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SAMAHAhmedFaried Theimpactofmodernizationonmaterialculture.

re.AcriticalStudtoStatistic,Change andReformationinHistoricalCairo This paper argues for three patterns of material culture in old Cairo city, Traditional pattern, Modernistic pattern, Reproducing or reformation pattern that represents in the integration between the folk tradition and modern features in old buildings or which refersto(traditionalism)whichisusedinthiscontexttorefertothefactwhentraditional elements gain a modernistic feature for the sake to grasp new function which is totally differs from its original purpose. The second part of my argument will be devoted to discussthehistoricalissueforthematerialcultureshapethroughIslamicEgyptianperiods and analysis the identity of material culture as consider it part of Islamic architecture which form in urban environment that seems to be now deformed buildings. This study applies an Folklore Method that depend on historical approach for material culture original in old Cairo and Anthropological method to "GAMALIA" Quarter where there are great deal of traditional building, heritage crafts, craft market like KHAN ELKHALILI and different pattern of Islamic architectures, A case study method will be also applied to a sample of craft workshops. This paper could successfully set up some indicators for material culture pattern which is dividing into triple relationships of culture forms; statisticalculture,changeablecultureandthirdculture(newculture). Keywords ModernizationMaterialcultureNewculture Traditionalismreformingculture Introduction The Egyptian heritage is rich with many heritage material crafts, building, art Islamic architecture which form part of material culture and reflect some distinguish culture traitsaboutsomefolkcommunitiesinEgypt.Gamaliaareaisoneofthemostfamousfolk communitiesinancientCairo,whichstillkeepsitstraditionalcharacteristics,alsorichwith much indigenous art Islamic architecture and patterns of handmade crafts as KHIAMIA which reflect the creativity of craftsmen. The history of these crafts sometimes develop and other times disappear with the change in folk communities, Now when we look deeply at Gamalia quarter structure particularly the state of material culture types, we can see a sharp contradiction existed in architecture life between what he is traditional elements and modernization elements which I see it as an internal conflict between traditional architecture and modernization building. As a result there is many changes in the structure of material culture establishments as a result of the change that be happened in social, economic, culture shapes in the folk communities. The resulting urban and architectural chaos was exacerbated in the twentieth century by acute problemsofrapidexpansion,populationexplosion,andunderdevelopment.

Today the material culture faces many problems in old quarter, the first problem is the modernizationthatpublishedineverythinginthefolkcommunitiesespeciallyinthelocal market such as the changes that be happened in craft work habits, norms ,the people vision towards its important, the replacement Of the technical machine in production process, The change that be happened in folk building shape and in art symbolic, the dependency of ready made of raw material, the change in the skills of handmade work and so on . Today we must be awareness towards these facts and try to put empirical solution and new policy to make the material culture appropriate with the modern concepts inside the production process, The problem here is not to what extent is the clash between what is traditional elements and modernization elements because any possible kind of clash that may be found between traditional form and modernization form in any community and it is not absolute evil , but we must concern about the process of renewal and reformation the original culture and this will be more clarified in material culture field. From that point the main goal of this study is collecting the elements of modernization that be happened inside the folk community (social and culture change) and analysis the influences of modernization on the shape of material cultureeitherinchangingitorreformingitinrespecttosomeindicatorstotheseprocess. Also,Islamic handcrafts markets are attributed as one of the most material culture patternswhichissensitivetotheidentityofIslamicarchitecture.Itisamirrorthatreflects historical, political, economical, social and cultural aspects in historical Cairo. In addition, Islamic handcrafts are considered as a part of traditional culture which forms a unique featureofthesociety.AlthoughIslamichandcraftswereformedthroughIslamicperiod,it hasaperfectinteractionwiththepresentrealityofthesocietyInpopularandoldquarter ,there are some various Islamic architecture related to Islamic handcrafts such as WekalaElGhory,sothisstudywillfocustocollectdataabouttheroleofWekalaAlGhory as a handcraft market in preserving the material culture. Moreover, Gamalia quarter evolvessomeimportantIslamicmonumentalwhichreflectaviewofIslamicculture.Itisa fact that Islamic culture paved the road to the Islamic handicrafts to emerge and supportedthemtocarryonthroughdifferenteras. Inthepresenttime,thepositionoftheIslamichandicraftshaschangedduetobothsocial changeandthedevelopmentofsocialandeconomicalqualityoflivingstandardsofCairo. It could be noticed that both local and global economical changes significance affected these Islamic handicrafts in Egyptian society generally and n historical Cairo particularly. An evidence of that claim is that, traditional quarter was including some productive markets which reflect special aspects of Islamic handicrafts of Cairo. However, these productivemarketshavetransformedtobecommercialmarketsellingnonlocalproducts Therefore the central assumption of the present paper is to show the features of new modification taken place in old buildings, traditional crafts and the Islamic arts whether by adding new modern styles or partially some parts, also, studying the process of removal some traditional parts including the traditional crafts or symbolic arts and its impactsonthematerialcultureinthefuture. For the sake of clarification, we claim that the structure of Islamic architecture in Gamalia Quarter has three dimensions, firstly ecological dimension which refers to physical structure traits and ecological environment manifestation which have active

roles in preserving or changing the material culture. The second dimension is socio culturaldimensionwhichisbasicallyderivedfrombothIslamicandmoralsystemwhichis internally implied in individual consciousness. This dimension also represents in its urban and architectural developments and interprets them in light of the cultural. Thirdly, emotionaldimensionthatreferstothestateofperceptualconsciousnessregardingtothe importance of culture identity preservation. so We will also examine architectural types and urban patterns in GAMALIA Area to see how they relate to their wider Islamic and Mediterraneancontexts. Accordingly, this study supposes that the interconnection between those three dimensions will lead the material culture to make balance in its shape and its art. In this stateofinterconnection,thematerialculturehasadynamicstateordynamicfunctionsof integration between the present and the future which I describe it as a continuous activity leading it to adjust and maintains with any change could happen in the Egyptian society. On the contrary, when there is a lack of interconnection between the pervious elements, it could lead to a state of a dangerous position to the essence of material culture. This study will depend on Clifford Geertz theory and his book around The Interpretive of Theory of Culture and his pervious study The Bazaar Type Economy. Also this study willdependonconceptofOdornoCultureIndustry,BourdieuTheoryofPopularCulture andBravermanstudiesaroundSkillmismatchandSkillshortage In the light of pervious theoretical frame and pervious studies, our present study will mainlyfocusonansweringthefollowinginquires: 1 What do we mean by material culture as represented in field work and what its shape, patternsandsymbolsartinGamaliaquarter? 2 To what extent does the pattern of material culture match the identity of Islamic architecture? 3 Whatistheinfluenceofmodernizationontheelementsofmaterialculture? 4 What is the contribution of formal and informal culture institutions to preserve material culture either by Ecodeveloping the community or by supporting and participation with the Global institution that are concerned in preserving Islamic architecture such as AGA KHANinstitute. Finally the present study seeks to examine the process of changing and reformation the traditionalelementsinmaterialcultureanditsimpactoncultureidentityinoldCairo. Thefieldworkstrategy The particular goal of this study is to draw a portrait of the material Culture Types in Gamalia quarter and observing their ability to adjust with the Islamic architecture there, sothisstudybasedonfolkloreapproachthatincludedasfollow:1historicalapproach:it will provide us with clear understanding the original of material culture because I claim thatalltypesofmaterialculturehavedistinctiverootsandhencedistinctiveinfluencesof consciousnessindividualregardingindevelopingitorreducingit. 2 Folklore method: This study will apply the quantities approach to collect data which is concernedaboutthepatternofIslamicarchitectureanditsshapeinthecommunity. 3 This study appliedthe Anthropological method including the following methodological tools: Observation, Participant Observation, Interview, Case study, Field study Guides, Reports,photographs,Videoshow,toolsofvisualanthropology.

Conclusion No major found difference in kind or shape can be found in the structure of material culture in old Cairo. However, in recent years there are remarkable changes in physical, Ecological,Social,Economicandculturecontextinoldquarter. The changeable processes are emerged in using technology in traditional material crafts,thereformationprocesswhichareemergedinintegratingthetraditionalelements andmodernizationelementsinthetraditionalbuildingandcrafts. Moreover, there is sort of Bureaucratic at the Process of Ecodevelopment of the community and disorganization in programs of Islamic arts Architecture preserving in the actuallife.Hence,thereisnomorestrictbelieftowardtheimportanceofmaterialculture anditsimportantofsocialandculturalfeedback. References
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ContactNumbers: Landline: 00202/24713862

Mobile:00202/101411775 Address:15AboelserourelbakriManshiaelbakriHeliopoliscairoEgypt. Dr.SamahAhmedFaried DepartmentofSociology FacultyofEducation AinShamsUniversity RoxyHelipolis Cairo Egypt