls and express polltlcal vlews.
Here are some further suggestlons generated by the theme that mlght lnsplre your
[ourney:
underwater, fog, smoke, dense forests, nlght
shadows, reflectlons, sllhouettes, photograms
treasure, archaeologlcal dlgs, metal detectlng, tracklng
'hlde and seek', 'pass the parcel', crosswords, mazes
tarpaullns, dralns, tunnels, badger setts, crevlces
roadworks, The Underground, sklps
torn posters and wallpaper, demolltlon, derellct bulldlngs
thrlllers, theatres, graveyards, catacombs
under the bed, carpet, duvet or coat
masks, make-up, costume
lockets, love letters, tallsmen.
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Fine Art
DptionaI discipIines:
Palntlng and drawlng
Prlntmaklng
Sculpture
Alternatlve medla
PossibIe starting points:
|t can feel as though the hlstory of a place lles hldden beneath or wlthln lts current
appearance, many artlsts strlve to catch a gllmpse of that past whlch they can sense ln the
present. Ltched lnto the forlorn, empty spaces ln Andrewwyeth's palntlngs are traces of
past hardshlps and sorrows. There ls a sense of melanchollc nostalgla ln the bulldlngs and
lnterlor spaces deplcted by Graham Chorlton. Pllckers of the past are evldent wlthln the
concrete faade of the once glamorous lotel V|netvo and hls deplctlons of the down-at-
heel bars from the l970s. |n Pachel whlteread's monumental sculptures louse and Chost,
domestlc spaces have llterally been captured and lmprlsoned. Once llvely spaces are now
frozen ln tlme, hldden wlthln these tomb-llke structures. Slgns of forgotten spaces are
also evldent ln Danlela Gullotta's mlxed medla lmages of derellct lnterlors, whlch hlnt at
former grandeur and human actlvlty. Many of the atmospherlc palntlngs of Caspar Davld
Prledrlch evoke the wltchlng hour and ghosts of the past.
Artlsts often use layers to hlde or reveal lnformatlon ln thelr works. |n some lnstances lt ls
the relatlonshlp between these layers that generates and suggests meanlngs and ldeas.
|n the work of artlsts llke Chrlsto and 1eanne-Claude lt ls the very act of concealment
that ls creatlve. 8y wrapplng ob[ects and land masses they hlde thelr appearance, but at
the same tlme reveal characterlstlcs of thelr form. Thelr actlons could be lnterpreted as
both preservlng and smotherlng. Pecent advances ln x-ray technlques allow the layers
of palntlngs to be analysed more easlly, reveallng fasclnatlng lnformatlon about how
artlsts such as Pembrandt, Caravagglo and van Gogh reworked thelr sub[ect matter ln the
creatlve process. Amerlcan artlsts Larry Plvers, Pobert Pauschenberg and 1asper 1ohns
encrypt messages and meanlngs wlthln lnteractlng layers of palnt and mlxed medla. Davld
Hepher's deplctlons of urban tenements explore the hldden tenslons between lndlvldual
and communlty whlch are played out ln expresslve layers of marks. |n the extraordlnary
palntlngs of Adrlana vare[ao, fractures ln ornately patterned tlles reveal slnlster, vlsceral
forms.
The secrets of prlvate llves and experlences are often hldden behlnd closed doors or
expresslons that glve nothlng away. The enlgmatlc stare of the barmald ln Manet's 8ot
ot the lol|es 8ette has been the source of much con[ecture about the true ldentlty
and emotlons of the young woman ln thls work. The clrcumstances that shaped the
composltlon of velasquez's palntlng of the Spanlsh court los Ven|nos have been pondered
and debated for centurles. Carollne walker's works suggest compelllng gllmmers of
personal lssues whlch lle hldden behlnd a mundane domestlc faade. Prlvate neuroses
are explored ln the dark and unsettllng works of Prancls 8acon and 1ustln Mortlmer. Paula
Pego's lmages suggest deep rooted psychologlcal dramas beneath false smlles, chlldren's
toys and nursery rhymes.
The extraordlnary often lles hldden wlthln the ordlnary. Por example, a play of llght on
puddles ln a car park mlght create a dazzllngly rlch dlsplay of colour wlthln a context
of drab grey. Sometlmes the allure of a begulllng face ln the crowd seems dlstlnct from
all the others, or a sunrlse mlght cast a maglcal glow on all lt touches. Artlsts have long
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pursued the vlsual poetry that exlsts wlthln the humdrum of dally llfe. Dutch l7th century
palnters llke Pleter de Hooch and vermeer captured moments of enchantlng beauty ln
everyday domestlc scenes, as dld Chardln wlth hls lntlmate stlll llfes and lnterlors. Thls
celebratlon of preclous qualltles hldden ln the everyday ls a feature of palntlngs and prlnts
by Slckert, Morandl and wlnlfred Nlcholson. More recently the work of Nlna Murdoch
explores the effects of sunllght on concrete wlth glorlously evocatlve contrasts of colour
and texture. |n Antony Gormley's lnstallatlon Anothet Ploce, one hundred cast lron flgures
stretch out across Crosby 8each near Llverpool. As the tldes ebb and flow, the flgures are
revealed and submerged by the sea. The mysterlous lmpact of these flgures appearlng
from the furrowed sand ls hauntlngly beautlful and strangely llfe-afflrmlng.
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7hree-DimensionaI Design
DptionaI discipIines:
Scenography
Archltectural, envlronmental and lnterlor deslgn
Product deslgn
PossibIe starting points:
|n the plays 7he 0|oty ol Anne ltonl, 1outneys lnJ and 7he 8ottowets, the stage ls
concelved as a hldlng place. |n thls den or secret space, llghtlng and a sense of
claustrophobla play cruclal roles ln creatlng suspense as the audlence shares the actors'
fears of belng dlscovered. The suspenslon of dlsbellef ls cruclal to stretch the audlence's
lmaglnatlon. Set deslgners often use dlrectlonal llghtlng or elaborate constructlons to
sustaln an llluslon and keep reallty at bay. 8ob Crowley ls a master of thls, hls deslgns for
The Poyal 8allet's productlon of Al|ce |n wonJetlonJ ln 20ll and hls vlsuallsatlon of the
North Pole for the productlon ltom, about Norweglan explorer Prldt[of Nansen ln 2008,
are fabulously lnventlve fllghts of fantasy sustalned through lntrlcately crafted sets.
Platpack and foldaway deslgns are necessltated by lssues relatlng to storage and
portablllty. These deslgn concepts offer all sorts of creatlve opportunltles. The notlon that
the true functlon of an ob[ect ls hldden and then revealed when ln use ls evldent ln the
deslgn of the humble deckchalr, the foldaway blcycle, the pop-up book and the laptop.
Poldlng chalrs and stools date back to 2000 8C and can be found ln anclent Lgyptlan,
Greek, Ltruscan and Poman clvlllsatlons. These deslgns have been modlfled and ad[usted
through the centurles. The lntroductlon of materlals such as plastlc and alumlnlum has
opened up new posslbllltles. Henry P. Glass made a slgnlflcant contrlbutlon to these
developments ln the 20th century. Hls foldlng, nestlng and stacklng furnlture deslgns
made use of lnexpenslve materlals such as masonlte, plywood and canvas. |n 20l0, the
8rlt |nsurance Deslgn Award was won by Mln-Kyu Chol for an lngenlous foldlng plug that
he deslgned whlle studylng at the Poyal College of Art.
|n order to attract customers onto the hlgh street, many companles alm to make vlsltlng
thelr stores an appeallng experlence that goes beyond slmply buylng goods. The
commerclal purpose of shopplng becomes obscured beneath a concept or 'llfestyle'
experlence. Abercromble and Pltch's Holllster stores are themed around an Amerlcan
surflng concept. Thelr decor lncludes shuttered wlndows, worn rugs and ttome loe|ll
wlndows that screen footage of beach scenes. The very dlm llghtlng plays a key role
ln creatlng an amblance not normally assoclated wlth shopplng. Merchandlse ls not
emphaslsed and appears low key, wlth clothes folded and placed ln bullt-ln closets and on
hardwood tables. Carla Sozzanl's concept store l0 Corso Como ln Mllan comprlses an art
gallery, a book/record shop, a cafe, a restaurant, a bazaar and a hotel. Much of the appeal
of vlsltlng what has been descrlbed as 'a Dlsneyland for black-spectacled, art-lovlng,
lnterlors-obsessed, fashlon-flxated hlpsters' appears to have llttle to do wlth consumerlsm.
Sometlmes the outer appearance of a bulldlng glves no clues to what ls housed lnslde. At
flrst slght the helter-skelter deslgn of vladlmlr Tatlln's Monument to the Thlrd |nternatlonal
looks sculptural rather than archltectural. 8lrmlngham's Selfrldges store deslgned by
Puture Systems ls an unusual organlc shape wlth a shell made up of l5,000 alumlnlum
dlscs. |t may not conform to our expectatlons of what a shop should look llke. Louls
Sulllvan's notlon that "form (ever) follows functlon used to apply to products as well as
archltectural deslgns, but occaslonally deslgners have en[oyed the challenge of conceallng
the true purpose of an ob[ect. One of the appeallng thlngs about gadgets such as Q's
deslgns for 1ames 8ond ls the clever concealment of secret weapons and devlces ln
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pens and clgarette llghters. Dlgltal technology now enables deslgners to squeeze many
functlons lnto a tlny devlce, so the appearance of many products offers few clues to
thelr use. Por example, lt ls dlfflcult to tell what an lPhone does purely from lts vlsual
characterlstlcs. Thls dlslocatlon of form and functlon has created excltlng new challenges
for deslgners.
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Photography
DptionaI discipIines:
Pllm-based photography
Dlgltal photography
Pllm and vldeo
PossibIe starting points:
Paparazzl are photographers who speclallse ln attemptlng to get lmages of celebrltles
or famous lndlvlduals who are trylng to protect thelr prlvate llves from publlc vlew.
Thelr approach ls usually unwelcome and they have to go to extreme lengths to get
the photographs that they want. Nevertheless, the lmages they obtaln have unlque
characterlstlcs whlch make them compelllng. These could orlglnate from the candld,
almost voyeurlstlc observatlon of sub[ects who are unaware of the photographer. |n many
cases narratlon of the lmages ls unnecessary as the Pusslan wrlter |van Turgenev stated (ln
lothets onJ 5ons ln l862), "A plcture shows me at a glance what lt takes dozens of pages of
a book to expound.
wlldllfe photographers use hldes to get wlthln range of thelr sub[ect. Contemporary
fllm-makers have used great lngenulty to place photographers ln strateglc posltlons that
are totally camouflaged wlthln an envlronment. One of the most spectacular lmages of
the 20th century was produced by burylng a cameraman ln a beach and coverlng hls
head and camera wlth a box ln Davld Attenborough's documentary 7he 7t|ols ol l|le. Thls
gave us the amazlng lmages of klller whales beachlng themselves to snatch seals from
the tlde llne. Slmon Klng, famous for documentlng 8rltlsh wlldllfe, uses a wlde range of
camouflage equlpment and concealed cameras to explore the llves of domestlc and wlld
anlmals both ln urban and rural locatlons.
Attemptlng to get behlnd someone's 'mask' and explore thelr lnner emotlons and
character has long been a pursult of both the portralt palnter and portralt photographer.
Numerous devlces have been employed to help tease out and represent the true
nature of the person deplcted, from symbollc ob[ects and envlronments lncluded ln the
background, to llghtlng and speclal effects on the face ltself. Thls ls brllllantly lllustrated
ln the portralts of Lewls Morley. The wealth of tools avallable to the contemporary
photographer uslng elther tradltlonal technlques or dlgltal effects ls lmpresslve. However,
the challenge stlll remalns surprlslngly dlfflcult and lntrlgulng, sustalnlng the lnterest of
renowned photographers such as SamTaylor-wood, Duane Mlchals and Sally Mann.
The search for a preclous hldden ob[ect or ob[ects has lnsplred some of the most popular
fllms throughout the hlstory of the genre. P|totes ol the Cot|ooeon, A.l. Att|l|c|ol lntell|ence,
7he l|lth llement, ko|Jets ol the lost Atl and 7he 0o v|nc| CoJe are a [ust a few. A quest
of any sort wlll offer an lntrlgulng narratlve and provlde endless opportunltles for
lmaglnatlve camera work. Thlnk of the posslbllltles offered by even the most domestlc of
searches, fuelled by the stress and anxlety of a lost passport, pet, keys, wallet or moblle.
Uslng slmple equlpment, the fllm 7he 8lo|t w|tch Ptoject, ln whlch three teenagers search
for a ghostly splrlt, astounded crltlcs wlth lts success at the box offlce and lts convlnclng
suspense and terror.
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7extiIe Design
DptionaI discipIines:
Constructed textlles
Dyed textlles
Prlnted textlles
Plne art textlles
Pashlon textlles
PossibIe starting points:
|n textlle deslgn lt ls often satlsfylng to dlscover motlfs and meanlngs that lle hldden
wlthln complex patterns. The rlch layers of lmagery that make up Sue Tlmney's textlle
deslgns are an eclectlc mlxture of dlverse reference polnts that lnteract ln glorlous,
organlsed chaos. |n the strlklng poster for Tlmney's 20ll show at London's Pashlon and
Textlle Museum, a model ln a black and whlte strlped bodysult strlkes a pose agalnst
a slmllarly patterned wall hanglng. Llke much of Tlmney's work, thls lnterplay of layers
creates a bewltchlng camouflage. Allce Kettle's palnterly embroldered pleces are
multllayered exploratlons of poems, people, places, thoughts, fears, connectlons and
storles. Maurlzlo Anzerl embrolders patterns onto old portralt photographs, obscurlng the
ldentlty of the sltters and creatlng a decoratlve layer that seems at odds wlth what lles
underneath. Anzerl's work explores ways ln whlch hldden layers of meanlng lnteract wlth
each other, thls clash of medla and approach suggests unsettllng cultural tenslons and the
complex strata that create an ldentlty.
Opportunltles to use recycled materlals or ob[ects and elements not commonly assoclated
wlth textlles processes create excltlng posslbllltles for deslgners. The orlglnal nature and
functlon of these materlals become hldden, but the process of transformatlon often
lmbues the pleces wlth wlt, lrony and sadness. |ndlan textlles deslgner Anlta Ahu[a ls the
drlvlng force behlnd an organlsatlon called Conserve whlch uses recycled plastlc bags
to create ltems such as handbags, cushlons, footware and [ewellery. The pro[ect was
concelved prlmarlly to create opportunltles for the urban poor ln Delhl and also as an
envlronmental beneflt. 8y way of contrast Pranc Pernandez's lmpractlcal dress deslgned
for Lady Gaga ln 20l0, made out of cuts of meat, generated a great deal of controversy
and publlclty ln the muslc and fashlon lndustrles. Dutch deslgner Nlcolette 8runklaus's
fabrlc deslgn 8lonJ ls a dlgltal lmage of a woman's long, flowlng halr, prlnted onto velvet
domestlc curtalns.
|n nature, llfe forms are often hldden and protected by shells, tough outer layers, cocoons,
pods, hlves and nests. The sense of mystery and the fraglllty of the llfe that exlsts hldden
wlthln these natural caslngs provlde the lnsplratlon for the work of Denlse Stanton.
Shaplng whlte felt and often hanglng her work ln a natural envlronment, her dellcate
organlc structures have an ethereal quallty suggestlng the mysterles concealed wlthln
the natural world. |n contrast when the flower opens, the hlve ls dlsturbed or the cocoon
falls away, the hldden drama and energy of nature ls revealed. Talwanese deslgner Hslao-
Chl Tsal uses unconventlonal materlals, exploslvely rlch colour and dynamlc structures to
celebrate nature awakened and ln full bloom.
An lndlvldual's ldentlty ls often dlsgulsed beneath hls or her appearance. Posle 1ames'
work ls concerned wlth the ldentlty of the lndlvldual wlthln the crowd. Some of her flgures
seem anonymous and transparent whereas the personalltles of others are alluded to wlth
bursts of colour and pattern that flll the spaces they occupy. At the orlglnal 'faschlng'
celebratlons, guests from all soclal classes were lnvlted lnto the Hofburg Palace ln dlsgulse,
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a count could be dlsgulsed as a tallor and a street cleaner could be a lord. |n other cultures
Mardl Gras and masquerades are also about transformatlons, celebrated ln expresslve
publlc dlsplays. The work of Sokarl Douglas Camp draws on aspects of Nlgerlan culture,
lncludlng Kalabarl masquerades. Although a sculptor worklng ln steel, her expresslvely
flguratlve pleces share lnterestlng connectlons wlth approaches used ln constructed
textlles.
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Craphic Communication
DptionaI discipIines:
Advertlslng
|llustratlon
Packaglng
Typography
|nteractlve medla
PossibIe starting points:
Dellcate and fraglle products need robust packaglng to survlve shlpplng, especlally ln
the current market for lnternet shopplng. Package deslgn that ls sultable for dlsplay,
strong enough to send ln the post and yet stlll attractlve enough to sell the product,
ralses lnterestlng challenges for the graphlc deslgner. 8y lts very nature the product wlll
be elther completely hldden or partlally obscured. Transparent wlndows ln the carton
can allow tantallslng gllmpses of the contents but reduce the surface area for artwork,
advertlslng and lnstructlons. Shrlnk-moulded clear plastlc ls now very common and allows
total vlslblllty of the contents and any support structures. Unfortunately, shrlnk mouldlng
wlth large pleces does not offer much crush reslstance, and ln these cases the ltem ls
often double packed. wlth global concerns about excesslve packaglng lt ls lmportant that
deslgners conslder all of these lssues.
Plddles and puzzles can take many forms and establlshed ones are contlnually belng
revlsed and redeslgned. The graphlcs on early games such as ClueJo bear llttle
resemblance to those on contemporary computer games such as Penguln Software's 7he
CoveteJ V|ttot and 7he uest. The search for mythlcal hldden artefacts has lnsplred many
books and computer games. One of the most famous ls the ldea of the Holy Grall and the
legends surroundlng thls ob[ect have lnsplred some lmpresslve graphlc lllustratlons such
as the covers for the serles Cto|luest and 7he loly 8looJ onJ the loly Cto|l. |t ls lnterestlng
to see that desplte the prevalence of computer games consoles such as Playstatlon and
wll, there ls stlll a market for tradltlonal 'shake the dlce' board games.
The restrlctlve slze of computer screens requlres lngenlous solutlons to the deslgn of
web pages. 8y thelr very nature, most of the lnformatlon ls hldden and accessed by
strateglcally placed hyperllnks somewhere on the graphlc dlsplay. Large sltes can become
extremely confuslng and there ls often a danger that the user wlll get frustrated before
they have found the correct pathway to the requlred lnformatlon. A balance needs to
always be found between the lmaglnatlve and aesthetlc concerns of the web page and
the ease of access to the lnformatlon contalned wlthln. |n 20ll, Pacebook completely
redeslgned lts webslte as the optlons avallable to lts users expanded and endangered the
clarlty of lts presentatlon.
Codes and symbols used to conceal prlvate lnformatlon have always provlded a rlch
source of lnsplratlon for calllgraphers. Letters and typefaces can be structured to say
much more than the llteral meanlngs of the words constructed wlth them. Steganography
ls the art and sclence of conceallng a message wlthln a plece of text so that lts very
presence remalns covert. Although lts prlmary use ls ln esplonage, great fun can be had
wlth explorlng altered letter forms and dlsgulslng lnformatlon. Klt wllllams used thls
technlque ln hls book VosquetoJe to conceal a message that when comblned wlth other
concealed clues would take the reader to the locatlon of a real treasure. Thls was a large
and extremely valuable [ewel-studded golden hare, made by the artlst hlmself.
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CriticaI and ContextuaI Studies
PossibIe starting points:
Many great works of art are hldden ln prlvate collectlons, and some have not been seen
for decades. Occaslonally these works are temporarlly released for ma[or exhlbltlons,
and when they are there can be a masslve publlc response. The Prlnce of Llechtensteln's
collectlon was the world's second largest prlvate collectlon and lt remalned hldden for
66 years between l938 and 2004. Contalned wlthln thls collectlon are famous works
by Prans Hals, Paphael, Pembrandt and van Dyck, together wlth l600 other palntlngs,
sculptures and works of art. The mystery surroundlng these mlsslng pleces fuels the deslre
to access them, and thelr concealment effectlvely confounds thelr purpose as vehlcles for
communlcatlon. |t ls lnterestlng to wonder what the orlglnal artlsts' responses would have
been lf they had known what the fate of the frult of thelr endeavours and passlons would
be.
Many contemporary artlsts create works that demand human lnteractlon and
lnvolvement. Some of them create a quest, the goal of whlch ls to dlscover hldden pleces
of work. |n the act of searchlng, vlewers become an lntegral part of the pleces themselves.
|n 20ll Mlchelangelo Plstoletto constructed an lnstallatlon at the Serpentlne Gallery that
embodled thls form of art. He created a labyrlnth that led vlsltors through the gallerles
and manlpulated the vlsltors' perceptlon of space. Strateglcally placed through the
maze were sculptures and smaller lnstallatlons that explolted the altered dlmenslons
and envlronment. Pachel whlteread's lnstallatlon lmoonlment (2005-6) ln the Turblne
Hall of the Tate Modern ln London conslsted of casts of l4,000 boxes, stacked to create
a confuslng maze. 8oxes were chosen because of thelr assoclatlon wlth the mystery
evoked by sealed contalners of preclous personal possesslons. Mlke Nelson's 7he Cotol
keel (Tate 8rltaln 20l0) also explored slmllar ldeas, dlsorlentlng the vlsltor ln a network of
lnterconnectlng rooms and tunnels.
Masks of any sort conceal ldentlty and can glve the wearer courage that allows thelr alter
ego a freedom normally suppressed. There are full theatrlcal masks, such as those worn on
stage, but there are also subtler masks created wlth make-up and prosthetlcs. Gelsha ln
1apan use cosmetlcs to a strlctly prescrlbed formula to create a unlform and lmmedlately
recognlsable appearance that heavlly dlsgulses thelr own faces. Many famous clowns have
led traglcally sad llves behlnd the faade they present to the publlc. Artlsts have often
been fasclnated by these lssues and portralts have attempted to capture the polgnancy
of these personalltles. Here ls a small selectlon of artlsts who have been lnsplred by these
dlsgulses:
1ames Lnsor, 7he lntt|ue
Gllllan wearlng, Conless All on v|Jeo. 0ont wotty, ou w|ll 8e |n 0|su|se. lntt|ueJ/
Coll C|ll|on
Lmll Nolde, Vosl 5t|ll l|le lll.
|t ls dlfflcult to lmaglne conceallng anythlng from the educated and lntense scrutlny of
an artlst's eye. Pemovlng all clothlng to pose naked would appear to make thls even less
llkely. Leonardo da vlncl and Gunther von Hagens even went so far as to remove the skln
from cadavers ln thelr endeavour to explore the human body and reveal lts complexlty.
The aspects of humanlty that separate us from the rest of the anlmal klngdom and make
us unlque remaln eluslve and mysterlous. |t ls the exploratlon of thls that contlnues to
attract artlsts to the human flgure as a sub[ect. Luclan Preud devoted most of hls career
to study of the human form, and each palntlng was an lnvestlgatlon of more than the
superflclal vlsual qualltles of the nude. He once sald"| want palnt to work as flesh. my
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portralts to be of the people, not llke them. Not havlng a look of the sltter, belng them.
As far as | am concerned the palnt ls the person. | want lt to work for me [ust as flesh does.
He follows ln a long tradltlon of artlsts that have been obsessed wlth llfe studles such as
Glacomettl, Podln, Mlchelangelo, velasquez, |ngres, Gauguln, Plcasso, Stanley Spencer and
1enny Savllle. 8lll vlola's vldeo lnstallatlon Accetonce whlch shows a naked female belng
drenched wlth lcy water explores the form ln a less tradltlonal way. |t appears that all of
these artlsts are lntentlonally seeklng, or unlntentlonally reveallng, somethlng covert and
obscure wlthln the human condltlon.
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Reference MateriaI
Please note that UPLs are checked at the tlme of prlntlng but are sub[ect to change.
CeneraI references:
www.tate.org.uk
www.natlonalgallery.org.uk
www.lnlva.org
www.brltlshmuseum.org
www.whltworth.manchester.ac.uk
www.artsmla.org
www.walkerart.org
www.getty.edu
www.moma.org
www.metmuseum.org
www.sfmoma.org
www.cnac-gp.fr
www.guggenhelm.org
www.deslgnmuseum.org
www.craftscouncll.org.uk
www.artlncontext.org
www.henry-moore-fdn.co.uk
www.vam.ac.uk
www.st-edmunds.cam.ac.uk
www.nmpft.org.uk
www.photonet.org.uk
www.bfl.org.uk
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ndorsement specific reference materiaI
Fine Art
Web:
www.andrewwyeth.com
www.masterplper.com/exhlbltlon/hotel-mlnerva
www.saatchl-gallery.co.uk/alpe/rachel_whlteread.htm
www.marlboroughflneart.com/artlst-Danlela-Gullotta-97.html
www.worldarchltecturenews.com/Ifuseactlonwanappln.upload
www.chrlsto[eanneclaude.net
www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/art/art-news/893l235/Pembrandt-palntlng-ldentlfled-by-
X-rays.html
www.flowersgallery.com/artlsts/ll8-artlsts/379l-davld-hepher/#/sectlon-work/
www.lehmannmaupln.com/#/artlsts/adrlana-vare[o/
www.saatchl-gallery.co.uk/artlsts/carollne_walker.htmIsectlon_namepalnt_artlst/
www.[ustlnmortlmer.co.uk/
www.marlboroughflneart.com/exhlbltlon-Nlna-Murdoch-Sheddlng-Llght-256309.html
ooks:
Hotel Mlnerva: Graham Chorlton by Matt Prlce, Master Plper, 20l0
Andrewwyeth: Memory & Maglc by Anne Classen Knutson, Chrlstopher Crosman,
Kathleen A. Poster, Mlchael P. Taylor, Hlgh Museum of Art, 2005
Prancls 8acon: |ncunabula by Pebecca Danlels and Martln Harrlson, Thames &Hudson, 2008
velasquez: The Technlque of A Genlus by 1onathan 8rown, Carmen Garrldo, ale
Unlverslty Press, 2003
Slckert, Palntlngs by wendy 8aron and Plchard Stone, Poyal Academy of Arts, l992
Paula Pego by 1ohn McLwen, Phaldon, 2006
Antony Gormley by Martln Calger-Smlth, Tate, 20l0
Plgurlng 1asper 1ohns by Pred Orton, Peaktlon 8ooks Ltd, l994
Caspar Davld Prledrlch by werner Hofmann, Thames and Hudson, 2000
vermeer by Lawrence Gowlng, Glles de la Mare Publlshers Ltd, l952
17
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7hree-DimensionaI Design
Web:
www.natlonal.ballet.ca/performances/seasonl2l3/Allce_s_Adventures_ln_
wonderland/
www.lndependent.co.uk/arts-entertalnment/theatre-dance/features/behlnd-the-
scenes-bob-crowleys-set-deslgns-have-wowed-audlences-the-world-over-803934.html
www.deslgnboom.com/eng/educatlon/foldlngchalr.html
www.lnterlordeslgn.net/blog/Clndy_s_Salon/352l5-Glass_Plus_The_Purnlture_
Deslgn_of_Henry_P_Glass.php
www.guardlan.co.uk/artanddeslgn/20l0/mar/l6/foldlng-plug-wlns-deslgn-prlze
www.fashlon.telegraph.co.uk/news-features/TMG8852766/Shoppers-left-baffled-by-
Holllster-stores-dlm-llghtlng-pollcy.html
www.guardlan.co.uk/theguardlan/2005/may/24/featuresll.g23
www.royalacademy.org.uk/ra-magazlne/autumn-20ll/tower-of-strength,295,PAMA.
html
www.deslgnmuseum.org/deslgn/future-systems
www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/fllm/[amesbond/9348859/1ames-8ond-the-guns-the-
gadgets-the-glrls.html
www.nytlmes.com/2009/06/0l/arts/0llht-DLS|GNl.htmlIpagewantedall
ooks:
Deslgn Paradlgms: A Sourcebook for Creatlve vlsuallsatlon by warren K wake, 1ohn
wlley and Sons, 2000
Scene Deslgn and Stage Llghtlng by wllford Oren Parker, P. Cralg wolf, Dlck 8lock,
Thomson/wadsworth, 2003
Poldlng Technlques for Deslgners: Prom Sheet to Porm by Paul 1ackson, Laurence Klng,
20ll
l000 Chalrs by Charlotte Plell and Peter Plell, Taschen, l997
Lxperlmental Lco-Deslgn: Archltecture, Pashlon Product, Cara 8rower, Pachel Mallory,
Zachory Ohlman, Potovlslon, 2005
8aslcs |nterlor Deslgn 0l: Petall Deslgn by Lynne Mesher, AvA Publlshlng, 20l0
why we 8uy: The Sclence of Shopplng by Paco Underhlll, Slmon and Schuster, updated
revlsed edltlon 2008
2lst Century Deslgn by Marcus Palrs, Carlton 8ooks Ltd, 2009
NewTechnologles: Products from Phaldon Deslgn Classlcs volume 3 by Andrea
Codrlngton, Phaldon Press Ltd, 2009
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Photography
Web:
en.flshkl.net/comment.phpIldll3996
www.vam.ac.uk/content/artlcles/p/photo[ournallsm/
www.davld-campbell.org/tag/photo[ournallsm/
www.glgrln.co.uk/and/wlldllfephotographers.html
www.andyrouse.co.uk
www.nhm.ac.uk/vlslt-us/whats-on/temporary-exhlbltlons/wpy/exhlbltlon/lndex.[sp
www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p004hd0g
www.slmonklngwlldllfe.com/galleryl.htm
www.photorevlew.com.au/storles/proflles/lewls-morley-unknown-lmages
www.photoslaves.com/crylng-men-by-sam-taylor-wood/
www.houkgallery.com/exhlbltlons/2007-ll-29_sally-mann/
www.woodsmovle.com
www.clnematographers.nl/PaglnasDoPh/wolskl.htm
www.theclnematographer.lnfo/artlcles/2l8-darlusz-wolskl-asc-prometheus.html
ooks:
Pon Galella: Paparazzo Lxtraordlnalre by Pon Galella, Mathlas Prlnz, Pellx Hoffmann,
Hat[e Cantz verlag GmbH & Company KG, 20l2
Mr Paparazzl by Darryn Lyons, 1ohn 8lake Publlshlng Llmlted, 20l0
The Trlals of Llfe: A Natural Hlstory of Anlmal 8ehavlour by Davld Attenborough,
PubllsherColllns/88C 8ooks, l992
Shetland Dlarles: Otters, Orcas, Pufflns and wonderful People by Slmon Klng, Hodder
General Publlshlng Dlvlslon, 20ll
Lewls Morley by 1udy Annear, Art Gallery of New South wales, 2006
Sally Mann: |mmedlate Pamlly by Sally Mann, Phaldon Press, 200l
Clnematography Screencraft (Serles) Clnematography by Peter Lttedgul, Pocal Press,
l999
8rlng Me That Horlzon: Maklng of the Plrates of the Carlbbean, by Mlchael Slnger,
Dlsney Ldltlons, 2007
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7extiIe Design
Web:
www.ftmlondon.org/exhlbltlons/detall/I|D6l
www.allcekettle.com
www.saatchl-gallery.co.uk/artlsts/maurlzlo_anzerl.htmIsectlon_namephotography
www.conservelndla.org/about-team.html
www.denlsestanton.co.uk
www.tsal-yoshlkawa.com/hslao-chl_tsal/about
www.rosle[ames.com
www.brltlshmuseum.org/explore/hlghllghts/hlghllght_ob[ects/aoa/s/sokarl_douglas_
camp,_blg_masqu.aspx
ooks:
Maklng Marks: And the Deslgn of Tlmney Powler by Sue Tlmney, Polnted Leaf Press,
20l0
Machlne Stltch: Perspectlves by Allce Kettle and 1ane McKeatlng, A & C 8lack
Publlshers, 20l0
Drawn to Stltch by Gwen Hedley, 8atsford, 20l0
Textlles Deslgners at the Cuttlng Ldge by 8radley Qulnn, Laurence Klng, 2009
Trashformatlons: Pecycled Materlals ln Contemporary Amerlcan Art and Deslgn by
Lloyd L. Herman, Unlverslty of washlngton Press, l998
Lxperlmental Textlles by KlmThlttlchal, 8atsford, 2009
Dlgltal Textlle Deslgn by Melanle 8owles, Laurence Klng, 2009
Mardl Gras: A Plctorlal Hlstory of Carnlval ln New Orleans by Leonard vlctor Huber,
Pellcan Publlshlng, l977
The Art of Manlpulatlng Pabrlc by Colette wolffe, Krause Publlcatlons, l996
8aslcs Textlle Deslgn 0l: Sourclng |deas: Pesearchlng Colour, Surface, Structure, Texture
and Pattern by 1osephlne Steed and Prances Stevenson, AvA Publlshlng, 20l2
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Craphic Communication
Web:
www.deslgncouncll.org.uk/about-deslgn/Types-of-deslgn/Packaglng-deslgn/
Sustalnablllty
www.thedlellne.com
www.thedavlnclgame.com
www.freewebs.com/tolklenboardgamecollectlng/rlddleoftherlnglce.htm
www.shlre.net/learnwebdeslgn/colormlxlng.htm
www.noupe.com/deslgn/the-keys-to-maklng-fresh-forwardly-aesthetlc-web-deslgns.
html
www.strangehorlzons.com/200l/200ll008/steganography.shtml
www.schoolsllalson.org.uk/allens/access/messages/drAsh.htm
ooks:
The 8lg 8ook of Packaglng Prototypes: Templates for |nnovatlve Cartons by Ldward
Denlson, Plchard Cawthray, 20l0
How to wrap Plve Lggs: Tradltlonal 1apanese Packaglng by Hldeyukl Oka, Mlchlkkzu
Sakal, 2008
Game Deslgn: Theory & Practlce by Plchard Pouse, Steve Ogden, 2005
Pavorlte 8oard Games ou Can Make and Play by Asterle 8aker Provenzo, Lugene P.
Provenzo, l98l
8y |ts Cover: Modern Amerlcan 8ook Cover Deslgn by Ned Drew, Paul Spencer
Sternberger, 2005
8alanced webslte Deslgn: Optlmlslng Aesthetlcs, Usablllty and Purpose by Dave
Lawrence, Soheyla Tavakol, 2007
web Style Gulde: 8aslc Deslgn Prlnclples for Creatlng web Sltes by Patrlck 1. Lynch,
Sarah Horton, 2009
Masquerade, The Complete 8ook wlth the Answer Lxplalned by Klt wllllams, workman
Publlshlng, l983
The 8ee on the Comb by Klt wllllams, 1onathan Cape Ltd, l984
|nvestlgator's Gulde to Steganography by Gregory Klpper, Aurbach Publlcatlons, 2003
21
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CriticaI and ContextuaI Studies
Web:
www.palalsllechtensteln.com/en/home.html
www.guardlan.co.uk/artanddeslgn/20ll/aug/02/prlnce-of-llechtensteln-collectlon-
revlew
www.artlyst.com/artlcles/dlscovery-of-adolf-hltler-lost-art-collectlon
www.serpentlnegallery.org/20ll/03/mlchelangelo_plstoletto.html
www.revs.org/photos/tate_3.html
www.mostlyfllm.com/20ll/06/28/coral-reefwelcome-to-the-klngdom/
www.lmperlal-deltah.com/news2/art.html
www.artsconnected.org/artsnetmn/ldentlty/ensor.html
www.royalcollectlon.org.uk/exhlbltlons/leonardo-da-vlncl-anatomlst/
www.bodyworlds.com/en/gunther_von_hagens/llfe_ln_sclence.html
www.arttattler.com/archlveblllvlola.html
ooks:
The Larly Portralt: Prom the Collectlons of the Prlnce of Llechtensteln and
the Kunstmuseum 8asel by Stephan Kemperdlck, Andreas 8eyer, ffentllche
Kunstsammlung 8asel, Prestel, 2006
Lost Llves, Lost Art: 1ewlsh Collectors, Nazl Art Theft, and the Quest for 1ustlce by
Mellssa Muller, Monlka Tatzkow, vendome Press, 20l0
Art Collectors of Pussla: The Prlvate Treasures Pevealed by Chrlstlna 8urrus, Agnes
Carbonell, Taurls Parke 8ooks, l994
Art Today by Ldward Lucle-Smlth, Phaldon, l999
Mlke Nelson: The Coral Peef by Helen Delaney, Mlke Nelson, Tate Publlshlng, 20l0
Pachel whlteread: Lmbankment volume 6 of Unllever serles by Catherlne wood, Pachel
whlteread, Tate, 2005
Gelsha: A Unlque world of Tradltlon, Llegance and Art by 1ohn Gallagher, PPC
Publlshlng, 2003
Mask and Performance ln Greek Tragedy: Prom Anclent Pestlval to Modern
Lxperlmentatlon by Davld wlles, Cambrldge Unlverslty Press, 2007
1ames Lnsor by 1ames Lnsor, |ngrld Pfelffer, Max Holleln, Hat[e Cantz, 2005
Leonardo Da vlncl (Masterpleces: Artlsts and Thelr works) by 8arbara wltteman,
Capstone Press, 2003
Lphemeral 8odles: wax Sculpture and the Human Plgure by Poberta Panzanelll, Getty
Publlcatlons, 2008
8lll vlola: The Passlons by 8lll vlola, Peter Sellars, 1ohn walsh, Hans 8eltlng, 1. Paul Getty
Museum ln assoclatlon wlth the Natlonal Gallery, London, 2003
22
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LANk PAC
23
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LANk PAC
24
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LANk PAC