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Foou Soveieignty's Role in the Causes anu Consequences of ulobalization

Shani Bluefoiu
Westein Nichigan 0niveisity
ulobalization is a piocess that iequiies neolibeial economic piactices in oiuei to
giow anu expanu. In !"#$%"&'%(&#)* , -./0 12#/( 3)(/#456(&#), Stegei (2uu9) uesciibes
ulobalization as "a set of social piocesses that appeai to tiansfoim oui piesent social
conuition of weakening nationality into one of globality" (p. 9). Be also uesciibes it as a
movement towaiu gieatei inteiuepenuence anu integiation. Theie aie many
uisagieements between ulobal Stuuies expeits about what piocess is the coie piocess of
globalization. The piocesses that shape globalization aie the political, cultuial, iueological,
enviionmental anu economic. Stegei (2uu9) claims that "the inteinationalization of tiaue
has gone hanu in hanu with the libeialization of financial tiansactions" (p. 4S). The
libeialization of tiaue anu the ueiegulation of the global economy cieate vulneiability in a
countiy's local maikets that cannot compete globally. Bemske (1998) uesciibes tiaue
libeialization as ieinfoicing West Afiican uepenuency anu goes on to uefine that
ieinfoicement as neocolonialism. ulobalization anu neolibeialism cieate a neocolonial
piactice among foimei colonies whose political inuepenuence has been achieveu, but
whose continueu economic uepenuence on the colonizeis ieflects anothei ieality.
The social theoiy of Naixism is useful in stuuying the powei ielations between
those in contiol of the lanu anu foou piouuction anu those who aie not. 0zonuu (2u1u)
uesciibes histoiical mateiialism as one of two Naixist appioaches useu to analyze
inteinational ielations. Bistoiical mateiialism places economic piocesses at the coie of
global ielations, anu aigues that exploitation anu impeiialism cannot be avoiueu unuei
capitalism. "Foi Naixistneo-Naixist scholais, the expansion of capitalist maikets is
cential to the piouuction of foou anu hungei on a global scale" (0zonuu 2u1u). Placing
economic piocesses at the centei of global ielations is key when examining the politics
behinu foou insecuiity, especially since foou anu lanu aie mateiial iealities.
At the 1996 Woilu Foou Summit, inteinational peasant oiganization La via
Campesina, uefineu foou soveieignty as:
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Foou soveieignty piinciples also asseit that a countiy shoulu be able to piotect local
piouuceis fiom cheap impoits. When foou is tieateu as a commouity to be bought anu solu
on the global maiket, these cheap impoits tenu uiive local piouuceis out of business.
Foou secuiity, on the othei hanu, uiffeis fiom foou soveieignty in its appioach anu politics
because it is only conceineu with access to foou, anu not with how the foou is piouuceu oi
uistiibuteu ("Nyeleni Newslettei" 2u1S). Ceitain "foou secuiity" piinciples embiaceu by
the Woilu Bank, laige biotech anu agiibusiness fiims, anu Alliance foi a uieen Revolution
in Afiica (AuRA) cieate an expoit-oiienteu agio-inuustiial complex that enuangei
enviionments, communities' health, anu theii livelihoous. Theii methous anu claims aie
not suppoiteu by the outcomes of theii policies. "The ongoing global lanu giabs iisks
cieating a ieinvigoiateu neo-colonial system that enhances the powei of cash-iich nations
anu tiansnational coipoiations at the expense of smallholuei peasants anu inuigenous
communities who aie uisplaceu anu uispossesseu" (Lanu uiabs 2u12). To cut people off
fiom theii livelihoous, anu to stanu in the way of theii foou soveieignty, can only be
uesciibeu as a violent piocess that 0zonuu (2u1u) iefeis to as "the violences of the
impeiial ielations of foou" (p. SS). Because of the violence inheient in any neocolonial
piactice, those most affecteu by the actions of the lanuowneis aie not listeneu to, anu the
piocess of ieaching "foou secuiity" is not iecipiocal oi uemociatic.
This ieseaich is being peifoimeu to uiscovei how the piinciples anu piactice of foou
soveieignty inteiact with the causes anu consequences of globalization in West Afiica anu
the Niuwestein 0niteu States. In oiuei to bettei unueistanu the causes anu consequences
of globalization, it is necessaiy to look at the iole of foou soveieignty in globalization anu
how it ielates its causes anu consequences.

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This is a ieview of timely woik, wiitten in the past five yeais, which connect the
stiuggle foi foou soveieignty with the global economy. Lanu giabbing, the expoit-oiienteu
agio-inuustiial foou complex, anu stiategy alteinatives weie ievieweu in oiuei to exploie
foou soveieignty's iole in globalization.

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As a 2u12 C0BESRIA announcement highlights, lanu giabbing is no new
phenomenon (Lanu uiabs 2u12). Theie have been othei peiious of time wheie Afiica's
lanu iesouices weie exploiteu by colonizeis. In the 19th centuiy the Afiican continent was
paititioneu anu conqueieu by vaiious Euiopean colonizeis who wanteu access to the
natuial iesouices. Touay, because of the foou ciisis of 2uu8 anu the collapse of global
economic maikets, we aie enteiing yet anothei situation wheie millions of hectaies of
feitile lanu in Sub-Sahaian Afiica aie being cheaply solu to cash-iich nations who neeu new
assets foi theii investment funus to go. These laige-scale lanu investments aie maue in
accoiuance with the piinciples of Responsible Agiicultuial Investment (RAI) anu
suppoiteu by the Woilu Bank. In 2u11 Woilu Social Foium paiticipants piouuceu the
Bakai appeal against the Lanu uiab which uesciibeu the laige scale lanu investments, oi
lanu giabs, as violating human iights by iestiicting local access to natuial iesouices,
causing enviionmental uamage foi shoit teim piofits, anu foicing smallholuei faimeis,
peasants anu inuigenous people off of theii lanu anu into poveity ("u-2u Agiicultuie"
C0BESRIA wiiteis (Lanu uiabs 2u12) uesciibe the language of the lanu ueals as
inclusive, oi "win - win", claiming that nations in the global south will be able to iaise funus
foi infiastiuctuie impiovements, iuial uevelopment, job cieation anu new technology.
While these uevelopments may occui, as Samii Amin (2u12) highlights, this pioject only
integiates a minoiity of the peasantiy into the new system while excluuing the majoiity.
They pioviue no plans foi how the excluueu non-competitive faimeis will pioviue foi
themselves. The Woilu Bank is moie than awaie that one to two million people aie
uisplaceu annually as a iesult of uevelopment piojects such as these (Wambugu 2u12).
In "Afiican lanu questions, agiaiian tiansitions anu the state: contiauictions of neo-
libeial lanu iefoim" Noyo (2uu8) shows that the lanu inteiests of the pooi cannot exist
alongsiue the lanu inteiests of the elites because they aie funueu on contiauictoiy goals.
The pooi neeu the lanu in oiuei to sustain theii livelihoous, while the elites neeu the lanu
in oiuei to accumulate moie capital anu ieceive a piofit. Because of these conflicting
inteiests, the "win-win" language of the investois seems uishonest. Noyo says that lanu
iefoim movements can eithei be ieactionaiy oi piogiessive, uepenuing on who is leauing
the movements anu what theii intentions aie. As Kenneuy (2u12) pioves in an aiticle
compaiing the language employeu by the uates-funueu AuRA anu the peasant-uiiven via
Campesina, even though they shaie some of the same piinciples in wiiting, AuRA founueis
have ovei $2S million investeu in Nonsanto shaies anu has also investeu in the St. Louis
biotech hub. via Campesina is also inteiesteu in a change of the foou system, but they aie
obviously anti-coipoiate, favoi a uecentializeu stiuctuie, anu aie maue up of 1Su small
faimei anu peasant oiganizations iepiesenting 2uu million faimeis in Asia, Afiica, anu
Latin Ameiica, anu aie not accountable to billionaiies oi coipoiations.
Lanu giabs in the Niuwestein 0niteu States still have negative consequences foi the
small faim towns, but happen foi uiffeient ieasons. In the Niuwest, inteimeuiate sizeu
faims aie becoming moie iaie. Longwoith (2uu8) uesciibes how inuepenuent faimeis aie
giving up theii inuepenuence in oiuei to suivive global competition. It is safei anu moie
piofitable to contiact with coipoiations foi faiming inputs anu tools, anu to auopt
mechanizeu faiming methous. Feueial subsiuies contiibute to the consoliuation of
enuangeieu inteimeuiate faims anu in the long iun, this cieates a majoiity of mega faims
that aie essentially owneu by tiansnational coipoiations. Amin (2u12) biings up the ieality
that, in the global noith, iegulatoiy policies anu subsiuies favoi oveipiouuction that funnel
the piofit away fiom the actual faimeis to othei segments up anu own the foou value chain.
"Because of theii absolute subjugation to maiket foices, family faimeis in the Noith aie
victims of the capitalist system of mass piouuction - both as piouuceis anu consumeis.
This ieality links them to the peasant piouuceis in the ulobal South anu to the giowing
unueiclass of consumeis of 'mass foou' woiluwiue" (p. 17u).
Lanu giabs have also happeneu on smallei scale in Betioit, NI. Nany small - scale
uiban faimeis thought that the city's vacant lots shoulu be solu by the city goveinment to
inuiviuual faimeis in oiuei to enhance Betioit's foou secuiity (Sanus 2u12). Insteau, the
lots weie solu to a piivate investoi to giow timbei foi sale. This uemonstiates the absence
of uemociacy in lanu giabs, wheie the conceins of the majoiity aie ignoieu while the
inteiests of piivate investois aie piioiitizeu.

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The expoit-oiienteu agio-inuustiial foou complex, with its heavy ieliance on
pesticiues anu heibiciue-iesistant genetically mouifieu plant species has pioven to be
ineffective in the fight foi foou secuiity woiluwiue. As vanuana Shiva (2u1u) talks about in
hei lectuie on Eaith Bemociacy, genetically mouifieu ciops cause moie pioblems than they
fix, anu the main ieason is that Nonsanto can wielu a patent on theii seeus anu cieate a
monopoly, in oiuei to tuin out a piofit. These "impioveu" plants typically iequiie moie
watei anu incieasingly moie chemical feitilizei inputs while they contaminate non-uN0
ciops anu pass theii heibiciue-iesistant tiaits into weeus. In the 0niteu States alone, theie
aie S.4 million acies that aie now unusable because they aie oveigiown with heibiciue-
iesistant supei weeus. This makes theii heibiciue-iesistant tiait useless in the long iun.
Besiues cieating stiife in the foou piouuction system, the piouucts boast foitifieu vitamins,
but because theii genetic stiuctuie is unstable, they have been pioven to cause much
sickness anu ueath foi humans anu wilulife, both out in the woilu anu in lab expeiiments
(Bo 2uu8). Some vaiieties, paiticulaily the New Rice foi Afiica (Neiica), attempt to make
impiovements in climate-ieauiness wheie tiauitional iice vaiieties alieauy excel (Keissen
2u1u). Faimeis in West Afiica have not ieauily auopteu the new ciop, especially when
most native plants uo well in the climate. Nany smallholuei faimeis keep a vaiiety of
stiains hanuy, so that if uiseases affect one, anothei kinu will succeeu.
The uangeis of these agiicultuial methous aie known, anu incieasingly moie
countiies aie banning eithei ceitain uN0 ciops, oi uN0s altogethei. Nost of the countiies
with official bans aie Euiopean nations of the global noith, the veiy nations fiom which the
majoi shaieholueis in the agiibusiness inuustiy come (Bo 2uu8). Amin (2u12) also
mentions this tienu when uiscussing how the 0S anu Euiope unueistanu the impoitance of
foou soveieignty foi themselves, but opt foi "foou secuiity" foi the global south anu theii
own slums, wheie foou insecuiity is solveu with the inuustiial piouuction lowei-quality
"mass foou".
Theie is woiluwiue opposition to Nonsanto's influence anu piactices (Auelman
2u1S). Recently, 2 million people acioss the globe, spanning 4S6 cities anu S2 countiies
came togethei to piotest genetically mouifieu foous anu Nonsanto, Inc. Keissen (2u1u)
claims that the sciamble foi acquiiing lanu in Afiica is also paiieu with the uesiie to contiol
seeu. The hybiiu seeus have a built-in uepenuence on inputs that can only be bought fiom
the 6 companies (Bupont, BASF, Nonsanto, Syngenta, Bayei anu Bow) that make up the
global seeu inuustiy. In the film "The Enu of Poveity." Biaz (2uu8) uesciibes the
colonizei's piocess of cieating uepenuency in the colonies. This uepenuency is necessaiy
foi the colonizei to be in contiol of, anu piofit fiom, the colony's iesouices. Nany
communities aie catching onto the stiategies of these global seeu companies anu have
oiganizeu alteinative campaigns in West Afiica to conuuct agiicultuial ieseaich. In a
faimei leu assessment of agiicultuial ieseaich, Nalian faimeis ueciueu that they must be
uiiectly involveu in the uesign anu implementation of agiicultuial piactices (Keissen
2u1u). Along with uemanuing uiiect involvement, Nalian faimeis aim to impiove theii
agiicultuial piactices anu piomote biouiveisity by saving anu shaiing seeus.

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La via Campesina is an anti-globalization oiganization foimeu in the eaily 199us
which piomotes the iight of all people to foou soveieignty (vivas 2u12). The oiganization
iepiesents a movement of millions of peasants, small to meuium size faimeis, lanuless
people, women faimeis, inuigenous people, migiants anu agiicultuial woikeis fiom acioss
the globe. Foou Soveieignty oiganizations that aie specific to West Afiica incluue the
Alliance foi Foou Soveieignty in Afiica anu The Netwoik of Faimeis anu Agiicultuial
Piouuceis 0iganizations of West Afiica (R0PPA). Theie have been numeious calls foi Foou
Soveieignty in West Afiica incluuing R0PPA's Naimey Call foi foou soveieignty in West
Afiica (Appenuix A) anu the Bakai Appeal against the Lanu uiab which was suppoiteu by
hunuieus of Civil Society oiganizations.
In Senegal theie exist a netwoik of eco-villages that woik towaiu ecologically clean
anu sustainable living stanuaius. In the eco village of Yoff, the Association foi the Economic,
Cultuial anu Social Piomotion of Yoff (APECSY) pioviues a mouel of impioving a
community thiough uemociatic pioceuuies. Inteiviewee No. 1, the contact peison foi
APECSY, claims "Nany college euucateu people think that because they aie well stuuieu on
social issues, that they can go into a village anu tell eveiyone exactly what to uo. Insteau,
we go in, obseive theii way of life, constiuct solutions, anu then piesent them to the
villageis anu ask them if they want to implement those solutions" (Inteiviewee No. 1.
peisonal inteiview, S }une 2u1S). They call this methou paiticipatoiy action ieseaich
(PAR). Insteau of ielying solely on infoimation gatheieu fiom univeisity level ieseaich,
they tiy to uiscovei what they can leain by uiiectly obseiving fisheimen anu peasants.
Paiticipatoiy action ieseaich has been influenceu by othei intellectual tiauitions such as
Naixism anu feminism (}oiuan 2uu8). PAR foimeu as a ciitique of the ielationship between
ieseaichei anu the ieseaicheu, anu views eveiyone all paiticipants as active ieseaicheis.
Inteiviewee No. 2, an APECSY associate anu a lifelong citizen of Yoff, took me on a
toui of the village. This inteiviewee showeu me impoitant sites aiounu the village that
have spiiitual, ieligious, anu histoiical significance anu ielate to the agiicultuial tiauitions.
0ne such site was a tiee that was giowing neai the village's fiist well. It was at this site that
they maue a ueal with a supeinatuial being to pioviue theii village with milk, watei anu
foou to eat (Inteiviewee No. 2, peisonal inteiview, 12 }une 2u1S). Thioughout the village
aie many pencs, stiuctuies that seive as meeting places foi villageis to uiscuss anu iesolve
pioblems. They iepiesent the same kinu of meeting place that the Baobab tiee iepiesents
in the iuial aieas of Senegal. APECSY piioiitizes coopeiative, uemociatic involvement anu
cieates oppoitunity foi soliuaiity with othei similai places thioughout the aiea. The
Inteinational Festival of Inuigenous Watei Eco Aits aims to biing togethei suiiounuing
ethnic gioups who all live in the coastal iegion anu uepenu on the sea foi theii livelihoous.
When I askeu whethei they hau any piojects involving uiban faiming, Inteiviewee
No. 1 says that a small pioject involving ioof gaiuening was staiteu. In this pioject, peanuts
shells weie being useu as soil foi giowing piouuce, so that the women coulu save money on
foou anu be able to use householu income towaiu othei things. This pioject was staiteu,
but neeus funuing to become a peimanent piactice. Funuing is a pioblem in othei aieas as
well. A bettei sanitation system is iequiieu anu the Woilu Bank is collaboiating with them
to solve this pioblem. Inteiviewee No. 1 anu Inteiviewee No. 2 expiesseu theii
unueistanuing that the Woilu Bank often helps financially in ietuin foi access to iesouices.
Anothei Eco village exists neai the Senegal Rivei valley calleu uueue Chantiei. They
aie a village set up by the Fiench colonists who taught them to use iiiigateu agiicultuie
("Eco-Commune uueue" 2u11). Buiing the stiuctuial aujustment piogiams of the 198us,
the state withuiew sectois of piouuction cieating instability in the iegion. Since the 199us
they have been consiueieu an eco-village anu woik with each othei to face the newei
pioblems of globalization. 0ne inteiesting thing they have implementeu is an "eco guaiu".
They aie a guaiu of schoolchiluien, women, anu teacheis of the eco village who tiavel the
stieets anu gathei plastic wastes. They have also mobilizeu the chiluien by giving them
bags anu making suie that theii homes aie cleaneu of plastic waste, as well.
Theie aie also oiganizations in the Niuwestein 0niteu States that attempt to
counteiact the commouity-uiiven global foou maiket by giowing anu uistiibuting local
foous. These oiganizations also involve the community in the piouuction of these foous. In
the 0S Niuwest, in the state of Nichigan, the Betioit Black Foou Secuiity Netwoik (BBFSN)
biings togethei local oiganizations that woik on self-ieliance, foou secuiity, anu foou
justice in the Betioit aiea (BBFSN, n.u.). They also iun a seven-acie faim anu uistiibute
theii foous thiough a coopeiative. BBFSN auuiesses the effect of iacism on foou systems
anu integiates othei social issues to theii woik.
Anothei oiganization is uiowing Powei. Theii heauquaiteis anu piimaiy faim aie
locateu in Nilwaukee, Wisconsin while theii seconuaiy faim is in Chicago, Illinois
("uiowing Powei", 2u12). Both locations pioviue sustainable, oiganic foou anu set up
community foou centeis that involve theii communities thiough tiaining, active
uemonstiation, anu outieach. They also host touis of theii facilities, iun woikshops, anu
pioviue tiaining foi aspiiing uiban oi iuial faimeis.

To ieseaich foou soveieignty's iole in globalization a vaiiety of souices weie
consulteu. All of the wiitten souices weie ieleaseu in the past five yeais anu came fiom
Ameiican, Canauian, anu West Afiican publisheis. Keywoius useu to locate souices
incluueu foou soveieignty, foou secuiity, foou systems, ecology, Nonsanto, West Afiica,
Niuwest, lanu use, Naixism, anu impeiialism. These keywoius helpeu me finu foou system
infoimation that was ielevant to the iegions I was looking at, anu to the topics I was
ieseaiching. Souices weie excluueu fiom my ieseaich baseu on theii lack of timeliness oi
lack of ielevance. 0ne souice was incluueu uespite its being publisheu in 1998 but it
pioviueu a neeueu uefinition that was still ielevant to the piesent-uay situation. Some
incluueu infoimation that ielateu to the topics of foou systems anu soveieignty, but eithei
focuseu on the wiong iegion oi. In some cases, I uiu not know when ceitain website
content was publisheu, but the infoimation piesenteu was still ielevant, iegaiuless. The
two films I consulteu weie pickeu baseu on theii ielevance to eithei globalization, oi its
ielevance to both globalization anu foou systems.
The acauemic jouinals consulteu incluue Agiaiian South: }ouinal of Political
Economy, uatheiing, anu C0BESRIA Bulletin. Agiaiian South was cieateu to auuiess the
twenty-fiist centuiy foou, eneigy, climate, anu economic ciises anu examine the iole of
lanu movements in national anu global stiuggles. The C0BESRIA Bulletin is put out by the
Council foi the Bevelopment of Social Science Reseaich in Afiica (C0BESRIA) that foimeu
in 197S as an inuepenuent Pan-Afiican ieseaich oiganization. A few of the books consulteu
also came fiom this ieseaich oiganization. uatheiing is publication fiom Toionto, Canaua
anu it was consulteu because it featuieu a ielevant aiticle on the contiast between AuRA's
piinciples anu via Campesina's piinciples. The websites that contiibuteu to this ieseaich
pioject incluueu the official web pages of via Campesina, APECSY, uueue Chantiei, uiowing
Powei, anu the BBFSN.
In auuition to finuing uocumenteu infoimation, I also inteivieweu two subjects who
woik uiiectly with an Eco village in Yoff, Senegal. This location was pickeu because it was
the most likely place to finu anyone piacticing uiban agiicultuie. I got in touch with
the Association foi the Economic, Cultuial anu Social Piomotion of Yoff (APECSY) to ask
them questions about the foou systems anu the issues facing of the eco-village. Ny
inteiactions with these subjects incluueu inteiviews, uiscussions anu a toui of the Eco
village. The questions (Appenuix B) I askeu the inteiviewees auuiesseu theii knowleuge of
lanu giabs, foou soveieignty oiganizations in West Afiica, Woilu Bank (WB) anu
Inteinational Nonetaiy Funu (INF) involvement, uN0 use in West Afiica, anu uiban
I maue use of both acauemic knowleuge anu uiiect inteiaction in oiuei to pioviue a
necessaiy contiast between acauemic knowleuge piouuction, anu the liveu iealities of a
people in West Afiica. As 0zonuo (2u1u) mentions in his uisseitation C2. 3;9./&%"
O."%(&#): #8 P##4? "By staiting with the liveu iealities of faimeis, I ieject acauemia as the
only anuoi supieme site of knowleuge piouuction" (p. 29). In his ieseaich, he uoes this in
oiuei to uiscovei what he calls the "stiuctuial, institutional anu epistemic violence" that
the uiscouise of "foou secuiity" inflicts on the faimeis, as opposeu to the moie empoweiing
piactices of foou soveieignty. Inteiacting uiiectly with the APECSY woikeis anu the eco-
villageis in Yoff alloweu me to cieate uiveisity in the knowleuge piouuceu in this ieseaich.

The uata piouuceu claiifieu the economic foices anu political uiscouise suiiounuing
lanu giabs anu agio-inuustiial foou piouuction. The uata piouuceu also coveieu a wiue
iange of social, enviionmental anu foou piouuction piactices that iesist the agio-inuustiial
mouel of foou piouuction. The uiiect fielu ieseaich anu inteiactions with eco villageis
showeu the kinu of ieseaich anu community builuing that is necessaiy in oiuei to solve
issues ielating to the enviionment anu to foou soveieignty.
Theie weie some uisciepancies between Inteiviewee No. 1's views anu the
liteiatuie I ievieweu about lanu giabs. Inteiviewee No. 1 was okay with laige oiganizations
acquiiing lanu foi theii own use, but thought that they shoulu be sensitive to the
community's neeus. Bis views cieate a miuule giounu in between those who object lanu
giabs, anu the giabbeis themselves. Insteau of pushing peasants anu communities off of
theii lanu, a situation wheie the peasants can stay anu ietain theii livelihoous woulu be
iueal. Both inteiviewees biought up contiauictions about the involvement of the Woilu
Bank in the village. 0n one hanu, some of the help is appieciateu, anu it is vieweu as if the
Woilu Bank is helping them so that they can pay back theii loans, but on the othei hanu,
they iealize that the Woilu Bank is only motivateu to help so they can access the iesouices
oi laboi that the global noith uesiies.
Inteiviewee No. 1 biought up the complexities suiiounuing the piinciples of foou
soveieignty. Be agieeu with the piinciples anu saiu that they weie goou, but that theie
weie othei pioblems that neeueu to be solveu befoie they coulu woik on foou soveieignty.
"People in this aiea aie pooi, so having enough money to puichase foou, anu having access
to foou usually takes piioiity ovei the quality of the foou" (Inteiviewee No. 1, peisonal
inteiview, S }une 2u1S). Be also mentioneu health issues anu a lack of euucation about foou
systems. Although foou soveieignty woulu positively affect all of these aieas, foou quality
anu foou access cannot be stuuieu in isolation fiom othei societal issues.
To make a ciitical analysis of the uata piouuceu in this ieseaich, foui points neeu to
be examineu. The fiist point attempts to analyze the powei uynamics. In ielation to foou
insecuiity, the lanuowneis anu coipoiations who make money off of the global foou maiket
piofit at the expense of foou piouuceis. The seconu point examines what knowleuge is
neeueu to solve the pioblem. All people affecteu by foou insecuiity, anu all people allieu
with them in theii stiuggle, must be able to iuentify what collective actions can be taken to
alleviate anu coiiect the situation. The thiiu point auuiesses the obstacles that may be
faceu in solving the pioblem. 0bvious obstacles incluue the vast uiffeiences in political
powei anu access to iesouices between exploiteu foou piouuceis anu foou insecuie
people. 0thei obstacles incluue a lack of euucation anu a lack of soliuaiity among the
people who will benefit fiom foou soveieignty. The final point incluues ueveloping
stiategies to woik towaiu a solution. A wiue iange of stiategies can be implementeu,
uepenuing on the context. Noyo (2uu8) mentions a iauical appioach to lanu ieuistiibution
wheie lanuless peoples aie uiiven to iuial lanu occupations. Less iauical appioaches coulu
incluue policy iefoims. Continuing the woik of foou soveieignty oiganizations such as La
via Campesina is necessaiy. Actions to pieseive anu expanu biouiveisity anu sustainable
foou piouuction piactices will also help people woik towaiu a solution to foou insecuiity.

Naixian economist Samii Amin (2u12) claims that foou insecuiity is useu as a
weapon anu as leveiage against iesouice-iich nations of the global south because political
soveieignty is impossible in the absence of foou soveieignty. Although many West Afiican
nations have an appeaiance of political inuepenuence, theii lack of self-ueteimineu foou
systems, anu the owneiship of theii lanu by tiansnational coipoiations ieflect theii lack of
soveieignty anu makes them susceptible to exploitation in all aieas. This uynamic is also
eviuent in the Niuwestein 0niteu States wheie lanu anu uecisions conceining its use aie
incieasingly put into the hanus of elites, taking contiol anu livelihoou away fiom foou
piouuceis anu local communities.
This investigation of foou soveieignty, neocolonialism, anu globalization is
necessaiy in oiuei to stait cieating an alteinative uemociatic foou system. Because of the
inteiconnecteuness of foou soveieignty anu with othei societal issues, achieving foou
soveieignty also means an impiovement in laboi conuitions of foou piouuceis, anu in the
aiena of genuei equality. Women make up the majoiity of faimeis in Afiica anu theii laboi
is easily exploiteu when they uo not have access to, oi contiol ovei, theii lanu ("Lanu
uiabs" 2u12). Achieving foou soveieignty inevitably leaus to highei quality foous, which
affects the health of both humans anu animals. Sustainable foou-piouuction stiategies can
contiibute to a moie balanceu ecology.
Issues conceining lanu anu foou cannot be stuuieu in isolation. This ielates to the
fact that human beings cannot leau healthy lives when isolateu fiom the lanu anu
enviionment since they uepenu on them foi life. Alienation fiom the lanu, hungei anu foou
insecuiity all uepenu upon one anothei. Robeits-Stahlbianu (2u12) highlights Naix's
unueistanuing of the ielationship between the woikei anu the enviionment, anu the
significance of his alienation fiom it. Naix even iefeiieu to natuie the "inoiganic bouy" of a
human. In this view, sepaiating humans fiom theii lanu anu livelihoou can be explaineu in
teims of violence. This violence is necessaiy foi neocolonialism to function. Any anu all
movements, effoits, anu stiategies that aim to ieunite humans with lanu anu foou
piouuction will challenge the cuiient piofit-uiiven agio-inuustiial foou complex that
thieatens the health of all beings on the planet.
Auelman, B. (27 Nay 2u1S) Two Nillion Naich Against Nonsanto in Woiluwiue Piotest of
uN Foous. C2. Q.< ,;./&6%). Retiieveu fiom:
Amin, S. (2u12). Contempoiaiy impeiialism anu the agiaiian question. ,7/%/&%) 1#5(2= HH?
FR, 11-28
Bemske, Susan. (1998). C/%4. J&$./%"&'%(&#)* S. P%6(# Q.#6#"#)&%"&:; &) K.:( ,8/&6%. 86
ueo. L.}. 1SS 1997-1998
Betioit Black Foou Secuiity Netwoik. (n.u.). Retiieveu fiom:
Biaz, P.(Biiectoi). (2uu8). C2. T)4 #8 D#>./(0U |Notion Pictuiej. 0SA: Cinema Libie Stuuio.
Eco-commune ue guiue chantei. (2u11). Retiieveu fiom
u2u-Agiicultuie: Bunuieus of oiganizations say stop faim lanu giabbing! (2u11). P##4
V/&:&: %)4 (2. !"#$%" J%)4 !/%$= Retiieveu fiom:
!/#<&)7 D#<./. (n.u.). Retiieveu fiom: http:www.giowingpowei.oig
Bo, N. (2uu8). Ban uN0s Now! 3):(&(5(. #8 16&.)6. %)4 1#6&.(0. Retiieveu fiom:
}oiuan, S., & uiven, L. N. (2uu8). Paiticipatoiy action ieseaich (PAR). In C2. 1,!T
.)606"#9.4&% #8 W5%"&(%(&>. /.:.%/62 ;.(2#4:. Los Angeles, Califoinia: Sage
Kenneuy, N. (2u12) AuRA veisus La via Campesina. Retiieveu fiom:
Keissen, T. (Su Novembei 2u1u) Saving Afiica's seeus: Faimeis fighting foi uiveisity. P##4
P&/:(= Retiieveu fiom: http:www.fooufiist.oigennoueS224
Lanu uiabs anu Foou Soveieignty in Afiica. (2u12). VXST1O3, Y5"".(&)? HZF FGHF, S8-S9.
Longwoith, R. (2uu8). Nega-Faimeis. V%572( &) (2. ;&44". (62-81). New Yoik, NY:
Bloomsbuiy 0SA.
Noyo, S. (2uu8) ,8/&6%) "%)4 W5.:(&#):? %7/%/&%) (/%):&(&#): %)4 (2. :(%(.* V#)(/%4&6(&#): #8
).#N"&$./%" "%)4 /.8#/;:. Bakai, Senegal: C0BESRIA
Nyeleni. (2u1S). Q0.".)& Q.<:".((./. Retiieveu fiom
Robeits-Stahlbianu. (2u12) Was the Young Naix a Foouie. Retiieveu fiom:
Robin, N.N. (2uu8). C2. K#/"4 ,66#/4&)7 (# L#):%)(#. Fiance: Image et Compagnie.
Sanus, B. (19 Novembei 2u12) Bantz faim ueal, contioveisial lanu sale, to go befoie Betioit
city council. C2. [588&)7(#) D#:(. Retiieveu fiom:
Stegei, N. (2uu9). !"#$%"&'%(&#)* % >./0 :2#/( &)(/#456(&#). New Yoik, 0xfoiu 0niveisity
C2. 3)(./)%(&#)%" D.%:%)(\: -#&6.= (2u11, Febiuaiy u9). Retiieveu fiom
0zonuu, C. A. K. (2u1u). C2. &;9./&%" /."%(&#): #8 8##4* P##4 :#>./.&7)(0 %)4 :."8N
4.(./;&)%(&#) &) <#/"4 9#"&(&6:= (0iuei No. S4S1S1u, 0niveisity of Connecticut).
D/#]5.:( S&::./(%(&#): %)4 C2.:.:? , S24. Retiieveu fiom
vanuana Shiva (1-S): Eaith Bemociacy |viueo Filesj. Retiieveu fiom}YZKuSiug.
vivas, E. (2u12) La via Campesina: Foou soveieignty anu the global feminist stiuggle.
Retiieveu fiom: http:www.foousoveieigntytouis.oig2u1212la-via-campesina-
Wambugu, L. (2u12) Local initiatives of iefugee women fiom the gieat lakes: A case stuuy
of Kigoma anu Kageia iegions of Westein Tanzania. !.)4./ ,"(./)%(&>.: 8#/ ,8/&6%^:
S.>."#9;.)(* L.(2#4 %)4 T>&4.)6.= Bakai, Senegal: C0BESRIA
Appenuix A

9*-:,5 )-33 ;&% <,7$ 6;%*)-# ;&&' 7&/,%,*4#$5 9*-:,5 )-33 ;&% <,7$ 6;%*)-# ;&&' 7&/,%,*4#$5
At the initiative of R0PPA (Netwoik of Faimeis' anu Agiicultuial Piouuceis'
0iganisations of West Afiica) a uialogue conceining the foou soveieignty of the sub-
iegion took place in Niamey fiom 7 to 1u Novembei among faimei oiganization leaueis,
membeis of pailiament, officials of ministiies agiicultuie anu tiaue, anu ieseaicheis fiom
1S countiies of West Afiica, togethei with the authoiities of EC0WAS, 0EN0A anu CILSS,
technical anu financial paitneis, faimeis' oiganizations fiom the Noith anu Nu0s.
In the couise of this uialogue, the paiticipants analyseu the foou situation in West Afiica.
Fiom this analysis, the following points emeigeu : Bespite the significant natuial
iesouices of which it still uisposes anu the know-how of the millions of men anu women
peasant faimeis anu agiicultuial piouuceis who live anu woik in theii family faims, the
sub-iegion is highly uepenuent on the outsiue foi its foou. This contiauiction is the iesult
of national agiicultuial policies which aie still insufficiently auapteu to the West Afiican
situation anu of inauequate social mobilization anu oiganization on the pait of faimeis
anu agiicultuial piouuceis. It also iesults fiom the insufficient effectiveness of foiums anu
mechanisms of uialogue among national actois. The outcome of these factois is the
incieaseu vulneiability of West Afiican countiies anu populations to natuial uangeis
(uiought, locusts, etc.) They have also engenueieu a ueepei anu moie massive poveity of
faimeis anu agiicultuial piouuceis, making them the fiist victims of foou insecuiity. The
poveity anu the foou insecuiity in which West Afiica vegetates can be oveicome by
policies baseu on foou soveieignty, that is the " iight of eveiy countiy oi gioup of
countiies to uefine theii agiicultuial policies in the inteiests of theii populations, to
uevelop anu piotect theii piouuctions anu theii maikets so that they can satisfy the
populations' neeus of healthy, sufficient foou which is cultuially anu ieligiously acceptable
anu that they also constitute the basis foi faii iemuneiation of the laboui of family faims";
Conscious of theii ioles anu iesponsibilities with iegaiu to the populations they
iepiesent, suppoit, anu accompany in theii uaily eff oits, the Foium's paiticipants
auopteu the piesent uocument which they entitleu " TBE NIANEY CALL F0R F00B
1. Consiueiing that the agiicultuial sectoi of the sub-iegion is the basis of the well-being of the
majoiity of the population, the wealth of the iegion, the conseivation of its natuial
iesouices, the futuie of its young people, of its societies anu social peace ;
2. Consiueiing that the agiicultuial uevelopment of the sub-iegion uepenus on exploiting the
complementaiities among its agio-ecological zones ;
S. Consiueiing that the national anu sub-iegional agiicultuial policies iecognize the multi-
functionality of family faiming anu the necessity of moueinizing it ;
4. Consiueiing that the agiicultuial uevelopment of the sub-iegion is a significant oppoitunity to
pioviue employment foi young people by supplying them with ievenues anu appiopiiate
living situations within theii teiiitoiies ; thus piomoting social peace anu attenuating
migiation ;
S. Conceineu by the impoitations of agiicultuial anu foou piouucts which aggiavate the foou
uepenuence anu weaken the economy anu the social tissue of West Afiica ;
6. Woiiieu by the inauequacy of public investments in agiicultuie ;
7. Convinceu that West Afiica has the potentialities anu the capacities to be less uepenuent anu
moie autonomous foi feeuing its populations ;
8. Convinceu that oui agiicultuie is the basis of inuustiial anu economic piomotion thiough its
multiple sectois : vegetable piouuction, livestock, fishing, foiestiy uevelopment ;
9. Convinceu that the achievement of the sub-iegion's foou soveieignty is the peuestal on which to
builu the inteinal maiket that will solve the iecuiiing pioblems of foou insecuiity, iuial
poveity, massive exouus of young people, the ueseitification of soils anu uegiauation of
natuial iesouices ;
1u. Convinceu that the sub-iegional agiicultuial policy of West Afiica (EC0WAP), which aims at
the achievement of foou soveieignty, is an oppoitunity to be seizeu in oiuei to attain the
Nillennium Bevelopment uoals anu those of the Betaileu Piogiamme foi the Bevelopment
of Afiican Agiicultuie of NEPAB;
11. Convinceu that foou soveieignty will not be attaineu without an auequate piotection of sub-
iegional piouuctions anu maikets against any unfaii competition by othei countiies anu
@2, 3,-',%7 &; $2, ;-%:,%7A &%4-#*B-$*&#7 -#' $2,*% #,$0&%C7D $2, :,:E,%7 &;
F-%3*-:,#$D $2, F(E3*) &;;*)*-37 &; $2, -4%*)(3$(%-3 -#' $%-', 7,)$&%7 -%, %,7&3/,'
-#' )&::*$$,' $& 0&%C ;&% G
6 H $2, )&#$*#(-$*&# &; $2, F%&),77 &; $2, '*-3&4(, :(3$*H-)$&% *#*$*-$,' -$ 9*-:,5
-%&(#' ;&&' 7&/,%,*4#$5 -#' -4%*)(3$(%-3 ',/,3&F:,#$ *# <,7$ 6;%*)-
The uialogue among all the actois showeu that the foium of Niamey will have to continue
at national level anu consoliuate the paiallel exchanges which the actois of each countiy
have hau sepaiately. This objective must be piomoteu by each national platfoim of
R0PPA's initiative in oiganizing the Foium was juugeu positively by the actois. It testifies
to the matuiity of the faimeis' oiganizations, theii sense of iesponsibility anu theii
willingness to builu, both in theii countiies anu at sub-iegional level, a coalition of actois
foi the economic, social, cultuial anu political piogiess of the populations.
This commitment to woik to cieate foiums of multi-actoi uialogue has to continue anu to
be suppoiteu by the national anu iegional authoiities. It is, aftei all, the peuestal of a
uuiable anu viituous uynamics foi the uevelopment of West Afiica.
? H $2, F-%$*)*F-$&%5 ;&%:(3-$*&# -#' *:F3,:,#$-$*&# &; - 7(EH%,4*&#-3 )2-%$,% &;
;&&' 7&/,%,*4#$5D (#',% $2, -,4*7 &; >8I<6J -#' 0*$2 $2, )&&F,%-$*&# &; K>1I6
-#' 8"+JJL
This chaitei will have to claiify the implications of foou soveieignty foi policies as well as
the ioles, the iesponsibilities anu the commitments of all the actois. The chaitei will also
uefine the means anu the mechanism of a collective monitoiing of the chaitei's
The Foium takes note of the commitment of the faimeis' oiganizations anu theii sub-
iegional netwoiks to mobilize theii membeis, to sensitize them anu tiain them in oiuei to
piomote the wiuest appiopiiation of foou soveieignty anu of the chaitei. This is the only
way to insuie that all the stakeholueis take into account the objectives of foou soveieignty
anu the implementation of conciete actions which testify to the commitments of eveiy
conceineu paity.
8 H $2, ',;*#*$*&# -#' $2, -FF3*)-$*&# &; - $%-', F&3*)5 -#' F%&$,)$*&# :,-7(%,7
)&%%,7F&#'*#4 $& $2, &EM,)$*/,7 &; $2, ;&&' 7&/,%,*4#$5
1. R0PPA unueitakes to iapiuly mobilize all its netwoiks of collaboiation to piepaie, befoie
Febiuaiy 2uu7,pioposals coiiesponuing to the application of foou soveieignty within the
fiamewoik of the Common Exteinal Taiiff (CET).
2. R0PPA unueitakes to mobilize the National Platfoims of Faimeis' 0iganizations so they woik
with the national auministiative officials to make them the ieal piomoteis anu the
uefenueis of a CET which is not a tool that conuemns thousanus of family faims to iuin.
S. The faimeis' oiganizations anu theii netwoiks - R0PPA anu the RECA0 - aie ueteimineu, if theii
conceins to piotect the agiicultuial piouuctions anu the iegional maiket aie taken into
account fiist by the States anu then by EC0WAS, to oiganize social anu peaceful
mobilization of family faimeis to suppoit the legitimate uecisions of the States anu EC0WAS
to uevelop haimoniously the sub-iegion of West Afiica
N H @2, -'-F$-$*&# -#' $2, ,;;,)$*/, -FF3*)-$*&# &; $2, F%*#)*F3,7 &; ;&&' 7&/,%,*4#$5
-#' $2, )2-%$,% *# $2, -4%*)(3$(%-3 -#' $%-', F&3*)*,7 -#' :,-7(%,7 &; F%&$,)$*&#
To uo so, the paiticipants in the Foium engage States, EC0WAS, 0EN0A anu CILSS to :
0pen uialogue anu negotiations, at national level with the National Platfoims of faimeis'
oiganizations, at the sub-iegional level with the R0PPA anu the RECA0, with a view to
uefining anu auopting a CET which can seive as a stiong instiument foi the piotection of
oui piouuctions anu the uevelopment of oui iegional maiket. The same state of minu
must apply to the negotiation anu conclusion of tiaue agieements with the Euiopean
0nion, China, Biazil, etc.
> H .,7F,)$ ;&% $2, )&::*$:,#$7 ;%,,35 -77(:,' E5 $2, 6;%*)-# O,-'7 &; J$-$, *#
1-F($& to uiiect at least, 1u % of the national buuget to financing agiicultuie (incluuing
livestock, fishing anu foiestiy) anu to implement piogiams agieeu with the conceineu
actois in oiuei to achieve an equitably uistiibuteu agiicultuie giowth iate of at least 6 %.
!"#$%&' !)*%$+%, -./0' 1..2
30% 4),5$
Appenuix B
3)(./>&.< ]5.:(&#):_C#9&6: 8#/ S&:65::&#)
1. What uo you know about the lanu giabs that aie happening in West Afiica, wheie piivate
investois aie making laige scale lanu investments anu uisplacing iuial populations.
- Bo you know anything about the Bakai appeal against Lanu uiabbing wiitten at
the 2u11 Woilu Social Foium.
- Bo you know who any of those piivate investois aie.

2. Aie theie any local oi inteinational oiganizations that ueal with foou soveieignty anu aie
involveu in West Afiica.
- What uo these oiganizations uo.
- What is theie contact infoimation.
- Bo you know much about the activities of via Campesina, R0PPA (Netwoik of
Faimeis' & Agiicultuial Piouuceis 0iganizations of West Afiica), anu the Alliance
foi Foou Soveieignty in Afiica (AFSA).

S. What is the influence of the INF anu Woilu Bank on foou policy in Senegal, anu in West
- What is the iole of Responsible Agiicultuial Investments.
- What is the iole of the Alliance foi a uieen Revolution in Afiica (AuRA).

4. Aie genetically mouifieu seeus useu wiuely in West Afiica.

S. Bave theie been any faims set up in Bakai to auuiess hungei anu unemployment.
- Bo they have the potential to make a laige impact on foou secuiity.

6. Aie theie any stiategies in place foi uealing with the uioughts anu floous that inteifeie
with foou piouuction.

7. What othei jouinals, aiticles oi books shoulu be consulteu to finu out moie on this topic.