Anda di halaman 1dari 24

# Topic

6
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Chemical Calculations

LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this topic, you should be able to: Balance chemical equations; Calculate the relative mass and relative molecular mass; Calculate the mole and Avogadro constant; Describe the concept of moles of gases, and moles and solutions; Differentiate between the empirical formula and molecular formula of compounds; and Calculate the empirical formula of a compound.

X INTRODUCTION
Hi there and welcome to the topic on chemical solutions. Let us start this topic by looking at our surroundings. Do you realise that chemical reactions are a daily occurrence? Take the kitchen as an example. Do you notice that chemical reactions happen while you are cooking your favourite dishes? How about in the garden? In the garden, chemical reactions happen during photosynthesis and when plants go through the process of decay. We will explore more on chemical reactions as we learn how to write and balance the chemical equations, calculate the relative mass and relative molecular mass, and the mole and Avogadro constant. Then, we will study the concept of moles of gases and solutions. Last but not least, we will learn two chemical formulae of compound empirical and molecular, and how to calculate the empirical formula.

142 X

TOPIC 6

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

6.1

## WRITING AND BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS

Before we learn how to write and balance chemical equations, firstly, let us learn the meaning of chemical reaction.

A chemical reaction is a process in which one or more substances react with each other to form one or more new substances.

## How about a chemical equation?

A chemical equation is a precise description of a chemical reaction.

A chemical equation can be written in words or using a chemical formula. Thus, do you know that in a chemical reaction, there are starting substances and new substances? Starting substances are known as reactants. They react with each other to form new substances called products. In a chemical equation, the reactants are written on the left side of the equation while the products are written on the right side. There is another important symbol to be added; an arrow () is placed between the reactants and products in order to show the direction of the reaction.

TOPIC 6

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

143

According to the Law of Conservation of Mass, matter can neither be created nor destroyed. Therefore the number of atoms before and after a chemical reaction is the same. From this, we can conclude that a chemical equation must be balanced. How do we write a chemical equation? Writing a chemical equation involves three important steps: (a) Write Down the Unbalanced Equation For chemical equations, the reactants are written on the left side of the equation while the products are written on the right side. Balance the Equation The Law of Conservation of Mass is applied to balance the chemical equation. Remember, you only need to adjust the coefficients in front of the formulae. The subscript numbers in the formulae must not be changed as this will change the formula of the substances. Each atom must be balanced and the equation must be checked again after balancing it. Indicate the State of the Reactants and Products There are several indicators to identify the state of the reactants and products: (i) (ii) Use (g) for gaseous substances; Use (s) for solids;

(b)

(c)

(iii) Use (l) for liquids; and (iv) Use (aq) for solution in water. Let us apply these steps by constructing a chemical equation for the reaction of hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) to form water (H2O). Hydrogen and oxygen react together to form water, and energy is released. Now, let us write the chemical formulae and chemical equation for this reaction: Reactants (Starting substances) = Products (New substances)

144 X

TOPIC 6

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

Therefore, we can write the chemical equation in words for this reaction as: Hydrogen + Oxygen = Water Chemical formula for hydrogen gas is H2 Chemical formula for oxygen gas is O2 Chemical formula for water molecule is H2O The chemical equation for this reaction can be written as: H2 + O2 H2O

As can you see from the above chemical equation, the reactants are hydrogen and oxygen as they are placed on the left side of the equation. The product is water and it is written on the right side of the equation. However, the number of oxygen atoms on the left side and the right side of the equation are unbalanced. So how do we balance it? In order to balance the chemical equation, 2 moles of hydrogen gas need to react with 1 mole of oxygen gas to form 2 moles of water. Therefore, we can balance the equation by adding a coefficient of 2 in front of H2 and a coefficient of 2 in front of H2O. 2H2 + O2 2H2O

Finally, indicate the state of the reactants and products 2H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O(l)

Let us look at another example. If we heat a tin oxide with hydrogen gas to form tin metal and water vapour, how do we write a balanced chemical equation for this chemical reaction? Let us follow the same steps. (a) Firstly, write the unbalanced equation. SnO2 + H2 Sn + H2O

TOPIC 6

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

145

(b)

Balance the chemical equation. Identify the elements that are not balanced. If you look carefully, you will notice that there are two oxygen atoms on the left side of the equation and only one on the right side. You need to correct this by putting a coefficient of 2 before water: SnO2 + H2 Sn + 2 H2O

However, you will notice that the hydrogen atoms are now imbalanced as there are two hydrogen atoms on the left and four hydrogen atoms on the right side of the equation. You need to add a coefficient of 2 for the hydrogen gas to get four hydrogen atoms on the right, SnO2 + 2 H2 Sn + 2 H2O

The equation is now balanced. SnO2 + 2 H2 Sn + 2 H2O (c) Next step is to indicate the state of the reactants and products. SnO2 (s) + 2 H2 (g) Sn (s) + 2 H2O (g) Finally, you can recheck the balanced equation by making an element inventory, just as the one shown in Table 6.1.
Table 6.1: Element Inventory Element Sn H O Before 1 4 2 After 1 4 2

146 X

TOPIC 6

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

SELF-CHECK 6.1
1. Write the chemical formula and chemical equation for the following chemical reactions. Identify the reactants and the products of the chemical reactions. (a) (b) Zinc reacts with chlorine to form zinc chloride; and Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide to form sodium chloride and water.

2.

Write a balanced equation for each of the following: (a) (b) The reaction between sulphur solid with iron solid to form solid iron(III) sulphide; The reaction between magnesium metal with hydrochloric acid to form magnesium chloride solution and hydrogen gas; The reaction between oxygen gas with solid copper metal to form copper(II) oxide solid; The reaction when hydrogen sulphide gas is bubbled through a sodium hydroxide solution to produce sodium sulphide solution and liquid water.

(c) (d)

6.2

## RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS AND RELATIVE MOLECULAR MASS

In the previous topic, you have been introduced to the term mass number of an element. Do you still remember? Let us recap the mass number definition before we learn further.
The mass number of an element refers to the total number of neutrons and protons in the nucleus of an atom and not the sum of their mass.

TOPIC 6

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

147

Do you know that it is impossible to determine the mass of an atom by weighing it? That is why the mass of an atom is compared to the mass of a standard atom instead of weighing it. Chemists can compare the masses of different atoms using the relative atomic mass scale. This is known as the Ar scale, where r stands for term relative. Initially, the standard atom used for the Ar scale was hydrogen and because it is the lightest element, it was given an Ar of 1. However, now Carbon-12 is used for comparison because carbon is easier to handle compared to the gaseous hydrogen. Besides that, it is also because Carbon-12 is an abundant isotope. Relative atomic mass compares the mass of the atom against the mass of Carbon12. The relative atomic mass (Ar) of an element is the average mass of one atom of the element when compared with one-twelfth of the mass of a Carbon-12 atom as shown below.

## Relative atomic mass of an element

Average mass of one atom of the element 1/12 mass of one Carbon-12 atom

Figure 6.1 shows you that 12 hydrogen atoms have the same mass as one carbon atom.

## Figure 6.1: Relative atomic mass of hydrogen Source: http://www.schoolsnet.com

As you can see, the mass of carbon is 12. Therefore, hydrogen atom has a mass of 1, which means its mass is 1/12 to that of Carbon-12.

148 X

TOPIC 6

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

Keep in mind that the relative atomic mass does not have any unit because the relative atomic mass only shows how many times heavier one atom is compared to another. You can see this comparison in Table 6.2 as it shows that one atom of silicon is 28 times heavier than one atom of hydrogen, whereas calcium atoms are twice as heavy as neon atoms.
Table 6.2: The Approximate Relative Atomic Masses of Some Elements Element Hydrogen Carbon Oxygen Neon Silicon Calcium Copper Relative Atomic Mass (Ar) 1 12 16 20 28 40 64

The relative molecular mass of a substance is calculated by adding up the relative atomic masses of all the atoms present in a molecule of the substance. The following calculation, which uses ammonia as an example, shows how relative molecular mass of ammonia is calculated. Example 6.1 How do we calculate the relative molecular mass of ammonia? Firstly, by now, we know that the molecular formula for ammonia is NH3. Secondly, based on the periodic table, we know that the relative atomic mass of H = 1, N = 14 Therefore, the relative molecular mass of ammonia is: = Ar of nitrogen + (3 u Ar of hydrogen) = 14 + 3(1) = 17 This means that the average mass of one molecule of ammonia is 17 times heavier than the mass of one-twelfth of a Carbon-12 atom.

TOPIC 6

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

149

SELF-CHECK 6.2
1. 2. 3. 4. Define the relative atomic mass of an element. Differentiate between relative atomic mass and relative molecular mass. How many times is krypton atom heavier than a helium atom? (Ar He = 4, Kr = 84) A neon atom is half the mass of a calcium atom. Predict the relative atomic mass of calcium. (Ar Ne = 20)

6.3

## THE MOLE CONCEPT

Now, let us move on to the mole concept. Do you notice that in our daily life, we use the word dozen as a unit that represents the numerical 12, such as a dozen of eggs or a dozen of pencils. How about chemistry? Well, in chemistry, scientists use a certain unit to present the amount of substance of an atom or a molecule. The measurement unit used in chemistry is called m mole. The following subtopics will elaborate more on mole.

6.3.1

## The Mole and Avogadro Constant

First, what does one mole stand for? One mole is defined as the amount of substance that contains as many particles as the number of atoms found in 12 g of Carbon-12 which is 6.02 u 1023 particles. Or simply, Mole (mol) = Amount of substance of an atom/molecule = 6.02 u 1023 particles How about Avogadro constant or Avogadro number? Have you heard about it? Avogadro constant or Avogadro number is used to determine the number of particles in a substance. Thus, the Avogadro constant (NA) is defined as the number of particles in one mole of a substance. Avogadro constant/Avogadro number (NA) = The number of particles in one mole of a substances

150 X

TOPIC 6

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

The particles in the substance can be atoms, molecules or ions. The symbol of mole is mol. Therefore, the type of particles needs to be carefully specified. For example: 1 mole of carbon (C) contains 6.02 u 1023 (C) atoms 1 mole of water (H2O) contains 6.02 u 1023 water (H20) molecules 1 mole of sodium chloride (NaCl) contains 6.02 u 1023 sodium chloride (NaCl) formula units We can find the number of particles in any number of moles of a substance and vice versa using the relationship shown in Figure 6.2.

## Figure 6.2: Relationship between moles and particles

Let us look at some examples. Example 6.2 Find the number of atoms in 0.4 mole of iron. Solution: Iron is an atomic substance. The number of moles for iron = 0.4 mol The number of iron atoms = Number of moles u NA = 0.4 u 6.02 u 1023 = 2.408 u 1023atoms

TOPIC 6

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

151

Example 6.3 How many moles of water contain 3.01 u 1022 water molecules? Solution The number of water molecules 3.01 u 1022 molecules

## Number of molecules NA 3.01 u 1022 3.02 u 1023 0.05 mol

Keep in mind that equal numbers of moles of substances always contain the same number of particles even though they differ in mass and size. Do you know why? Let us look at Figure 6.3. In this figure, we can see that both blocks of magnesium and iron have different mass but the same number of mole. Do they contain the same number of atoms?

## Figure 6.3: Blocks of magnesium and iron

Both blocks of magnesium and iron contain 0.5 u 6.02 u 1023 atoms. By comparing the number of moles of the substance, we can compare the number of particles in a substance.

152 X

TOPIC 6

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

The molar mass of a substance is known as the mass of one mole of the substance in grams and the unit is grams per mole (g mol1). In our previous lesson, we learnt that one mole of any substance contains 6.02 u 1023 particles of the substance. Therefore, the molar mass of a substance contains 6.02 u 1023 particles of the substance. Molar mass (g mol1) = The mass of one mole of substance = 6.02 u 1023 particles The molar mass of any substance is numerically equal to its relative atomic, molecular or formula mass. Therefore, to measure a mole of atoms of any element, what we need to do is to weigh a mass equal to its relative atomic mass in grams. As for molecules, the mass of a mole of molecules of any molecular substance is equal to its relative molecular mass in grams. For ionic substance, the mass of a mole of any ionic substance is equal to its relative formula in grams. You will understand the above explanation better by studying Table 6.3 as shown below.
Table 6.3: Molar Mass of Substances Substance Magnesium, M Methane, CH4 Sodium chloride, NaCl Relative Mass 24 12 + 4(1) = 16 23 + 35.5 = 58.5 Molar Mass (g mol-1) 24 16 58.5

Based on Table 6.3, we can deduce that the mass of any number of mole of a substance or vice versa can be calculated using the following relationship (Figure 6.4).

## Now, let us look at an example on how to calculate moles of atoms.

TOPIC 6

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

153

Example 6.4 How many moles of atoms does 136.9 g of iron metal contain? Solution: We know that the relative atomic mass of iron is 55.85. Thus, the molar mass of iron is 55.85 g mol1. 1 mol of iron atoms = 55.85 g of iron 136.9 g of iron = 1 mol of iron atoms/55.85 g of iron u 136.9 g of iron = 2.451 mol of iron atoms How many atoms are there in 2.451 mol of iron? We know that one mole of iron contains 6.02 u 1023 iron atoms. Thus, 2.451 mol of iron = 2.451 u 6.02 u 1023 iron atoms = 1.476 u 1024 iron atoms

ACTIVITY 6.1
1. 2. 3. How many atoms are there in 0.5 mole of Al? Calculate the number of moles of S in 1.8 u 1024 S atoms. An aspirin has the molecular formula of C9H8O4 (relative atomic mass of H = 1, C = 12, O = 16; NA = 6.02 u 1023) (a) (b) (c) Find the relative molecular mass of aspirin; Number of moles of H in aspirin; and Number of moles of O in aspirin.

154 X

TOPIC 6

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

6.3.2

Moles of Gases

Do you know that under the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of particles? We will investigate this through the concept of molar volume. Firstly, what does molar volume of a gas stand for? The molar volume of a gas is defined as the volume of one mole of the gas. Thus, the molar volume is also the volume occupied by 6.02 u 1023 particles of gas. The molar volume of any gas is 22.4 dm3 mol1 at the standard temperature of 0qC and pressure of 1 atmosphere (STP) or 24 dm3 mol1 at room conditions (25 qC and the pressure of 1 atmosphere). This means that one mole of hydrogen gas occupies the same volume as in one mole of oxygen at STP, which is 22.4 dm3. The relationship shows in Figure 6.5 describes that the volume of a gas can be converted to the number of moles and vice versa.

6.3.3

## Moles and Solutions

Now, let us learn about moles and solutions. Firstly, let us recap the solution definition. A solution is a mixture formed by dissolving a solute in a solvent. Can you think of any example? An example is a salt solution. This salt solution is formed by dissolving salt such as sodium chloride (solute) in water (solvent). Different concentrations of sodium chloride solution can be prepared by varying the amount of sodium chloride in a fixed volume of water. Therefore, the concentration of a solution refers to the quantity of solute in a given volume of solution, which is normally 1dm3 of solution.

TOPIC 6

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

155

Hence the concentration of a solution can be expressed in moles per dm3, which is also known as molarity or molar concentration. What does it mean by molarity? Molarity is the number of moles of solute present in 1dm3 of solution, or can be written as: Molarity (mol dm 3 ) Moles of solute (mol) Volume of solution (dm 3 )

For example, hydrochloric acid with the molarity of 0.50 mol dm3 is prepared by dissolving 0.5 mol of hydrochloric acid in 1dm3 of solution.

6.4

## EMPIRICAL FORMULA AND MOLECULAR FORMULA

Let us start this subtopic by looking at the solutions shown in Figure 6.6 which can be found in your Chemistry laboratory. Look at the labels on the bottles. Do you notice that besides the name of the solutions, their chemical formulas, NH4OH and CH3COOH, are also written on the label?

## Figure 6.6: Chemical formulae Source: https://science7acidbase.wikispaces.com

156 X

TOPIC 6

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

## So, what is the meaning of a chemical formula?

A chemical formula is a re epresentation of a chemical substance using symbols; letters for atoms and subscript numbers for the number of atoms of each element that are present in the substance.

The chemical formula of an element may represent its atoms or their molecules as some elements exist naturally as molecules. Let us look at Figure 6.7 which shows the chemical formula of oxygen gas, which is an element.

## Figure 6.7: Chemical formula of an element

Keep in mind that if the substance is a compound, then the chemical formula for a compound has all the elements that are present in the compound and the number of atoms of each element. Now, let us look at Figure 6.8, which shows the chemical formula of a compound water.

## Figure 6.8: Chemical formula of a compound

TOPIC 6

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

157

In the following subtopics, we will look at the two types of formula that exist empirical formula and molecular formula.

SELF-CHECK 6.3
Based on Figure 6.6, explain the elements and number of atoms of each element found in NH4OH and CH3COOH.

ACTIVITY 6.2
1. 2. Find the chemical formula of the compound shown in the following table; and Find the meaning of the chemical formula of the compound.
Meaning of Chemical Formula Elements Present Nitrogen, hydrogen Ratio of Number of Atoms in Elements N:H = 1:3

Compound Ammonia Sulphuric acid Zinc hydroxide Magnesium nitrate Sodium hydroxide

## Chemical Formula NH3

158 X

TOPIC 6

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

6.4.1

## Empirical Formula of Compound

Let us learn about the empirical formula of a compound by looking at this example. Can you recall the formula for glucose? The formula for a glucose molecule is C6H12O6. The ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen atom in the glucose molecule is 6: 12: 6. This ratio can further be simplified to 1: 2: 1. With this ratio, you can simplify C6H12O6 and write it as CH2O. Based on the previous discussion, we learnt that CH2O is the empirical formula of a glucose molecule. So, what can you conclude about the empirical formula? The empirical formula of a compound gives us the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in the compound. Thus, the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of glucose is CH2O.

6.4.2

## Molecular Formula of Compound

How about molecular formula? The molecular formula is the actual number of atoms of each element that are present in a molecule of the compound. Based on the previous example, C6H12O6 is the molecular formula for a glucose molecule. In short, the subscript numbers of a molecular formula are simple multiples of the empirical formula as shown below: Molecular formula = (Empirical formula)n n = Positive integer

SELF-CHECK 6.4
In your own words, differentiate between empirical formula and molecular formula. Use some examples to support your explanation.

TOPIC 6

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

159

ACTIVITY 6.3
1. Fill the blanks in the table below. (a) (b) Write the empirical formula of the following compounds based on the given molecular formula; and Find the value of n.
Molecular Formula H2 O CH4 H2O2 C2H6 C8H18 C8H10 N4O2 Empirical Formula n

## Compound Water Methane Hydrogen Peroxide Ethane Octane Caffeine

2.

Compare and contrast the empirical formula and molecular formula by filling the table below with the correct statement.
Molecular Formula Empirical Formula

Differences Similarities

6.4.3

## Calculating the Formula of a Compound

How do we calculate the formula of a compound? Keep in mind that there are occasions when the information on the empirical formula of a compound is required. This is how we can determine the empirical formula of a compound; you just need to follow these simple steps: (a) (b) (c) Firstly, the mass of each element in the compound must be determined; Then, the mass of each element must be converted to the number of moles of atoms; and Finally, the simplest ratio of moles of the elements must be determined.

160 X

TOPIC 6

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

Let us look at the two examples below to learn how the empirical formula of a compound can be determined by using the steps listed just now. Example 6.5 Copper(II) iodide was found to contain 20.13% copper by mass. Find its empirical formula. (Relative atomic mass: Cu, 64; I, 127.) Solution: To find the solution: (a) Find the Mass of Each Element Based on the percentage, we know that 100 grams of the substance contain: Copper = 20.13 Iodine = 79.87 (100 20.13) (b) Convert the Mass to the Number of Moles Number of moles of copper atoms = 20.13/64 = 0.315 Number of moles of iodine atoms = 79.87/127 = 0.629 (c) Find the Simplest Ratio of Moles of the Elements Simplest ratio of the moles of copper = 0.315/0.315 = 1 Simplest ratio of moles of iodine = 0.629/0.315 = 2 Thus, one mole of copper atoms combines with two moles of iodine atoms. Hence, the empirical formula of copper(II) iodide is CuI2. Example 6.6 A compound contains 8.63% hydrogen, 68.54% carbon and 22.83% oxygen. The compounds molecular weight is approximately 140 g/mol. Find its empirical formula and its molecular formula. (Relative atomic mass: H, 1.008; C, 12.011; O, 16)

TOPIC 6

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

161

Solution: To find the solution: (a) Find the Mass of Each Element Based on the percentage, we know that 100 grams of the substance contain: Carbon Oxygen (b) : 68.54 grams : 22.83 grams Hydrogen : 8.63 grams

Convert the Mass to the Number of Moles Carbon Oxygen : 68.54/12.011 = 5.71 mol = 8.56 mol = 1.43 mol : 22.83/16.00 Hydrogen : 8.63/1.008

(c)

Find the Simplest Ratio of Moles of the Elements Carbon : 5.71 y 1.43 : 1.43 y 1.43 = 3.99 = 5.99 = 1.00 Hydrogen : 8.56 y 1.43 Oxygen

Thus, the empirical formula of the compound is C4H6O. (d) Calculate the value of n (C4H6O)n = 140 where n represents an integer [(12 u 4) + (6 u 1) + (16)]n = 140 70n = 140 n = 2 (C4H6O)2 = C8H12O2 Therefore, the molecular formula of the compound is C8H12O2

162 X

TOPIC 6

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

ACTIVITY 6.4
1. 2. 3. Find the relative atomic mass of the elements. Apply the steps shown in the rhymes in order. Derive the empirical formula of the compound. (a) A compound is found to have (by mass) 48.38% carbon and 8.12% hydrogen, while the rest is oxygen. Find its empirical formula. A compound is found to have 46.67% nitrogen, 6.70% hydrogen, 19.98% carbon and 26.65% oxygen. Find its empirical formula.

(b)

SELF-CHECK 6.5
1. Compare the mass of an oxygen atom with that of a sulphur atom (relative atomic mass: O, 16; S, 32). Sulphur and oxygen can form sulphur dioxide and sulphur trioxide. (a) (b) (c) Write the formula of both compounds; Calculate the relative molecular masses of sulphur dioxide and sulphur trioxide; and How many times heavier is a molecule of sulphur dioxide compared to a molecule of sulphur trioxide?

2.

3.

A substance has a molar mass of 34 gmol1. What is the mass of 2.5 moles of the substance? Compounds containing sulphur and oxygen are serious air pollutants; they cause acid rain. It is revealed that a pure compound contains 50.1% sulphur and 49.9% oxygen by mass. What is the simplest formula (empirical formula) for this compound?

4.

TOPIC 6

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

163

There are three steps to follow when writing and balancing a chemical equation: Write down the unbalanced chemical equation; Balance the equation by adjusting the coefficients in front of the formula. Check that the equation is balanced; and Indicate the symbols for the state of the reactants and products.

The relative atomic mass (Ar) of an element is the average mass of one atom of the element when compared with one-twelfth of the mass of a Carbon-12 atom. The relative molecular mass of a substance is the average mass of a molecule of the substance when compared with one-twelfth of the mass of one Carbon12 atom. A mole is defined as the amount of substance which contains as many particles as the number of atoms found in a 12 g of Carbon-12, which is 6.02 u 1023 particles. The Avogadro constant (NA) is defined as the number of particles in one mole of a substance. The molar volume of a gas is defined as the volume of one mole of the gas. The concentration of a solution can be expressed in moles per dm3, which is also known as molarity or molar concentration. The empirical formula of a compound gives the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in the compound. The molecular formula is the actual number of atoms of each element that are present in a molecule of a compound. In a molecular formula, the subscript numbers are simple multiples of the empirical formula. The molar mass of a substance is defined as the mass of one mole of the substance in grams.

x x x x x x x

164 X

TOPIC 6

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

There are three steps to determine the empirical formula of a compound: Find the mass of each element in the compound; Convert the mass to the number of moles of atoms; and Find the simplest ratio of moles of the elements.

## Mole Molecular formula Relative atomic mass Relative molecular mass

Briggs, J. G. R. (2003). Science in focus chemistry for GCE O level. Singapore: Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd. Conoley, C., & Hills, P. (2002). Chemistry (2nd ed.). London: Harper-Collins. Hewitt, P. G. (1998). Conceptual physics (8th ed.). Massachusetts: AddisonWesley. Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia Bahagian Pendidikan Guru. (1995). Buku

sumber pengajaran pembelajaran sains sekolah rendah: Strategi pengajaran dan pembelajaran sains. Kuala Lumpur: Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia.
Ralph, A. B. (2003). Fundamentals of chemistry. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Whitten, K. W., Davis, R. E., Peck, M. L., & Stanley, G. G. (2010). Chemistry (9th ed.). Belmont: Brooks/Cole.