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From the graph Particles finer than 4 !" mm #F4$ % &' "( Percentage of gra)el % *++,&' " % *+ "( Particles finer than + +!" mm #F-++$ % * ""( Percentage of fines is less than "+( Therefore it is a coarse graine. soil Percentage of san. % &' ",* "" % &! '"( /ore san. than gra)el Therefore the first letter is S Finer percentage #* ""($ is less than "( Therefore no infl0ence from fines To fin. the secon. letter 1e can 0se 0niformit2 coefficient 3 coefficient of c0r)at0re )al0es 4*+ % + -- mm 45+ % + 6& mm 46+ % * -" mm Uniformit2 coefficient 70 % 46+84*+

%* -"8+ -% 5 ""
7oefficient of c0r)at0re 7c % #45+-$8#4*+ 46+$ % #+ 6&-$8#+ -- 9 * -"$ % * 6& For 1ell gra.e. san.2 soil 70 :6 an. 7c is ;et1een * to 5 <ere e)en tho0gh ;2 the 7c= the soil is 1ell gra.e.= it fails the 7c Therefore it is poorl2 gra.e. <ence the classification s2m;ol is SP

In ci)il engineering= engineers sho0l. the properties of the 0n.erl2ing soil Therefore classification of soil is important in ci)il engineering The most commonl2 0se. characteristics for the classification are particle si>e .istri;0tion an. plasticit2 In this practical 1e a;o0t particle si>e .istri;0tion to Unifie. 7lassification S2stem= soil can ;e classifie. as follo1s

?ra)el !6 - , 4 !" mm San. 4 !" mm , + +!" mm

7la2 3 Silts @ + +!" mm In this practical 1e .etermine. particle si>e .istri;0tion= ;2 sie)e anal2sis metho. 1here the soil sample has particles finer than *+mm an. larger than + +!"mm an. ;2 h2.rometer anal2sis 1here the soil sample consist particles finer than + +!"mm

Sie)e anal2sis
Ahen the sie)e anal2sis is performe. for other the soil sample= first it sho0l. ;e o)en .rie. an. l0mps sho0l. ;e ;roBen in to small particles ;efore the2 pass thro0gh the sie)e In this process some soil particles ma2 get finer than its nat0ral si>e It .irectl2 affects for the particle si>e .istri;0tion c0r)e Another pro;lem= 1hich can ;e arise. is that= 1hen 1e perform a test for cohesi)e soil= it is )er2 .iffic0lt to ;reaB l0mps in to in.i)i.0al particles In that case soil sho0l. ;e mi9e. 1ith 1ater to maBe a sl0rr2 an. then 1ashe. thro0gh the sie)es <ere s0fficient care most ;e taBen not to maBe an2 o)erflo1 Portions retaine. on each sie)es= are collecte. separatel2 an. sho0l. ;e o)en .rie. ;efore their masses are meas0re. The res0lts of a grain si>e anal2sis are 0s0all2 e9presse. ;2 a graph sho1ing the aggregate 1eight in percent of total 1eight of all grains finer than an2 gi)en .iameter C2 0sing the graph= 1e can fin. the 0niformit2 coefficient criterion an. the coefficient of c0r)at0re criterion From the graph an. the a;o)e t1o )al0es 1e can classif2 the soil sample 7lassification s2m;ol for o0r sample is SP Ahen compacte. an. sat0rate. this t2pe of soil goo. shearing strength an. )er2 lo1 compressi;ilit2= ;0t still per)io0s Also contain less percentage gra)el Therefore 1e canDt 0se these t2pes of soils for earth .am .esign Ae can 0se this t2pe of soils for fo0n.ation 1orBs an. roa. 1orBs Ceca0se there is no infl0ence of cla2 therefore there is no s1elling an. contraction In this practical follo1ing errors ma2 occ0r * Sie)ing might not perfectl2 acc0rate= there 1ere some errors - Ahen collecting retaine. 3 meas0ring 1eight there 1ere some errors 5 Apparat0s ma2 ha)e errors 4 <0man errors

<2.rometer anal2sis
Se.imentation anal2sis= 1hich is ;ase. on the principles of .ispersion an. se.imentation= is 0se. for the anal2sis of fine graine. soil StoBeDs la1 forms the ;asis of se.imentation to 1hich the )elocit2 of free fall of grains is .irectl2 proportional to the sE0are of particleDs .iameter The e9pression 0se. to .etermine the particle .iameter in se.imentation anal2sis is ;ase. on this settling )elocit2 <ence the in.i)i.0al soil particles m0st ;e .isperse. to ena;le the .etermination of particle si>e .istri;0tion acc0ratel2 <o1e)er= the finer grains of soil carr2 charges on their s0rface an. hence ha)e a ten.enc2 to form flocs Th0s if the floc formation is not pre)ente. the grain .iameter o;taine.

1o0l. ;e the .iameter of flocs an. not of the in.i)i.0al grain <ence in se.imentation anal2sis= .eflocc0lating agents are to ;e a..e. 4ispersing agents can either act as a protecti)e colloi. on the soli. particle or alter the electrical charge on the particle to pre)ent the formation of flocs So.i0m he9ametaphosphate= so.i0m o9alate= so.i0m silicate etc are some of the most commonl2 0se. .ispersing agents <2.rometer sho0l. ;e taBeo0t after taBe rea.ings to pre)ent se.imentation of particles on h2.rometer In the practical there are some corrections has ;een ma.e to ens0re the correctness of the e9periment One is the /enisc0s correction= the other one is 4ispersing Agent correction= /enisc0s correction is the correction to .ifference ;et1een the top of the menisc0s an. the le)el of the sol0tion in the ;eaBer <ere the )al0e is taBen as + " 4ispersing correction is to correct the errors .0e to the .ispersing agent 1hich is that has a..e. to the sample In this practical there is possi;ilit2 to errors .0e to ass0mptions an. other reasons * Soil particles are not spheres - The fl0i. is not of infinite e9tent 5 The specific gra)it2 of in.i)i.0al particles ma2 )ar2 4 T0r;0lence ca0se. ;2 larger particles falling " 4ist0r;ance .0e to insertion an. remo)al of h2.rometer 6 E)aporation of 1ater ! Loss of sample .0ring agitation & <0man errors ' Apparat0s ma2 ha)e errors


* RanFan= ? an. Rao= A S R = #*''*$ Casic an. Applie. Soil

mechanics. Aile2 Eastern limite.= Ne1 4elhi - Co1les= Goseph E Engineering Properties of Soils 4th CostonH Ir1in /c?ra1I<ill= *''-