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AP Government 2011-2012 Study Guide- Based on released material

  • I. Constitutional Underpinnings of U.S. Government……….5-15%

The Constitution was the attempt to address problems of decentralization that were experienced under the Articles of Confederation.

  • 1. List three problems of decentralized power that existed under the Articles of Confederation. For each problem you list, identify one solution that the Constitution and provided to address the problem.

  • 2. Some have argued that the tensions between decentralized and centralized power continue to exist. Support this argument by explaining how one of the following illustrates the continuing tension.

    • Environmental policy

    • Gun control

    • Disability access

It is of great importance and a republic not only to guard society against the oppression of its rulers, but to guard one part of society against the injustice of the other part. Different interests necessarily exist in different classes of citizens. If a majority be united by common interests, the rights of the minority will be insecure. James Madison, The Federalist, Number 51

Using the quotation about in your knowledge of United States politics, perform the following two tasks.

  • 1. Explain the central point that Madison is making about popular government and power.

  • 2. Explained to Constitutional provision was the framers devised to guard against the problems that Madison is addressing.

The United States Constitution has endured more than two centuries as the framework of government. However, the meaning of the Constitution has been changed both by formal and informal methods.

  • a. Identify two formal methods for adding amendments to the Constitution

  • b. Describe two informal methods that have been used to change the meaning of the Constitution. Provide one specific example for each informal method you described.

  • c. Explain why informal methods are used more often than the formal amendment process.

In The Federalist paper number 10, James Madison expressed concern over the possibility that both majority and minority factions would have too much power over government, and he presented ways of minimizing that danger.

The United States Constitution established a democratic government but also contained several provisions that limited majority rule. Throughout the next two centuries, the role of majority rule in the United States government and politics continued to change. (2009)

  • (a) Identify the part of the national government that was originally most closely tied to citizens and explain how it was tied to citizens.

  • (b) Explain two ways the United States Constitution limited majority rule.

  • (c) Choose two of the following twentieth-century developments and explain how each moved the United States from a less democratic system to a more democratic system.

• Primary elections • The Seventeenth Amendment • Expansion of suffrage

Linkage institutions

**********

  • Promote democracy by linking the citizens to the government

  • Political parties

  • The media

  • Interest groups

  • Elections

Compare the following theories of politics of the United States.

  • Elite theories

  • Pluralist theories

  • Hyperpluralist theories

Identify the importance of Shay‟s Rebellion

  • Showed weaknesses of the articles of confederation

  • Showed need for a strong national government

1

Federalist Number 10 & 51

  • James Madison

  • A Republican government can limit factionalism

  • Factions are undesirable but inevitable in a free nation

Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation

  • Instability of government

  • Need to promote and regulate interstate trade

  • No power to tax by central government

  • No national defense

  • No national currency

Explain the result of the Great Compromise

The framers of the Constitution believed one of the primary functions of government is protecting individual property rights

Compare the following types of powers

  • Enumerated powers

  • Reserved powers

    • Found in the Tenth Amendment

    • Not specifically granted to the national government nor denied to the states

Identify examples of checks and balances and separation of powers as established by the Constitution

The elastic clause/necessary and proper clause

  • Used to define federalism

  • Allows the Congress to expand its powers beyond those listed in the Constitution (enumerated powers)

Interstate commerce

  • Under the control of the federal government

  • Most challenged case in the Supreme Court

Explain the arguments both sides had in regards to ratification of the US Constitution

  • Federalists

  • Anti-Federalists

Amending the Constitution

  • Two ways to propose 2/3 vote of each house* propose by a national constitutional convention requested by at least 2/3 of the state legislatures

o

o

  • Two ways to ratify ratified by ¾ of the state legislatures* ratified by specially called convention in at least ¾ of the states

o

o

*all but 21 st followed #1 path, 21 ratified by convention

Define:

  • Expost facto laws

  • Bills of attainder

  • Writ of habeas corpus

Marbury v. Madison (1803)

  • Judicial review

  • Allows the courts to declare a law unconstitutional

2

Analyze whether federalism, over the last twenty-five years, has changed due to increase in federal mandates on state and local governments. In your essay, identify one federal mandate and discuss each of the following with respect to the mandate you have identified.

  • a. The objectives of the federal government is enacting a mandate

  • b. The impact of the state and local government budget priorities as a result of the mandate

  • c. The potential consequence of the removal of the mandate

Generalizing from your discussion in (a), (b), and (c), assess the impact of federal mandates on federalism.

The Supreme Court ruled in Barron v. Baltimore (1833) that the Bill of Rights did not apply to the states. Explain how the Court has interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment to apply the Bill of Rights to the states. In your answer, briefly discuss the Court's decision in one of the following cases to support your explanation. Gitlow v. New York (1925) Wolf v. Colorado (1949) Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)

Graph: Number of Federal and State and Local Government Employees, 1945-2000 (2003)

Using the data in the graph above and your knowledge of United States politics, perform the following tasks.

  • (a) Identify two trends shown in the graph.

  • (b) Explain how each of the following contributes to the difference between the federal and the state and local lines in the graph.

Block Grants

Federal Mandates

The power of the federal government relative to the states has increased since the ratification of the Constitution.

(2005)

  • (a) Describe two of the following provisions of the constitution and explain how each has been used over time to expand federal power.

    • The power to tax and spend

    • The „necessary and proper‟ or „elastic‟ clause

    • The commerce clause

  • (b) Explain how one of the following has increased the power of the federal government relative to the power of state governments.

    • Americans with Disabilities Act

    • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    • Clean Air Act

  • Initially the United States Constitution did little to protect citizens from actions of the states. In the twentieth century, the Supreme Court interpreted the Constitution to protect citizens from state governments in a process referred to as incorporation. (2005)

    • (a) Define selective incorporation.

    • (b) For two of the following, explain how each has been incorporated. Each of your explanations must be based on a specific and relevant Supreme Court decision.

      • Rights of criminal defendants

      • First Amendment

      • Privacy Rights

    The framers of the United States Constitution created a federal system. (2007)

    • (a) Define federalism.

    • (b) Select two of the following and explain how each has been used to increase the power of the federal government relative to the states.

      • Categorical grants

      • Federal mandates

      • Selective incorporation

  • (c) Select two of the following and explain how each has been used to increase the power of the states relative to the federal government.

    • Welfare Reform Act of 1996

    • Block Grants

    • Tenth Amendment

  • 3

    The framers of the Constitution created a political system based on limited government. The original Constitution and the Bill of Rights were intended to restrict the powers of the national government. Later constitutional developments also limited the powers of state governments. (2010)

    • (a) Explain how each of the following limits the powers of the national executive.

      • Federalism

      • Checks and balances

  • (b) Explain how each of the following two provisions in the Bill of Rights limits the powers of the national government.

    • Establishment clause

    • Guarantee of a public trial

  • (c) Choose one of the following and explain how it limits the power of state governments.

    • Citizenship clause of the Fourteenth Amendment

    • Selective incorporation

  • ********

    Compare the following types of government

    Unitary

    Confederal

    Federal

    Compare

     

    Majority

    Plurality

    Federal system

    Separation of powers between a central and subnational governments

    Demonstrated by the representation system for electing senators

    Consequences of the federal system

    Inequality of government services across state lines

    Allows for experimentation government programs

    Creates multiple access points for interest groups

    Decentralizes political conflict

    Compare the following type of powers

    Concurrent

    Restricted

    Inherent

    Define Devolution-

    Compare the following types of grants

    Revenue sharing

    Grants-in-aids

    Categorical Grants

     

    Grants given to states with a specific criteria and objective attached

    Block Grants

     

    Grants given to a state for a general purpose

    States decide on specifics on how to use them

    Responsibilities for channeling the funds to local government

    Federal Mandates (funded or unfunded)

    Motor Voter Registration Act

    Define

    Fiscal Federalism

    Cooperative Federalism

    McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)

    States cannot interfere with or tax legitimate activities of the federal government

    Reinforces supremacy of the Constitution

    4

    Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)

    • Established the basis of Congressional regulation of interstate commerce

    • Reinforced supremacy of national law

    II.

    Political Beliefs and Behaviors………………… 10-20%

    ..

    Discuss the changes in the participation of women in United States politics since 1970. Using specific examples,

    analyze the impact of women‟s participation on both of the following.

    • Electoral politics

    • Economic and social policy

    The figure below displays voting patterns by state in the 1992 and 1996 Presidential elections. Using the information in the figure and your knowledge of United States voting behavior, perform the following tasks.

    • Using the map below, identify one of the numbered regions with strong support for the Democratic Presidential candidate and identify and explain two factors that contribute to that support.

    • Using the map below identify one of the numbered regions with strong support for the Republican Presidential candidate and identify and explain two factors that contribute to that support.

    Discuss the impact of public opinion on policy-making. How is this impact affected by Presidential leadership and them as media? Apply your end of this to the issues of tax policy and the Persian Gulf War.

    Using information the table above and your knowledge of United States politics perform the following two tasks.

    List three groups that are significant President Clinton‟s electoral coalition that explain why each was important.

    Describe the problems that President Clinton has in sustaining his winning coalition.

    Citizens often choose to participate in the political process in ways other than voting. (2003)

    • (a) Identify two forms of participation in the political process other than voting.

    • (b) Explain two advantage of each form of participation you identified in (a).

    Viewers’ Ages and Frequency of Viewing of Network Nightly

    News: 1974 and 2002 Combined

    1974

    Frequently (%)

    Rarely (%)

    1829

    45

    13

    3044

    50

    12

    4564

    68

    8

    65

    and older

    71

    5

    2002

    Frequently (%)

    Rarely (%)

    1829

    19

    22

    3044

    22

    17

    4564

    40

    11

    65

    and older

    53

    8

    One of the most important ways the news media influence politics is through agenda setting. (2009)

    • (a) Define policy agenda.

    • (b) Explain how the national news media engage in agenda setting.

    • (c) Explain the primary reason the president tends to have an advantage over Congress in gaining media attention.

    • (d) Consider the table above. • Describe the difference in the viewing patterns of older and younger age-groups. • Describe the change from 1974 to 2002 in viewing habits that exists for all age categories.

    • (e) Given the information in the table, describe one implication for presidents in their use of the media to promote their political and policy objectives to the American public.

    **********

    5

    Compare characteristics of liberals versus conservatives

    • Groups most likely to vote liberal (Democrats)

    o

    African Americans

    o

    Jewish Americans

    o

    Hispanic Americans

    o

    Labor unions

    o

    Northeast

    o

    Urban areas

    o

    Women

    • Groups most likely to vote conservative (Republicans)

    o

    White males

    o

    Suburban

    o

    Midwest

    o

    Protestant

    o

    College educated

    o

    Rural

    o

    Very high-income levels

    Issues that affect voting

    • Age

    • Education level

    • Religion

    Reasons for low voter turnout

    • U.S. voter turnout rate is lower than most other western democracies

    • More elections in U.S. than in other countries

    • More difficult to register to vote

    Elections in the United States are characterized by low voter turnout. Discuss to demographic characteristics associated with nonvoting and three institutional obstacles associated with nonvoting.

    The most common form of political activity by U.S. citizens is voting in presidential elections

    • Only presidential elections average a turnout rate over 50%

    In the last half of the twentieth century, voter turnout in federal elections has declined. During the same period, voter turnout has been higher in presidential elections than in midterm elections. (2002)

    • (a) Identify two factors that have contributed to the overall decline in turnout in federal elections and explain how each factor has been higher in presidential elections than in midterm elections.

    • (b) Identify and explain two reasons why voter turnout has been higher in presidential elections that in midterm elections.

    In the United States political system, there are several linkage institutions that can connect citizens to government. Elections constitute one such institution. Because of low voter turnout, elections represent an imperfect method of linking citizens to their government. Even when there is low voter turnout, however, other linkage institutions can connect citizens to government. (2009)

    • (a) Describe how each of the following is related to the likelihood of voting.

    • Age

    • Education

    • (b) Identify one current government electoral requirement that decreases voter turnout. Explain how it decreases voter turnout.

    • (c) Identify one linkage institution other than elections and explain two ways it connects citizens to government.

    Understand the changes of political culture

    • In general people are less trusting of the government

    • A result of Watergate

    6

    • Core American values Legal and political equality

    o

    o

    Constitutional rights

    Political socialization is the passage of political values from one generation to the next

    • Family is the most important indicator

    Media coverage

    • Focuses on day-to-day campaign activities

    • Sound bites

    • Colorful events

    Effect of media on campaigns

    • They affect which issues the people think are important

    • Larger focus on image, less on substance

    Define

    • Libel

    • Prior restraint

    • Shield law

    • „horse race‟ journalism

    III.

    Political Parties, Interest Groups, and Mass Media ………………10-

    20%

    Graph: partisan identification of adults in the United States, 1952-1992

    • Democrats

    • Republicans

    • Independents

    Using the data and the graph about in their knowledge of party politics in the United States is in 1950‟s perform

    the following tasks.

    • 1. Identify two significant trends as shown in the graph.

    • 2. For each time you identifying provide the following

      • An explanation for the trend

      • Any fact that the trend has of political campaigns

    Graph: Presidential popular and electoral college vote, 1968-1992 Using the information in the table above and your knowledge of United States politics, perform the following tasks.

    • a. Identify a third-party candidate who received significant popular votes but no electoral votes, and provide an explanation for this discrepancy.

    • b. Identify a third-party candidate who received significant popular votes as well as significant electoral votes, and provide an explanation for this outcome.

    • c. In seeking to win Presidential elections, third parties face challenges not faced by the major parties. Describe one of these challenges.

    Electoral College

    • Number of electoral votes for state = number of reps + number of senators

    • Winner take all, whoever wins the state‟s popular vote, wins the electoral vote

    • Candidates often focus on large states

    • Winner does not need a majority of popular vote to win

    Compare the following types of primary elections

    • Open primary

    • Closed primary

    • Blanket primary

    • Run-off primary

    Changes in the primary elections

    • Increased cost

    7

    • Increased attention on early primaries, New Hampshire, super Tuesday

    • Increased the role of citizens

    • Decreased the role of state party organizations

    • Running for president becomes a full-time job

    • Decreased party control over nominations

    • Voters are usually affluent and highly educated in primary elections

    Changes in the national convention

    • Candidates are usually known by convention time

    • Pep-rally atmosphere

    • Increased number of females and minorities, particularly at the Democratic convention Increased power to the voter, less to the party

    National interest groups often target national-level policy making the institutions to achieve their policy objectives. Select one of the following national interest groups.

    • American Association of Retired Persons

    • American Medical Association

    • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

    • National Association of Manufacturers

    For the group you selected do each of the following.

    • 1. Identify one major national-level policy making institution that this group targets.

    • 2. Described one resource or characteristic of the group you have chosen and explain how it influences the choice of the target you have identified.

    • 3. Described another resource are characteristic of the group you have chosen and explain how it influences of the choice of target you have identified.

    The contention that American political parties have been in decline since 1960 is challenged by some scholars who suggest instead that parties are resurgent. Which position do you take? Summarize the arguments that support your position and provide evidence to support your analysis.

    The United States Congress has debated a variety of campaign finance reforms over the last decade. The proposals debated have included the following: (2005) Eliminating soft money Limiting independent expenditures Raising limits on individual contributions

    • (a) Select one of the listed proposals and do all of the following:

      • Define the proposal.

      • Describe an argument that proponents make in favor of the proposal.

      • Describe an argument that opponents make against the proposal.

  • (b) Select a different listed proposal and do all of the following:

    • Define the proposal.

    • Describe an argument that proponents make in favor of the proposal.

    • Describe an argument that opponents make against the proposal

  • In the 1990‟s Presidential election campaigns have become more candidate-centered and was focused on issues and party labels. This change has been attributed both to how the media cover Presidential campaigns and to have candidates use the media. Identify and explain two ways in which the media have contributed to candidate- centered Presidential campaigns. Identify and explain two ways in which Presidential candidates use of the media has contributed to candidate-centered campaigns. Your answers should not include a discussion of Presidential primary elections.

    Have changes in the formal Presidential nomination procedures since the mid 1960‟s made the process more

    Democratic? In your response, support your argument by describing three specific changes in the procedures and discussing their effects.

    8

    Since the 1960's, the process of selecting Presidential candidates has been altered by the changing role of Presidential primaries and national party conventions. Discuss FOUR effects that have resulted from this change in the Presidential selection process.

    Political cartoons: silly stories about Clinton

    Using the cartoon about and your knowledge of United States politics, answer the following two questions.

    • 2. What points is the cartoonist making about the media coverage of candidates and Presidential primary campaigns?

    • 3. What characteristics of mass media explain his coverage of the candidates?

    The three obstacles listed below have made it difficult for Congress to enact significant campaign finance reform.

    • Buckley v. Valeo (1976)

    • Soft money

    • Incumbency

    Select two of the obstacles. For each obstacle, provide both of the following.

    • 1. A brief description of the obstacle

    • 2. An explanation of how the obstacle has made it difficult for Congress to enact significant campaign finance reform

    Different interest groups will choose different techniques to achieve their objectives based on their resources, characteristics, and goals. (2004)

    • (a) Describe each of the following techniques and explain why an interest group would choose each technique. Litigation Campaign contributions Grassroots lobbying/mass mobilization

    • (b) Select one of the following groups and identify the primary technique it uses from the list in part (a). Explain why the group you selected would employ that technique over the other two techniques.

    American Medical Association (AMA)

    Sierra Club

    National Rifle Association (NRA)

    National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

    Political Cartoon: Green Party Votes going in the trash can. (2004)

    Minor (third) parties have been a common feature of United States politics.

    • (a) Describe the point of view expressed about minor parties in the political cartoon above.

    • (b) Identify and explain how two rules of the US electoral system act as obstacles to minor-party candidates winning elections.

    • (c) Minor parties make important contributions to the US political system in spite of the institutional obstacles to their candidates‟ success. Describe two of these contributions.

    While interest groups and political parties each play a significant role in the United States political system, they differ in their fundamental goals. (2006)

    • (a) Identify the fundamental goal of interest groups in the political process.

    • (b) Identify the fundamental goal of major political parties in the political process.

    • (c) Describe two different ways by which interest groups support the fundamental goal of political parties in the political process.

    • (d) For one of the forms of support you described in (c), explain two different ways in which that form of supports helps interest groups to achieve their fundamental goal in the political process.

    Individuals often form groups in order to promote their interests. The Constitution contains several provisions that protect the rights of individuals who try to promote their interests in a representative democracy. (2010)

    • (a) Explain two provisions in the Bill of Rights that protect individuals who try to influence politics.

    • (b) Interest groups engage in a variety of activities to affect public policy. Explain how each of the following is used by interest groups to exert influence over policy.

      • Grassroots mobilization

      • Lobbying of government institutions

      • Litigation

    9

    • (c) Describe one specific federal governmental regulation of interest groups.

    Federal Election Campaign Act 1974

    • Created Federal Election Commission

    • Placed limits and regulations on campaign financing

    • Hard to strengthen because it often hurts the incumbent

    McCain-Feingold (Campaign Reform Act) 2002

    • Banned soft money

    • Increased individual donations

    • Led to the establishment of 527‟s

    (c) Describe one specific federal governmental regulation of interest groups. Federal Election Campaign Act – 1974

    Over the last several decades, the composition of the Democratic and Republican parties has changed in important ways. A major partisan shift has occurred in the South, but other demographic changes have also been identified. Changes in party composition are reflected at different rates in presidential elections than in congressional elections. (2010)

    • (a) Identify one specific trend evident in the figure above.

    • (b) Choose two of the following and use each to explain why southern voters from 1948 to 2000 were electing Democratic candidates to Congress more frequently than choosing Democratic candidates for the presidency.

      • Incumbency advantage

      • Gerrymandering

      • Differences between state and national parties

  • (c) Several other changes in party composition have emerged in the past few decades. Select three of the following groups and for each explain how parties have changed in composition with respect to that group.

    • Catholics

    • Labor union members

    • Women

    • Social conservatives

  • Functions of political parties

    **********

    • Inform the public about political issues

    • Mobilize voters and getting them to the polls

    • Organized diverse interests within society

    Reasons for a two party system

    • Tradition

    • Reinforced by the electoral college

    Compare Democrats and Republicans

    • Democrats More concerned about social issues Civil rights Pro-choice Pro gun control Support for affirmative action

    o

    o

    o

    o

    o

    10

    • Republicans More concerned about the economy

    o

    o

    Defense

    o

    Foreign policy

    o

    Pro-life

    Political parties in the United States

    • Number of voters identifying themselves as Democrats or Republicans is in decline

    • Party organization s exist at nation, state, and local levels

    • Single interest groups are increasing

    • Interest groups are better able to state specific policy decisions that are political parties

    Define:

    • single-member district

    • free rider

    Party realignment

    • Occurs when there is a major shift to in the voting population

    • 1930‟s African Americans begin to vote for Democrats

    • 1960‟s women begin to vote for Democrats

    • 1960‟s white southerners begin to the Republican

    • Usually results in critical elections

    Divided party government

    • Occurs when the presidency is controlled by one party, it Congress by the other

    • Prevalent over the last 30 years

    • Occurs because of split-ticket voting

    PAC‟s

    • Raise campaign funds to support favored candidates

    • Created by unions, interest groups, corporations

    • Money usually goes to the incumbent

    • Largest number of PAC‟s represent business groups or corporations

    • The amount of money that and PAC‟s can contribute directly to an individual candidate is limited by law Lobbyists

      • Work for special interest groups

      • May not be members of the Congress, the White House, or the media

      • Tries to appeal to those already concerned about the issues

      • Most successful with narrow issues with little visibility supported by technical information

    Buckley v. Valeo (1976)

    • Declared a violation of 1 st Amendment for a candidate to limit his/her own contribution to own campaign

    • Ross Perot - $65 million

    IV.

    Institutions of National Government: The Congress, the Presidency, the Bureaucracy, and the Federal Courts

    A. The Presidency and Bureaucracy

    Discuss whether changes in the roles of responsibility of the White House staff have lead to greater Presidential accountability and effectiveness. Support your argument with examples from two presidency has since 1961, making sure to define both Presidential accountability and effectiveness.

    11

    In the 1970's, in order to limit the power of the President and to reassert Congressional authority in the policy- making process, Congress passed the following.

    • The War Powers Act

    • The Budget and Impoundment Control Act Briefly describe the provisions of each of these two legislative acts. Evaluate the extent to which each act has

    affected the balance of power between the presidency and Congress in the 1990's.

    Graph: Public Appearances by Presidents 1945-1994 The development of the modern presidency includes a change in the frequency of public appearances by Presidents. Analyze how the change illustrated above helps explain the evolution of the power of the presidency. Your analysis must include three explanations for the evolution of the power of the presidency.

    A significant feature of the electoral college is that most states have a winner-take-all system. (2007)

    • (a) Describe the winner-take-all feature of the electoral college.

    • (b) Explain one way in which the winner-take-all feature of the electoral college affects how presidential candidates from the two major political parties run their campaigns.

    • (c) Explain one way in which the winner-take-all feature of the electoral college hinders third-party candidates.

    • (d) Explain two reasons why the electoral college has not been abolished.

    Vice presidential candidates

    • Chosen by presidential nominee

    • Adds balance an appeal to the national ticket

    Define

    • Coattail effect

    • Dark-horse candidate

    • Front Loading

    Federal funding

    • Only found in presidential campaigns

    • Hard money contributions limited

    • Soft money contributions unlimited

    Graph: Number of Government Employees: Federal, State, and Local, 1929-1986

    Using the data in the graph above and your knowledge of United States politics, complete the following two tasks.

    • a. Identify the significant patterns in the number of government employees, as illustrated by the graph.

    • b. Explain what these patterns indicate about the changing nature of federalism.

    The concept of iron triangles, also referred to as subgovernments, is used to explain how various interest influence public policy. Applying this concept to agriculture, briefly identify the key players in the iron triangle, and analyze how they interact to achieve policy goals, and evaluate the impact of this iron triangle on the democratic process.

    Presidential approval ratings fluctuate over the course of each presidential administration. (2003)

    • (a) Identify two factors that decrease presidential approval ratings and explain why each factor has that effect.

    • (b) Identify two factors that increase presidential approval ratings, and explain why each factor has that effect.

    Presidents are generally thought to have advantages over Congress in conducting foreign policy because of the formal and informal powers of the presidency. (2004)

    • (a) Identify two formal constitutional powers of the President in making foreign policy.

    • (b) Identify two formal constitutional powers of the Congress in making foreign policy.

    • (c) Identify two informal powers of the President that contribute to the President‟s advantage over Congress in conducting foreign policy.

    • (d) Explain how each of the informal powers identified in (c) contributes to the President‟s advantage over Congress in conducting foreign policy.

    12

    Conflicts between Congress and the President over war powers have their origin in the United States

    Constitution. In 1973 Congress passed the War Powers Resolution in an attempt to clarify the balance of powers between the two branches of government. (2007)

    • (a) Describe the primary constitutional conflict between Congress and the President over the decision to go to war.

    • (b) Describe two provisions of the War Powers Resolution that were designed to limit the President‟s power over war making.

    • (c) The War Powers Resolution has received mixed reviews, but Congress has other powers over war making. Other than the constitutional power that you described in (a), identify and explain two other formal powers Congress has over war making.

    A number of factors enable presidents to exert influence over Congress in the area of domestic policy. However, presidents are also limited in their influence over domestic policymaking in Congress. (2008)

    • (a) The Constitution grants the president certain enumerated powers. Describe two of these formal powers that

    enable the president to exert influence over domestic policy.

    • (b) Choose two of the following. Define each term and explain how each limits the president‟s ability to influence

    domestic policymaking in Congress.

    mandatory spending party polarization lame-duck period

    The federal bureaucracy as part of the executive branch exercises substantial independence in implementing

    governmental policies and programs. Most workers in the federal bureaucracy are civil-service employees who are organized under a merit system. (2010)

    • (a) Describe one key characteristic of the merit system.

    • (b) For each of the following, describe one factor that contributes to bureaucratic independence.

      • The structure of the federal bureaucracy

      • The complexity of public policy problems

  • (c) For each of the following, explain one Constitutional provision that it can use to check the bureaucracy.

    • Congress

    • The courts

    • Interest groups

  • Constitutional powers of the president

    • Commissioned officers on the armed forces, commander in chief

    • Address the Congress at the State of the Union

    • Receive ambassadors

    • Grant pardons for federal offenses

    • Negotiate treaties

    • Act as Chief Executive

    Presidential influence

    • Influence Congress News media Legislative liaisons Use party leaders Use public opinion polls

    o

    o

    o

    o

    • Influence judicial branch Appoint judges with similar philosophies to the president

    o

    Increase in presidential power, post 1945 era

    • Increased tensions of Cold War

    • Increasing public expectations of services from federal government

    • Economic and domestic problems such as inflation, unemployment, and civil rights issues

    • Increase in U.S. involvement in international affairs

    President has most power in foreign policy

    13

    Executive agreement

    • It does not require Senate approval

    • May require Congressional allocation of funds for implementation

    Executive orders

    • A presidential directive to an agency that defines new policies or carries out existing laws

    Executive privilege

    • The rights claimed by presidents to withhold information from the legislative or judicial branch

    • May be legally challenged

    Budget and Impoundment Control Act

    • Force president to release on money for Congressional programs

    • Allowed Congress to regain power is previously lost to the executive branch

    War Powers Act

    • President may not send troops out for more than 60 days without Congressional approval

    • A result of Vietnam, Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

    • Assured Congressional involvement in decisions committing military forces in hostile situations overseas

    • Difficult to enforce

    The veto

    • President rejects all sections of a bill

    • Sends back to Congress

    • Needs two-thirds of House and Senate to override

    • Congress rarely overrides a veto (less than 10%)

    • A vetoed bill may be revised and passed in another form Line item veto

      • Would allow the president to veto parts of appropriation bills

      • Declared unconstitutional

      • Violation of separation of powers

      • Proponents argue that it helps control federal spending

    The Cabinet

    • Presidential appointments, approved by Senate

    • Advisors to the president

    • Do not have a dominant influence on presidential decision making

    • Presidential goals often conflict with the institutional goals of individual Cabinet-level agencies

    White House staff

    • Seek people that are personally loyal to the president

    • Members do not need the approval of the Senate

    Removing the president from office

    • The House votes for a bill of impeachment

    • The Senate may remove the president from office

    12 th Amendment (1804)

    • Candidates for the president and vice-president are selected by the electoral college

    • Replaced the concept of 2

    nd

    place wins Vice Presidency

    22 nd Amendment (1951)

    • Limits the president to two terms

    • Direct result of FDR‟s four terms

    25 th Amendment (1967)

    • Establishes rules for replacement of Vice-President

    • Replacement approved by both Houses of Congress

    14

    Bureaucracy

    • a large and complex group of people and agencies whose purpose is to manage government and implement policy

    • can set specific guidelines after receiving a general mandate from Congress

    Executive Office of the President

    • White House Staff o Personally loyal to the president

    • Office of Management and Budget (OMB)

    o

    Part of the executive branch

    o

    Responsible for preparing the budget

    • National Security Council o

    Coordinates military and foreign policy

    • National Economic Council

    o

    Aide the president

    o

    Help plan the economy

    Independent Agencies

    • Independent Regulatory Agencies

    o

    Part of the executive branch

    o

    A federal agency whose purpose is to protect the public interest

    o

    Freer from presidential control than are cabinet departments

    • Government Corporations

    o

    US postal service

    • Independent Executive Agencies

    o

    NASA, CIA

    Agency Regulatory Measures

    • Freedom of Information Act

    o

    Citizens given access to information from the executive branch

    • Privacy Act

    o

    Limitation on revealing information about someone to others

    • Sunshine Act

    o

    Open meetings of regulatory agencies

    Cabinet

    • Close advisors to the President

    • Appointed by the President, confirmed by the senate

    • May be removed at the discretion of the President

    • May have limited influence if presidential goals conflict with the institutional goals of individual cabinet-level agencies

    Iron Triangle

    • Goal: to influence legislation and policy

    o

    Congressional Committees

    o

    Interest groups

    o

    Government agencies

    Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Chadha (1983)

    • Declared the legislative veto unconstitutional

    • Violated separation of powers

    United States v. Nixon (1974)

    • Denied Nixon‟s claim of executive privileges when he refused to turn over the Watergate tapes

    • Limited the president‟s right to confidentiality

    • Separation of powers

    B. Congress

    **********

    15

    Incumbents

    • Always have the advantage

    • Name recognition

    • More money from PAC‟s

    • Able to provide the services for voters (constituents)

    • Serve on committees to help their districts

    Baker v. Carr (1962)

    • Population is the only acceptable basis for the apportionment of seats in Congress

    • “One man one vote”

    Graph: Congressional Job Approval Ratings: Individuals v. The Institution

    Use the graph above and your knowledge of United States politics to perform the following tasks.

    • a. Explain what this graph indicates about citizens‟ attitudes toward both their own congressional representatives and Congress as an institution.

    • b. Give two reasons that explain the differences between citizens‟ attitudes toward Congress as a whole and toward their individual representatives.

    Graph: Rate of Congressional Incumbent Reelection The graph above shows reelection rates for incumbents in the House and Senate. From this information and your knowledge of United States politics, perform the following tasks.

    • (a) Identify two patterns displayed in the graph.

    • (b) Identify two factors that contribute to incumbency advantage. Explain how each factor contributes to incumbency advantage.

    • (c) Discuss one consequence of incumbency advantage of the United States political process.

    Map: Impact of the 1990 Census on Congressional Reapportionment Using the map above and your knowledge of United States politics, perform the following two tasks.

    • a. Summarize what the map indicates about congressional reapportionment based on the 1990 census.

    • b. Describe the political implications of these changes.

    Table: Selected Demographic Characteristics of Congress Resulting from the 1990, 1992, and 1994 Elections

    Using the data in the table above and your knowledge of United States politics, perform the following tasks.

    • a. Describe the two demographic changes that occurred in Congress between 1990 and 1994.

    • b. Briefly discuss two political explanations for each of the changes described in (a).

    Chart: Seeking Office: How Women Fare Using the chart above and your knowledge of United States elections, perform the following tasks.

    • a. Identify three trends displayed in the graph.

    • b. Briefly discuss two reasons that explain any of these trends.

    Is Congress effective in exercising legislative oversight of the federal bureaucracy? Support your answer by doing ONE of the following.

    • Explain two specific methods Congress uses to exercise effective oversight of the federal bureaucracy. OR

    • Give two specific explanations for the failure of Congress to exercise effective oversight of the federal bureaucracy.

    The United States Constitution has endured for more than two centuries as the framework of government.

    However, the meaning of the Constitution has been changed both by formal and informal methods. (2001)

    • Identify two formal methods for adding amendments to the Constitution.

    • Describe two informal methods that have been used to change the meaning of the Constitution. Provide one specific example for each informal method you described.

    • Explain why informal methods are used more often than the formal amendment process.

    Graph: Rate of Congressional Incumbent Reelection

    16

    The graph above shows reelection rates for incumbents in the House and Senate. From this information and your knowledge of United States politics, perform the following tasks (2001).

    • Identify two patterns displayed in the graph.

    • Identify two factors that contribute to incumbency advantage. Explain how each factor contributes to incumbency advantage.

    • Discuss one consequence of incumbency advantage for the United States political process.

    Both party leadership and committees in Congress play key roles in the legislative process. (2003)

    • Define the following elements of the congressional committee system and explain how each influences the legislative process. Specialization Reciprocity/Logrolling Party representation on Committees

      • Identify two ways party leadership in Congress can influence the legislative process, and explain how each way influences the process.

    The United States Congress and the President together have the power to enact federal law. Federal

    bureaucratic agencies have the responsibility to execute federal law. However, in the carrying out of these laws, federal agencies have policy-making discretion. (2006)

    • A. Explain two reasons why Congress gives federal agencies policy-making discretion in executing federal laws.

    • B. Choose one of the bureaucratic agencies listed below. Identify the policy area over which it exercises policy-making direction AND give one specific example of how it exercises that discretion. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Federal Reserve Board

    • C. Describe two ways in which Congress ensures that federal agencies follow legislative intent.

    The framers of the United States Constitution created a legislative system that is bicameral. However, it is not just bicameral; the framers also established two houses of distinctly different character and authority. (2006)

    • A. Discuss two reasons why the framers created a bicameral legislature.

    • B. Identify one power unique to the House of Representatives and explain why the framers gave the House that power.

    • C. Identity one power unique to the Senate and explain why the framers gave the Senate that power.

    Congressional reapportionment and redistricting are conducted every ten years. When redistricting is conducted, politicians often engage in gerrymandering. (2008)

    • (a) Define congressional reapportionment and explain one reason why it is important to states.

    • (b) Define congressional redistricting.

    • (c) Explain two goals of politicians when they gerrymander during redistricting.

    • (d) Describe two limits that the United States Supreme Court has placed on congressional redistricting.

    In the United States Congress, the majority party exerts a substantial influence over lawmaking. However, even

    when one party has a numerical majority in each chamber of the United States Congress, there is no guarantee that legislation supported by that majority party will be passed by both chambers. Rules of each chamber independently influence the likelihood that legislation will pass in that chamber; legislation passed by one chamber is not always passed by the other. (2009)

    • (a) Describe two advantages the majority party in the United States House of Representatives has in lawmaking, above and beyond the numerical advantage that that majority party enjoys in floor voting.

    • (b) Describe two differences between House and Senate rules that may make it likely that legislation may pass in one chamber but not in the other.

    • (c) Explain how the differences identified in (b) can lead to the passage of a bill in one chamber but not in the other.

    Legislative Process

    **********

    17

    Characterized by compromise and bargaining

    Forces legislature to be cautious and deliberate

    House more structured and restricted

    House relies heavily on committee input

    Rules Committee sets the guidelines for floor debate in the House

    Senate allows more free debate more informal guidelines

    Filibusters only allowed in the Senate

    Congress and Constituents

    Personal staff of representatives can do constituent service

    Often serve on committees that enable them to help the constituency

    Well known to voters, helps in re-election

    Elections

    Incumbent senators are less likely to be reelected than are incumbent members of the House of Representatives

    Increasing number of women and minorities being elected to both the House and Senate

    Congressional Districts

    Determined by census

    Boundary lines drawn by the state legislatures

    Apportionment

    o

    Distribution of the number of the House of representatives based on the population of each state

    Reapportionment

    o

    Periodic redistribution of US Congressional seats according to changes in the census figures

    Malapportionment

    o

    Distribution of representatives among Congressional districts in unequal proportion to the

    o

    population (districts are different sizes)

    Gerrymandering Process of dividing voting districts to give an unfair advantage to one candidate, party, or group

    o

    o

    Boundary lines drawn at odd shapes

    Racial Gerrymandering Congressional districts are drawn to give equal minority representation

    o

    o

    Shaw v. Reno (1993)

    Leadership

    Allowed white citizens in NC to sue for violation of 14 th amendment, equal protection

    House

    o

    Speaker of the House (Dennis Hastert Republican)

    Most powerful person in the House

    o

    o

    From the majority party

    3 rd in line to the president

    Majority / Minority Leaders (Tom Delay R, Nancy Pelosi D)

    Majority / Minority Whips

    Senate

    o

    Vice President

    Votes only in case of tie

    o

    President Pro Tem

    Ceremonial position

    o

    Majority / Minority Leaders (Bill Frist R, Harry ReidD)

    o

    Most powerful position in the Senate Majority / Minority Whips

    Cloture motion

    Passed in the Senate

    Cuts off debate on a bill

    Committees

    18

    • Standing committees A permanent committee that evaluates bills and either kills them or pass them along for further

    o

    o

    debate Fosters the development of expertise by members

    o

    Oversees the bureaucracy‟s implementation of legislation

    • Select committees A temporary Congressional committee appointed for a limited purpose Set up to study specific issues Usually have the least direct input into legislation

    o

    o

    o

    • Joint committees A legislative committee made up of members of both houses of Congress

    o

    o

    A meet together about a specific issue and report that their findings to each house

    • Conference committees

    o

    Created when the House is that have passed different versions of the same bill

    o

    Include members from both houses

    o

    Very temporary and lasts only as long as it takes to create a compromise bill

    • Committee chairs in the House are always members of the majority party

    Oversight Function

    • The power of Congress to review the policies and programs of the executive branch

    o

    Committee hearings

    o

    Authorization

    o

    • Legislative approval to implement or continue government programs or agencies Appropriation

    • A grant of money to be used for specific purposes

    • Budget and Impoundment Control Act - 1974 Its act requires the president to spend all appropriated funds, unless he gets approval from

    o

    o

    Congress to delay the spending The president has to spend money that Congress has appropriated

    o

    Allowed Congress to regain powers previously lost to the executive branch

    Support Agencies

    • Congressional Budget Office (CBO)

    o

    Helps congress study and analyze the budget

    • General Accounting Office (GAO)

    o

    Audits government agencies

    Criticisms

    • Christmas Tree Bills Irrelevant riders are attached to a bill to ensure passage

    o

    • Pork Barrel Legislation Government project that benefits a specific location or lawmakers home district and constituents

    o

    • Logrolling Process of exchanging political favors for support

    o

    C. Judicial Branch

    Chart: Presidential Appointments of Lower Federal Court Judges by Partisan Affiliation Using the chart above and your knowledge of United States politics, perform the following tasks.

    • a. Identify two patterns in presidential appointments of lower federal court judges from the Johnson administration through the Clinton administration.

    • b. Discuss four political factors that influence a President‟s choice of judicial appointees.

    Graph: Average Number of Supreme Court Decisions Declaring Laws Unconstitutional

    Using the date in the graph above and your knowledge of United States politics, perform the following tasks.

    • a. Describe a pattern displayed in the graph.

    • b. Discuss the relationship between court activism, the political ideology of the court majority, and the pattern you identified.

    • c. Discuss one factor other than political ideology or court activism affecting the pattern you described in (a).

    19

    The Supreme Court is commonly thought to be “above politics.” However, one can argue that the appointment of

    Supreme Court justices is political.

    • a. Identify three characteristics of Supreme Court nominees and discus how each characteristic has been politically relevant during the appointment process.

    • b. Identify two methods that have been used by interest groups to influence the appointment process. Explain how each of these two methods has been used to influence that process.

    The concept of “divided government” in the United States means that one political party can control the executive

    branch while another controls the legislative branch. This poses problems for the President in making appointments to federal offices. (2002)

    • a. Describe two problems that divided government poses for the President in making federal appointments.

    • b. Identify and explain two ways Presidents try to overcome the problems described in (a).

    The judicial branch is designed to be more independent of public opinion than are the legislature or the executive. Yet the United State Supreme Court rarely deviates too far for too long from prevalent public opinion. (2005)

    • a. Describe two ways in which the United States Supreme Court is insulated from prevalent public opinion.

    • b. Explain how two factors work to keep the United States Supreme Court from deviating too far from public opinion.

    Graph: Responses Favoring School Desegregation by Respondent‟s Region and Level of Education, 1956-1985 The graph above presents public opinion on the racial desegregation of schools. Using the graph and your knowledge of United States politics, perform the following tasks.

    • a. Identify the trends that were evident in Americans‟ attitudes toward school desegregation.

    • b. Explain why these trends occurred.

    The Supreme Court ruled in Barron v. Baltimore (1833) that the Bill of Rights did not apply to the states. Explain how the Court has interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment to apply the Bill of Rights to the states. In your answer,

    briefly discuss the Court‟s decisions in one of the following cases to support your explanation. Gitlow v. New York (1925) Wolf v. Colorado (1949) Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)

    Many scholars and observers have argued that the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution

    has become the single most important act in all of the United States politics. (2001)

    • Identify which provision of the Fourteenth Amendment was applied in one of the following Supreme Court cases. For the case you select, explain the significance of the decision in United States politics.

    o

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)

    o

    Baker v. Carr (1962)

    o

    Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)

    • Identify which provision of the Fourteenth Amendment was applied in one of the following Supreme Court cases. For the case you select, explain the significance of the decision in United States politics.

    o

    Mapp v. Ohio (1961)

    o

    Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)

    o

    Miranda v. Arizona (1966)

    The First Amendment includes two clauses relating to the freedom of religion. (2007)

    • a. Select one of the following cases and identify the First Amendment clause upon which the US Supreme Court based its decision.

    Engel v. Vitale (school prayer) Lemon v. Kurtzman (state funding for private schools)

    • b. Describe the Supreme Court‟s decision in the case you selected in (a).

    • c. Select one of the following cases and identify the First Amendment clause upon which the US Supreme Court based its decision.

    Reynolds v. United States (polygamy) Oregon v. Smith (drug use in religious ceremonies)

    • d. Describe the Supreme Court‟s decision in the case you selected in (b).

    • e. Many of these decisions have caused controversy in the United States. Describe two ways in which other political institutions might limit the impact of the Supreme Court decisions.

    20

    “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” (2008) Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, 1870 Despite the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment, voter turnout among African American citizens was very low throughout the first half of the twentieth century. Over the past 50 years, civil rights policies have changed substantially, along with a significant increase in African American voter turnout.

    • (a) Explain how two measures taken by some states prior to the 1960s affected voter turnout among African American citizens.

    • (b) Facing discrimination at the voting booth, many African American citizens turned to alternative forms of political participation. Describe two alternative forms of participation that helped bring about changes in civil rights policies.

    • (c) Choose one of the forms of participation you described in (b) and explain why it was effective in changing civil rights policies.

    Nomination of Federal Judges (includes Supreme Court)

    Appointed by President

    Approved by Senate

    Life term for good behavior (to ensure justices are free from direct political pressures)

    Interest groups can influence by lobbying, rallies, media campaigns

    Close Calls

    o

    Robert Bork (1987)

    o

    Clarence Thomas (1991)

    Federal Courts

    Created by Congress

    Number of justices determined by Congress

    Most criminal cases end in a plea bargain negotiated by the defense and prosecution Supreme Court

    Original and appellate jurisdiction

    Appellate most important source of case load

    Free to choose the cases it hears with only a few limitations

    Judicial Restraint

    Belief that the Supreme Court should defer to the elective institutions of government are advocating

    Judicial Activism

    Use of court‟s opinion to force social change

    o

    Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

    o

    Roe v. Wade (1973)

    o

    Miranda v. Arizona (1966)

    Judicial Review

    Supreme Court has the power to declare a law unconstitutional

    Congress may only overturn decision by amending the constitution

    Rule of Four

    Recommendation by one Justice with the agreement of a least three other Justices for review of a case

     

    Warren Court (1953-1969) - liberal

    Miranda v. Arizona (1966)

    o

    Extension of Bill of Rights to protect citizens against state government actions

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)

    o

    Doctrine of "'separate but equal' inherently unequal"

    o

    Unconstitutionality of prior decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

    Baker v. Carr (1962)

    o

    Doctrine of "One man, one vote"

    o

    Involvement of the Court in redistricting

    Burger Court (1969-1986 ) conservative

    Roe v. Wade (1973)

    o

    o

    Unconstitutionality of state prohibitions on abortion

    Based on the right to privacy implied in Bill of Rights

    21

    Incorporation

    • The gradual process of applying in the bill of rights to the states

    • Barron v. Baltimore (1833) Supreme court ruled the bill of rights did not apply to the states

    o

    • Fourteenth amendment Due process clause No state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without the due process of law Interpreted to mean that the protection of the bill of rights must also apply to the states

    o

    o

    o

    V. Public Policy

    There is a widespread belief that the federal government‟s budget should be balanced, but the budget deficit

    increases every year. How can you explain this discrepancy in terms of the tax and spend policies that come from Congress and the President?

    Discuss the impact of public opinion on policy-making. How is this impact affected by presidential leadership and the mass media? Apply your analysis to the issues of tax policy and the Persian Gulf War.

    Graph: Budget Outlays by Category 1962-1992

    Using the graph above and your knowledge of spending by the national government, perform the following tasks.

    • a. Define mandatory spending and domestic discretionary spending.

    • b. Compare the trends shown in the graph.

    • c. Tell whether these trends are expected to continue and explain why or why not.

    The Unites States continually faces political crises over the federal budget. Write an essay explaining why the budgetary process is so problematic with respect to each of the following.

    • a. The governmental structures involved in the budgetary process.

    • b. The role of politics in the budgetary process.

    Based on your discussion in (a) and (b), evaluate whether the current budgetary process is likely to lead to

    continued political crises.

    Chart: Growth of Mandatory Spending in the Federal Budget Using the information in the pie charts above, identify two budgetary barriers that hinder the creation of new policy initiatives. Explain why each of the barriers you identify persists. Using your knowledge of United States politics, identify one nonbudgetary barrier AND explain how this barrier hinders the creation of new policy initiatives.

    Explain how each of the political factors listed below makes it difficult for the federal government to enact public policy. Provide one example for each explanation (2001).

    • Divided government

    • Weak party discipline

    • Growth in the number of interest groups and political action committees (PAC‟s)

    Chart: Distribution of Government Benefits for Children and the Elderly, 1965-1986

    Using the information in the figure above and your knowledge of United States politics, complete the following tasks. (2002)

    • a. Describe what the figure above demonstrates about the distribution of government benefits over time.

    • b. Identify two politically relevant factors that have affected the changing distribution of government benefits between children and the elderly.

    • c. Explain how each of the two factors identified in (b) has affected the changing distribution of government benefits.

    Chart: Social Security Receipts, Spending, and Reserve Estimates, 2001-2035 (2006) In recent decades, entitlement programs have constituted a substantial portion of the United States federal

    budget. Social Security is the largest entitlement program in the United States. From the information in the chart above and your knowledge of the United States government and politics, perform the following tasks.

    • A. Define entitlement program.

    22

    • B. What is the primary source of revenue for the Social Security program?

    • C. Identify one threat to the future of the Social Security program should the trends depicted in the chart above continue.

    • D. Describe one demographic trend that threatens the future of the Social Security program AND explain how it is responsible for the threat that you identified in (c).

    • E. Explain how any one the trends in the chart above would change if the age of eligibility for Social Security were raised.

    Fiscal policy and monetary policy are two tools used by the federal government to influence the United States economy. The executive and legislative branches share the responsibility of setting fiscal policy. The Federal Reserve Board has the primary role of setting monetary policy. (2008)

    • (a) Define fiscal policy.

    • (b) Describe one significant way the executive branch influences fiscal policy.

    • (c) Describe one significant way the legislative branch influences fiscal policy.

    • (d) Define monetary policy.

    • (e) Explain two reasons why the Federal Reserve Board is given independence in establishing monetary policy.

    Define:

    Fiscal Policy Monetary Policy

    Federal Reserve System

    • Regulates the lending practices of banks

    • Controls the money supply

    • Define

      • Fiscal policy

    • Monetary policy Keynesian Economics

      • Government must manage the consumers‟ demands for goods and services

    • Practiced by FDR and JFK Supply Side Economics

      • Government should focus on industry, increasing services

      • Large tax cuts to people

      • Results will “trickle down” to masses

      • Practiced by Ronald Reagan

    Sources of income

    • Federal income tax (39%)

    • Social Insurance Tax (32%)

    • Excise Tax

    • Estate and Gift Taxes

    • Customs, Duties, and Tariffs

    Types of spending

    • Mandatory Spending Entitlements Social Security Medicare Unemployment Insurance Veterans Benefits Federal Retirement pensions National Debt interest

    o

    o

    o

    o

    o

    o

    o

    • Discretionary Spending National defense Grants to states and localities Foreign aid

    o

    o

    o

    VI. Civil Rights and Civil Liberties

    23

    The Fourteenth Amendment

    • Incorporation

    • Guarantees due process

    • All laws must apply equally to all citizens

    • Reinforced by the Civil Rights Act of 1964

    • Make most rights contained in the Bill of Rights applicable to the states

    • Citizneship Clause, Due Process Clause, Equal Protection Clause

    Barrons v. Baltimore (1833)

    • Argued bill of rights did not apply to states (5 th Amendment was argued)

    • Overturned in 20

    th

    century

    Gitlow v. New York (1925)

    • 14 th Amendment guarantees due process to all citizens

    • States must abide by Bill of Right

    • Overturned Barrons v. Baltimore

    Civil Right Act of 1964

    • Outlawed segregation and public accommodations

    • Justified by Congresses power to regulate interstate commerce

    Political institutions can present both obstacles and opportunities to racial minority groups in their efforts to gain political influence. (2002)

    • (a) Identify one feature of one of the following and explain how that feature has presented obstacles to racial minority groups in their efforts to achieve political goals. Federalism The United States political party system The United States electoral system

    • (b) Identify one feature of one of the following and explain how that feature might present opportunities to racial minority groups in their efforts to achieve political goals. Federalism The United States political party system The United States electoral system

    “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, 1870 Despite the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment, voter turnout among African American citizens was very low throughout the first half of the twentieth century. Over the past 50 years, civil rights policies have changed substantially, along with a significant increase in African American voter turnout. (2008)

    • (a) Explain how two measures taken by some states prior to the 1960s affected voter turnout among African American citizens.

    • (b) Facing discrimination at the voting booth, many African American citizens turned to alternative forms of political participation. Describe two alternative forms of participation that helped bring about changes in civil rights policies.

    • (c) Choose one of the forms of participation you described in (b) and explain why it was effective in changing civil rights policies.

    Define:

    • Grandfather clause

    • Literacy tests

    • Poll taxes

    1 st Amendment

    • free speech and assembly clear and present danger

    o

    • limit on free speech

    • allowed when may damage national security

    o

    protects symbolic speech, as well as pure speech

    24

    freedom of religion

     

    o

    establishment clause

     

    prohibits the setting up of a state church

     

    o

    free exercise clause

     

    citizens are free to worship as they deem fit as long as it does not interfere with the rights of others

    Engle v. Vitale(1962)

    o

    4 th Amendment

    Outlawed school prayer

     

    Exclusionary rule The rule that evidence gathered in violation of the constitution cannot be presented in trial

    o

    o 5 th Amendment

     

    Mapp v. Ohio (1961)

     

    Double Jeopardy

     

    o

    Can‟t be tried twice for the same crime

     

    Right to remain silent

     

    6 th Amendment

     
     

    Right to Counsel

     

    Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)

    8 th Amendment

     

    no excessive bail

     

    no cruel / unusual punishment

    15 th Amendment (1870)

    Gave the African-American males the right to vote

    17 th Amendment (1913)

     

    Called for direct election of US senators

    19 th Amendment (1920)

     

    Gave women the right to vote

    23 rd Amendment (1961)

    Gave Washington DC three electoral votes

    24 th Amendment (1964)

     

    Outlawed poll taxes

    26 th Amendment (1971)

    Gave 18 to 21 year olds the right to vote

    Lowest voter turnout

     

    Privacy Rights

     
     

    Not specifically mentioned in the constitution

    Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)

     

    o

    Constitution guaranteed certain zones of privacy

     

    Roe v. Wade (1973)

     

    Women‟s Rights

     

    Equal Pay Act of 1963

     

    The Civil Rights Act of 1964

    The Education Amendments Act of 1972

    Civil Rights

     

    Brown v. Board of Education 1954

    o

    State mandated school segregation to be unconstitutional

    25

    o

    Led to the expansion of civil rights

    o

    Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson

    • Civil Rights Act 1964 Made discrimination in public accommodations illegal Congress able to enforce decision based on ability to control interstate commerce

    o

    o

    Disabled Americans

    • Education for all Handicapped Children Act (1975)

    • Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)

    Affirmative Action

    • Regents of University of California v. Bakke (1978)

    o

    Sued for reverse discrimination

    o

    Affirmative action upheld by court

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