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TopicX Manipulative

SkillsII

LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this topic, you should be able to: 1. 2. Explain how to draw scientific specimens, apparatus and materials accurately; and Describe how to store science apparatus and materials properly.

X INTRODUCTION
The students in Year 5 Makmur have finished doing their investigation. Teacher Din : Okay, pupils! Make sure you clean all the apparatus and store them in their right places. Basri : Teacher, where shall I store these wet test tubes?

Teacher Din : Basri, you need to dry them first before storing them away. Place them on the rack to dry. Basri : Yes, teacher.

Teacher Din : Make sure all of you draw the science diagrams properly and hand them up tomorrow. Knowing the right procedure to store science apparatus and chemicals in the laboratory is important to maintain them and prevent accidents. Storing chemicals such as alcohol near a flame would probably cause a fire. Placing a large container of liquid on the lowest shelf would be the right thing to do. It is also important to be able to draw science diagrams accurately.

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In this topic, we will discuss the skills of drawing science apparatus and specimens and storing science apparatus and material correctly.

8.1 DRAWING SCIENCE APPARATUS AND SPECIMENS CORRECTLY


Look at the drawings in Figure 8.1 and Figure 8.2.

Figure 8.1: Three-dimensional (3D) drawings

Figure 8.2: Two-dimensional (2D) drawings

Do you notice any difference between the two figures? The drawings in Figure 8.1 are three-dimensional (3D) and have been drawn by an artist. Whereas the drawings in Figure 8.2 are two-dimensional (2D) and this is how you should draw equipment for your science experiments. It is much simpler to draw them this way, dont you think?

SELF-CHECK 8.1
1. 2. What is D in the term "2D"? Why do we make scientific drawings in 2D? Here are some guidelines in drawing specimens and science apparatus: (a) Draw using a pencil and a sheet of unlined paper.

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(b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)

Make the drawing large enough so that important details are easily seen. Place the drawing near the left side of the sheet so that the labels can be placed on the right side. Write the labels, one under the other. Use a ruler to draw lines from the labels to the drawing, and do not cross lines. Do not shade or colour the drawing. Write a title for the drawing at the top of the page.

ACTIVITY 8.1
Which are correctly drawn?

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Hands-on Activities (a) Draw the following apparatus using the guidelines discussed (see Figure 8.3).

Figure 8.3: Various science apparatus

(b)

Prepare a plant cell slide from an onion and observe the slide under a microscope. Draw the cell.

8.2

STORING SCIENCE APPARATUS AND MATERIAL CORRECTLY

The investigations that are carried out in primary science are usually quite simple. They mainly involve exploring and observing science objects or phenomena and if there is a need to carry out a fair test, it is usually a very simple experiment. Thus, science apparatus and materials that are kept in a primary science room are limited in nature and number. Although the apparatus and materials are limited, you as the science teacher need to think of a system to store science equipment and materials so that they are easily located when you need them.

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You could make use any of the following suggestions: (a) (b) (c) (d) Organise materials alphabetically; Use a thematic approach; Use the topics from the science curriculum; and Use a combination of these.

You could consider the following points when organising storage for your school. (a) You could use different containers (see Figure 8.4) to store apparatus and materials needed for each topic in the curriculum. Each container is then labelled using colour-coded cards for different topics. This could include a list of contents, a list of required items that are not stored in the resource room and a list of extra items that might be required and their location.

Figure 8.4: Containers to store science apparatus

(b) (c)

Totetrolleysmakeiteasiertostoretotetrays,andtotransportequipment andmaterials. It is useful to have small boxes, such as ice cream containers, that contain onlyasetquantityofequipmentandthatarelabelledwiththenumberof each objects (for example, 10 scissors, 10 thermometers) because it is immediatelyobviouswhenanequipmentismissing.

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(d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k)

Arranging items alphabetically in the central storage area makes them easiertolocate. Labellingshelvesandboxesisessential.Useremovablelabelsontrays. Keeptoolsinaseparate,labelledtoolbox. Keepheavyitemsonlowshelves. Whenselectingcontainers,considerwhowillneedtocarrytheequipment. Alwayscleananddrytheequipmentbeforestoringit. Wrap and store lenses and magnifying glasses in covered containers (to protectthemfromdustandscratches). Youcouldusestandsforstoringcertainapparatus.Forexample,youcould storethermometerinthestandrackasshowninFigure8.5.

Figure 8.5: Stand rack

8.2.1
(a) (i)

Storage of Special Materials


Store the magnet at room temperature. Heat can cause the poles of the atoms in a magnet to randomise and this will eventually destroy the magnet. Try keeping your magnets in a cool place, around room temperature and out of the sun! If you can arrange a wooden box that would be superb. Weak magnets will easily be ruined by stronger

Magnets

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magnets and electromagnetic fields so you must make sure to keep them out of touch with other stronger magnets (ii) Take care to protect the magnets against mechanical shock. They will crack or break if they fall on a hard surface or bang against metal or another magnet. Do not strike them with a hammer. Alnico magnets are the strongest of the four types. They will not crack or break with any mechanical shock.

(iii) Keep the magnets in a dry place. The most likely to suffer moisture degradation is the neodymium magnet. The other three types of magnets are not prone to rust or corrosion. (iv) Put away each type of magnet in its own space or drawer to prevent demagnetisation. The common alnico magnet is the most easily demagnetised. Use a magnet keeper to preserve the magnetic charge. You can store horseshoe magnets end-to-end, with opposite poles touching. Store bar magnets so that the opposite poles are beside each other--the north pole of one magnet should be next to the south pole of the other. The other three types of magnets do not demagnetise easily. (see Figure 8.6). (v) To make sure that your magnets keep their strength, you should look at what you put them with and how you align them to each other. The best way is to make sure that North Pole meets South Pole in each magnet so that they do not push each other away but stay naturally together. You also want to make sure that no electromagnets and strong magnets are there to take away their strength.

Figure 8.6: Magnet keeper

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(b)

Glassware (i) Allow laboratory glassware to dry upside-down in a drain rack after it has been cleaned (see Figure 8.7).

Figure 8.7: Drain rack

(ii)

Inspect all laboratory glassware before storing. Look for signs that it needs to have further cleaning and check for any damage such as cracks, chips or fissures. Set aside glassware needing more extensive cleaning and dispose of any items that are cracked or broken.

(iii) Replace corks, caps, stoppers and other covers onto the glassware before storing. (iv) Store cleaned laboratory glassware in a closed cabinet or drawer to prevent the items from getting dusty. (v) Store some types of glassware in specific cabinet. A burette cabinet, for instance, has notches where the petcock valve is placed to prevent breakage as shown in Figure 8.8.

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Figure 8.8: Burette cabinet

(vi) Disassemble any glass joints or stopcocks and store them as separate parts. Avoid storing glass where it is directly touching metal, which can etch the glass and weaken it. Also avoid glass-to-glass contact in drawers, as it can break. Add cushioning, such as soft foam, between tubes and other laboratory glassware in drawers. (c) Chemicals Although you used only a few types of chemicals, you could use the following suggestions to store them: (i) Store chemicals in clearly labelled jars or bottles on a shelf with a retaining rail and in a cool place that is not easily accessible to students Store hydrochloric acid and other corrosive chemicals separately from any metals, tools, instruments or electrical equipment.

(ii)

(iii) Poisons must be stored in a locked cupboard. (iv) Do not use food or drink containers for storing chemicals. (v) Bulk quantities of chemicals (i.e., larger than one-gallon) must be stored in a separate storage area.

(vi) Chemicals must be stored at an appropriate temperature and humidity level. As a rule, chemicals should not be stored near heat

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sources, such as steam pipes or laboratory ovens. Chemicals should never be stored in direct sunlight. (vii) Chemicals should be dated when received and when opened. If the chemical is one that degrades in quality or becomes unsafe after prolonged storage, the shelf-life expiration date should also be included. (viii) Chemicals must never be stored on the floor, not even temporarily!

ACTIVITY 8.2
Find out how to store: (a) Thermometers (b) Batteries (c) Wires

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SELF-CHECK 8.2
Are the following statements true or false? Tick () in the Yes or `No column. Yes Store all small items such as thermometers, batteries and compasses together in a drawer. Store the magnet at room temperature. Chemicals must be stored at an appropriate temperature and humidity level. Store clean laboratory glassware in a closed cabinet or drawer to prevent the items from getting dusty. Place stop watches in a plastic box to store them. Store thermometers in their holders and then place them in the drawer. Toxic materials should be labelled with this sign No

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Hands-on Activities 1. Look at how science apparatus and materials are stored in your science room (see Figure 8.9). Take photographs of how they are stored. Plan how you are going to improve the storage. Carry out your plan. Take photograph after you have carried out the plan.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Figure 8.9: Science room

Scientific drawings are two-dimensional. There are guidelines that you should use when drawing specimens and science apparatus. There should be a system to store science equipment and materials so that they are easily located when you need them. For example, organise material alphabetically, use a thematic approach or use the topic of the science curriculum. Tote tray, small boxes or stand racks can be used to store small items. The boxes or trays should be labelled. Heavy items should be placed on a lower shelf. The apparatus should be cleaned before it is stored.

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Magnets should be stored at room temperature, should be handled with care, stored in a dry place and stored with a magnet keeper. Glassware should be dried. Check for any sign of breakage before storing them. Glassware should be stored in cabinet. Chemicals must be stored at an appropriate temperature and humidity level. It should be dated so that it could be disposed when expired. It should also be labelled properly if stored in bottles. Different types of chemicals should not be stored in the same place.

Corrosive chemicals Demagnetisation Drawing science apparatus Glassware

Magnet keepers Shelf-life expiration date Three-dimensional (3D) Two-dimensional (2D)

Bailer, J., Ramig & J. E, Ramsey, J. M (1995). Teaching process skills. USA: Good Apple. Fiel, R. L, Funk, H. J, Rezba & R. L, Sparague, C. (1995). Learning and assessing science process skills. Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Skamp, K. (ed) (2004). Teaching primary science constructively. Melbourne: Thomson Learning

How To Take Care of Science Equipment. Retrieved June 6, 2012, from


http://www.howtodothings.com/education/how-to-take-care-of-scienceequipment.

Storage. Retrieved June 2012 from, http://scienceonline.tki.org.nz/Teachingscience/Science-equipment/Planning-for-science-programmes/Storage.