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CORE 2
1 Indices Rules of Indices
x x
a a

Summary Notes

b b

= x = x
ab

a+b ab

Solve 3

2x + 1

10 3
2

+ 3 = 0
x

(x )

a b

= x

Solve 9 =

x
x

= 1
3

1 27
3

3 (3x) Let y = 3
2 x

10 3 + 3 = 0

2x

= 3

3y 10y + 3 = 0 (3y 1)(y 3) = 0 y = 1 3


x

=
n

1 x
a

2x = x =

3 3 2

1 n

gives 3 =

1 3

x= 1

x = x x 2
m n

y = 3 gives 3 = 3

x= 1

= ( n x )m = n x m

Graphs and Transformations ASYMPTOTES Straight lines that are approached by a graph which never actually meets them.
y

1 y= + 1 x 2

5 4 3 2 1

Vertical Asymptote x=2

5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5

Horizontal Asymptote y=1

a TRANSLATION - to find the equation of a graph after a translation of you replace x b by (x-a) and y by (y - b) 3 e.g. The graph of y = x2 -1 is translated through . Write down the equation of - 2 the graph formed. y - b = f(x-a) (y + 2) = (x-3)2 1 y y = x2 -1 2 5 y = x 6x + 6 or 4 y = x2 6x + 6 3 2 y = f(x-a) +b
1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 x

4 5

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REFLECTING Reflection in the x-axis, replace y with y Reflection in the y-axis, replace x with x STRETCHING Stretch of factor k in the x direction replace x by

y = -f(x) y = f(-x) 1 y = f( x ) k y = kf(x)

1 x k 1 Stretch of factor k in the y direction replace y by y k e.g. Describe a stretch that will transform y = x + x -1 to the graph of y = 4x2 + 2x -1 4x2 + 2x -1 = (2x)2 + (2x) -1 So x has been replaced by 2x. Stretch of scale factor in the x direction
2

Sequences and Series 1 A sequence can be defined by the nth term such as un = n2 +1 u1 = 12 +1 u2 = 22 +1 u3 = 32 +1 u4 = 42 +1 =2 =5 =10 =17 An INDUCTIVE definition defines a sequence by giving the first term and a rule to find the next terms. u2 =7 u3 =15 Un+1 = 2un + 1 u1 =3 Some sequences get closer and closer to a value called the LIMIT these are known as CONVERGING sequences e.g The sequence defined by Un+1 = 0.2un + 2 u1 =3 converges to a limit l Find the value of l. l must satisfy the equation I = 0.2l + 2 0.8l = 2 l = 2 0.8 = 2.5 ARITHMETIC SEQUENCE Each term is found by adding a fixed number (COMMON DIFFERENCE) to the previous one. u 2 = u 1+ d u3 = u2 + d u1 = a

a is the first term ,d is the common difference the sequence is a, a + d , a + 2d, a + 3d,. Un = a + (n - 1)d SUM of the first n terms of an AP (Arithmetic progression) 1 1 Sn = n ( 2a + (n-1)d ) or n(a + l) where l is the last term 2 2 1 The sum of the first n positive integers is n(n + 1) 2
5

SIGMA notation

Si
i=0

= 0 + 1 +2 + 3 +4 +5

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20

Show that

r=1

S (3n 1)
S20 =

= 610

= 2 + 5 + 8 + .59 a = 2 d = 3

20 (2 2 + (20 1) 3) 2

= 10 61 = 610

Geometric Sequences A geometric sequence is one where each term is found by MULTIPLYING the previous term by a fixed number (COMMON RATIO) The nth term of a geometric sequence a, ar, ar2, ar3, is arn-1 a is the first term r is the common ratio The sum of a geometric sequence a + ar + ar2 + ar3 .+ arn-1 is a geometric a(r n - 1) series S n = r -1 a If -1 < r < 1 then the sum to infinity is 1- r
Find the sum to inifinty of the series 1 + 2 4 8 + + 3 9 27 2 3

Geometric Series first term = 1 common ratio =

Sum to infinity =
5

1 2 13

=3

Binomial Expansion The number of ways of arranging n objects of which r are one type and (n-r) are n n! another is given by r = r!(n - r)! where n! = n(n-1)(n-2).x 3 x 2 x 1

(1 + x)

n n 2 n 3 n = 1 + x + x + x + ..x 1 2 3 n n1 1 n n2 2 n 1 n1 n b + a b + .. + b a ab 1 2 n 1

(a + b)

= a

Find the coefficient of x3 in the expansion of (2+3x)9


Note 3 + 6 = 9 (n)

n=9 , r=3

9 3 6 3 (3x) (2) = 84 27 x3 64 = 145152 x3


3

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Trigonometry

Exact Values LEARN 45


sin 45 = 1 2 1 cos 45 = 2
tan 45 = 1

30
sin 30 = 1 2 3 2 1 3
30

60
sin 60 =
3 2 cos 60 = 1 2 3

1 1

2 45

2
60

2
3

cos 30 =

tan 30 =

tan 60 =

COSINE RULE 2 2 2 a = b + c 2bc cos A b = a + c 2ac cos B c = a + b 2ab cos A


C
2 2 2 2 2 2

B
c

A
b

SINE RULE a b c = = sinA sinB sinC

AREA of a TRIANGLE 1 1 1 ab sinC = bc sinA = ac sinB 2 2 2 e.g. Find the area of triangle PQR
R

Finding angle P 8
2

= 9 + 12
2

2 9 12 cos P
2 2

9c m

cm

cos P =
P
12 cm

9 + 12 8

= 0745

2 9 12
Q

P = 418.

Area =

1 9 12 sin 418. 2
2

= 3599991 36 cm = = 36 cm
2

Try to avoid rounding until you reach your final answer

RADIANS and ARCS 360=2radians

180 = p radians 45 = p 4

90 =

p 2

radians 60 = 30 = p 6 radians

p 3

radians

radians

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l r

LENGTHOFANARC l=r AREA of SECTOR = r2

Trigonometry
y

y=sin
270 180 90

90 1

180

270

360 x

sin()=sin

sin(180)=sin sin()=sin (inradians)

y=cos
1

270

180

90 1

90

180

270

360 x

cos()=cos

cos(180)=cos cos()=cos(inradians)
y

y=tan
10

tan x =

sinx cos x
270 180 90

90 5 10

180

270

360

Tan()=tan

SOLVING EQUATIONS

sin x + cosx = 1 LEARN THIS IDENTITY

e.g. Solve the equation 2sin2 x=3cosxfor0<x<2 2 sin x = 3 cosx 2(1 cos x) = 3 cos x 2cos x + 3cosx 2 = 0 (2cos x 1)(cos x + 2) = 0 cos x = -2 has no solution
5
2 2 2

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cos x = -

x=

p 3

or 2p -

p 5p = 3 3

PROVING IDENTITIES 2 Show that (sin x + cos x ) = 1 + 2sinx cos x


LHS: (sin x + cos x)
2

= (sin x + 2 sinx cos x + cos x)


2 2

= sin x + cos x + 2 sinx cos x = 1 + 2 sin x cos x LHS = RHS

TRANSFORMATIONS Stretch in the y directionscalefactora y = sin x


y 5 4 3 2 1 180 90 1 2 3 4 90 180

y=asin y = 4 sin x

270

360

Stretch in the direction scale factor

1 b

y=cos b

y=cos
y 2 1

y=cos2

180

90 1

90

180

270

360

- c Translation 0

y=sin(+c)

y = sin x
2 1 180 90 1 2 90 y

y = sin (x+30)

180

270

360

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0 Translation y=cos+d d y=cos


5 4 3 2 1 180 90 1 y

y=cos+2

90

180

270

360

Exponentials and Logarithms A function of the form y = ax is an exponential function

The graph of y = ax is positive for all values of x and passes through the point (0,1)

y = 3

y = 4
y 16 14 12

y = 2

A Logarithm is the inverse of an exponential function

10 8 6 4

y = a

x = loga y
3 2 1

2 1 2 3 x

e.g log 32 = 5 because 25 = 32 2 LEARN THE FOLLOWING loga a = 1 loga a


x

loga 1 = 0 a
log x

= x

= x

Laws of Logarithms loga m + loga n = loga mn m loga m loga n = loga n kloga m = loga m E.g
k

Solve logx 4 + logx 16 = 3 logx 64 = 3 x


3

= 64

x = 4

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An equation of the form


9

ax =b can be solved by taking logs of both sides

Differentiation and Integration dy n n1 = nx If y = x then dx n+1 x n + c for all values of n except n = 1 x dx = n + 1

e.g

1 + x x

1 2

+ x2 = 2x2 +

2 2 x + c 5

TRAPEZIUM RULE The trapezium rule gives an approximation of the area under a graph. If the gap between the ordinates is h then Area = h (end ordinates + twice sum of interior ordinates)

Use the trapezium rule 4 strips to estimate the area under the graph of y = 1 + x from x = 0 to x = 2
x 0 0.5 1 1.5 y
y

1 1.25 2 3.25

Area = x 0.5 ( 1 + 3.25+2(1.25+2)) = 1.966917 = 1.97 (3sf)