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How do blackouts start?

Faults and protection


Joint of disconnector

Outline
Faults in power systems Power system protection Zones of protection Time-delay overcurrent relay Coordination Directional relays Reclosers and sectionalizers
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Disconnector initiates Swedish blackout 23 september


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Open-circuit faults
One phase of circuit breaker stuck open Conductor falling down Short-circuit faults more common

Short-circuit faults
Lightning Dirt/salt on insulators Flashover line-line (wind) Flashover to tree Tower/pole or conductor falls Objects fall on conductors Cable insulation failure
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Electric Power Systems - Olof Samuelsson

Lightning most common

Power lines and trees


400 kV 50 kV

Statistically 80 % of faults on overhead lines are due to lightning

10 kV

www.dmi.dk
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Distribution lines most affected

Electric Power Systems - Olof Samuelsson

Galopping spectacular

Effects of short-circuit current


Arc
Compare with welding http://205.243.100.155/frames/longarc.htm

Heating
Fire and explosion

Vibration due to magnetic forces


Parallel conductors are attracted (F=Bil)

Electric Power Systems - Olof Samuelsson

Electric Power Systems - Olof Samuelsson

Heating
Resistive losses RI2 Temperature rise with stored heat energy I2t (no cooling assumed) Same I2t gives equal heating (see graph)
Time Overload

Interrupting large currents


Fuses
Use the melting effect of the arc

Circuit breakers interrupt kA in ms


Extinguish arc

Short-circuit fault Current


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Breaker operation Automatic by relay protection


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Protection including fuses


Need
Detect fault Isolate faulted component Restore faulted component

When lights go out


1. An upstream fuse/relay has detected a fault 2. Downstream system isolated by fuse or breaker 3. Automatic reclosing after delay successful if fault not permanent
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Aims
Continued supply for rest of system Protect faulted part from damage

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Protection system performance


High reliability
Always isolate targeted fault High sensitivity good

Protection system tasks


Is there a fault?
Short-circuit or only high load? All situations must be known!

High selectivity
Only react to targeted faults High sensitivity bad
Compromise

Coordination
Which protection unit should react? Isolate as small area as possible Must work also if component fails
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Fast
Good for (transient) stability Safety
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Zones of protection
Defined for protected objects
Dedicated protection for each zone

Protection types
Overcurrent protection
Lines (distribution)

Zones overlap CB in overlap zones Isolated at fault anywhere inside


G M

Directional overcurrent relay


Lines (transmission), generators

Differential protection
Lines Transformers Busbars Generators
Ex
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Electric Power Systems - Olof Samuelsson

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Line protection components


CT CB

Time-delay overcurrent relay


Detect overcurrent Wait delay time T Trip CB Time

PT Relay

CB - Circuit Breaker CT - Current Transformer PT - Potential Transformer T 1

Trip

Constant delay characteristic

Large number of relays needed: One for each phase and fault type
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Relative overcurrent
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Electric Power Systems - Olof Samuelsson

Time-delay overcurrent relay


Detect overcurrent Wait delay time T(I) Trip CB Time
R1 CB1

Radial system
ISC increases when approaching source R1 has higher current setting than R2 Time
Load1 CB2 R1 R2

Trip

Inverse 1/t characteristic Similar for fuses

R2

Relative overcurrent
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Load2

Relative overcurrent
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Electric Power Systems - Olof Samuelsson

Fault in radial system


R1 and R2 detect overcurrent Delay of R2 smallest Time R2 operates CB2 first
R1 R2 CB2 CB1 L1

Fault in radial system: At home


Both F1 and F2 detect overcurrent Delay of F2 Time Fuse F2 blows first
F1 F2 F3

Isolates fault + Load 2 R1 reset

Isolates fault and Me

If fuse F2 fails
R1 R2

If R2 or CB2 fails

Load2

R1 not reset Current Extra delay of R1 R1 operates CB1 Isolates fault + Load 2 but also Load 1

Extra delay of F1 F1 blows Isolates fault + Me but also Neighbor

F1 F2 Current

Me Neighbor

Fault clearing is selective


Coordination works
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Electric Power Systems - Olof Samuelsson

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Coordination
Relays 1 and 2 coordinated in example: For the line, Relay 2 provides Primary protection Relay 1 provides Backup protection Always true since t(I) curves do not cross Rule: Longer delay close to source
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Line fed from both ends


R1 R2 R3 R4

Rule not applicable due to many sources Use directional relays:


R1 and R3 only trip for fault to their right R2 and R4 only trip for fault to their left

V and I phase difference gives direction

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Impedance relay
Let relay measure V/I=Z=R+jX Normally load makes Z > Zline Fault on line makes Z < Zline - TRIP!
X Trip R Radius=|Zline |
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Impedance relay types


Directional X Trip R Zline Admittance or MHO X Trip R

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Distance protection
Series impedance ~ distance along line |Z|<0.8|Zline| equivalent to
Zero fault within 80% of line length The reach of the relay is 80%

Distance protection zones


Zone 1, Primary: 80%, no delay Zone 2, Backup 1: 120%, delay Zone 3, Backup 2: 120+100%, longer delay
A B C D

G
Time Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 1

Distance
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Distance protection coordination


A B C D

Current differential protection


Compare iin and iout
|iin iout|0 no internal fault |iin iout|>>0 internal fault: Trip CB

G
Time

Distance Time

Generators
iin and iout of each winding

Communication needed for lines


G
Distance
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Ex

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Example: Permanent fault Automatic sectionalizer


Cost-effective restoration of service
Sectionalizer with transducers and logic
R S Load3 S Load2 S Load1 R
S1 Load1

R S

R S

R S

R S

R S

Operates when recloser R is open


Need not interrupt fault current Simpler than circuit breaker Operation not electrically powered

S2 Load2 Load3

Counts periods of fault current


Opens after preset number Maximum area restored Radio message to repairman
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Normal S1 preset to 3 S2 preset to 2

Fault occurs S1 count 1 S2 count 1

R opens

R recloses S1 count 2 S2 count 2 Fault not temporary!

R opens S2 opens
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R closes

Electric Power Systems - Olof Samuelsson

System protection
Unit protection=Fault protection
Protects generator, line, transformer Weakens system when tripping CB

Calculating fault current


Short-circuit protection input data
Minimum short-circuit current Maximum load current

System protection=Blackout protection


Acts to avoid system blackout E.g. Sacrifice some load to save the rest

Circuit breaker selection input data


Maximum short-circuit current

All protection is based on knowledge


Normal and abnormal operation Coordinating protection in nuclear plant!
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Short-circuit current calculation


Based on network data Detailed like load flow or Thvenin-based
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Summary
Short-circuit most common fault (lightning) Fuses and protection
Dependable = not miss a fault Selective = not overreact Many relay types One zone for each relay

Limiting blackout-area
Coordination, autoreclosing, autosectionalizing
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