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Lovely Professional University, Punjab

Course Code CSE322 Course Category Course Title FORMAL LANGUAGES AND AUTOMATION THEORY Courses with numerical and conceptual focus Course Planner 13878::Madhu Bala Lectures 3.0 Tutorials Practicals Credits 0.0 0.0 3.0

TextBooks Sr No T-1 Title Author Edition 3rd Year 2012 Publisher Name PHI (Pretice Hall India) Theory of Computer Science: K.L.P. Mishra & N. Automata, languages & Computation Chandrasekaran Reference Books Sr No R-1 R-2 R-3 R-4 Other Reading Sr No OR-1 OR-2 OR-3 OR-4 Journals articles as Compulsary reading (specific articles, complete reference) "Journal of Automata, Languages and Combinatorics", Otto-von-Guericke-Universitat Magdeburg, http://www.jalc.de , , "Journal of Computer and System Sciences", http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022000002918556 , , "An Introduction to formal languages and Automata", Peter Linz, Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2001 , , "Theory of Automata, Formal Language and computation", S.P. Eugene Xavier, New Age Publication , , Title Author Edition 1st 2nd 2nd 3rd Year 2012 2005 2011 2001 Publisher Name Pearson S K Kataria and Sons A.B.S.Publication, Jalandhar Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, Massachusetts Automata, Computability and Elaine Rich Complexity: Theory and Applications An Introduction To Automata Theory Adesh K. Pandey and Formal Languages. Introduction to Theory of Automata, Formal Languages and Computation An Introductionto Formal Languages and Automata Satinder Singh Chahal, Guljeet Kaur Chahal Peter Linz

Relevant Websites Sr No RW-1 RW-2 (Web address) (only if relevant to the course) http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~matuszek/cit596-2012/Pages/cfg7.html http://theory.csail.mit.edu/ Salient Features Sentential Forms At MIT, there is broad range of TOC topics, including algorithms, complexity theory, cryptography, distributed computing, computational geometry, computational biology, and quantum computing. MIT has the largest TOC research group in the world.

RW-3 RW-4

http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Recursively_enumerable_lang Recursive enumerable language uage.html http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/106106049 Online_Video Lectures, IIT Madras

RW-5 RW-6 RW-7

http://www.theoryofcomputations.com/ http://www.cs.rpi.edu/academics/courses/spring06/modcomp/ http://www.cse.ohio-state.edu/~gurari/theory-bk/theory-bk.html

Illustrative Examples, Short Questions, Exercises, Assignments and Question Banks on TOC. Lecture Slides from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). * Rensselaer is America's oldest technological research university. Ohio State University Link: Informative material on various topics

Audio Visual Aids Sr No AV-1 AV-2 (AV aids) (only if relevant to the course) http://www.cs.uiuc.edu/class/sp10/cs373/lectures/ http://aduni.org/courses/theory/index.php?view=cw Salient Features Online Video Lectures, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Video Taped lectures based on undergraduate course study of Theory of Computation at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Software/Equipments/Databases Sr No SW-1 SW-2 SW-3 (S/E/D) (only if relevant to the course) Visual Automata Simulator 1.2.2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automata-based_programming dk.brics.automaton 1.11-8 Salient Features A tool for simulating, visualizing and transforming finite state automata and Turing Machines. Web Link on various ways, to practically implement concepts of TOC/Automata. This Java package contains a DFA/NFA (finite-state automata) implementation with Unicode alphabet (UTF16) and support for the standard regular expression operations (concatenation, union, Kleene star) and a number of non-standard ones (intersection, complement, etc.)

Virtual Labs Sr No VL-1 (VL) (only if relevant to the course) http://www.virlab.virginia.edu/VL/QCA_cells.htm Salient Features Virtual Lab from University of Virginia in Charlottesville, VA. In computers of the future, transistors may be replaced by assemblies of quantum dots called "Quantum-dot Cellular Automata" (QCA's).This page describes how QCA's can store and move information. Virtual Lab from University of Virginia in Charlottesville, VA. Describes how "Quantum-dot Cellular Automata" (QCA's) can be made into MAJORITY, OR, AND, and INVERTER logic gates. LTP week distribution: (LTP Weeks) Weeks before MTE Weeks After MTE Spill Over 7 7 3

VL-2

http://www.virlab.virginia.edu/VL/QCA_logic.htm

Detailed Plan For Lectures

Week Number

Lecture Number

Broad Topic(Sub Topic)

Chapters/Sections of Text/reference books

Other Readings, Lecture Description Relevant Websites, Audio Visual Aids, software and Virtual Labs Basic description of Finite state machines

Learning Outcomes

Pedagogical Tool Demonstration/ Case Study / Images / animation / ppt etc. Planned Slides

Week 1

Lecture 1

FINITE AUTOMATA(Definition and Description of a Finite Automaton)

T-1:Ch-3

Student will learn the concepts of finite state machine and their implementation in real life. Student will learn the concepts of finite state machine and their implementation in real life. Strings and Alphabets

FINITE AUTOMATA (Deterministic and Nondeterministic Finite State Machines) FINITE AUTOMATA(Basics of Strings and Alphabets) Lecture 2 FINITE AUTOMATA (Acceptability of a String by a Finite Automaton) FINITE AUTOMATA(Transition Graph and Properties of Transition Functions) Lecture 3 FINITE AUTOMATA(The Equivalence of Deterministic and Non-deterministic Finite Automata) FINITE AUTOMATA(Mealy and Moore Machines)

T-1:Ch-3

Basic description of Finite state machines

Slides

T-1:Ch-2

Basic description of Strings and Alphabets How Finite Automaton accepts String

Slides

T-1:Ch-3

Student will learn the working of finite Automata along with the acceptance of strings. Student will learn the working of finite Automata. Students can learn the easy way of designing FSM. Students learn about Finite automata with output using different variations

Lecture cum demonstrations

T-1:Ch-3

Construction of a Finite Automata NDFA is a variation of the FSM that will make it much easier to design FSM. Variants of Finite Automata

Lecture cum demonstrations Numerical Problem Solving

T-1:Ch-3

Week 2

Lecture 4

T-1:Ch-3

Numerical Problem Solving

Lecture 5

FINITE AUTOMATA (Minimization of Finite Automata)

T-1:Ch-3

To minimize a finite state machine based on the states that can be partitioned into disjoint sets where all the states in each state are equivalent Generation of regular language from finite state machine

Students learn to reduce Numerical Problem a Complex Finite Solving Automata

FINITE AUTOMATA(Regular Languages)

T-1:Ch-3

Students will learn the construction of regular language from finite automata

Numerical Problem Solving

Week 2

Lecture 6

REGULAR EXPRESSIONS AND REGULAR SETS(Regular Expressions and Identities for Regular Expressions) REGULAR EXPRESSIONS AND REGULAR SETS(Finite Automata and Regular Expressions: Transition System Containing null moves)

T-1:Ch-5

Basics of Regular expressions

A completely different way to think about regular sets called regular expressions

Lecture cum demonstrations

T-1:Ch-5

A finite state machine can be converted to a regular expression and every regular expression can be converted into a non-deterministic finite state machine

Student will learn the Lecture cum relation between Finite demonstrations Automata and Regular Expressions

Week 3

Lecture 7

REGULAR EXPRESSIONS AND REGULAR SETS(Nondeterministic Finite Automata with Null Moves and Regular Expressions) REGULAR EXPRESSIONS AND REGULAR SETS(Conversion of Non-deterministic Systems to Deterministic Systems)

T-1:Ch-5

How to convert a Nondeterministic Finite Automata to Deterministic Automata A finite state machine can be converted to a regular expression and every regular expression can be converted into a nondeterministic finite state machine Description of uses of Regular Expressions

Students learn the Numerical Problem conversion of NonSolving deterministic Finite Automata to Deterministic Automata Student will learn the Lecture cum relation between Finite demonstrations Automata Regular Expressions

T-1:Ch-5

Lecture 8

REGULAR EXPRESSIONS AND REGULAR SETS(Algebraic Methods using Arden's Theorem) REGULAR EXPRESSIONS AND REGULAR SETS(Equivalence between regular languages: Construction of Finite Automata Equivalent to a Regular Expression) REGULAR EXPRESSIONS AND REGULAR SETS(Equivalence of Two Finite Automata and Two Regular Expressions)

T-1:Ch-5

Students will learn about the purpose and usage of regular expressions

Numerical Problem Solving

Lecture 9 Week 4 Lecture 10 T-1:Ch-5

Test1 Relation of Regular Expression and Finite Automata Students undersatnd the Numerical Problem concept of equivalence Solving between regular expression and finite automata Lecture cum demonstrations Students undersatnd the Numerical Problem concept of equivalence Solving between regular expression and finite automata Lecture cum demonstrations Students learn the various properties of Regular Sets Slides

T-1:Ch-5

Relation of Regular Expression and Finite Automata

REGULAR EXPRESSIONS AND REGULAR SETS(Closure Properties of Regular Sets)

T-1:Ch-5

Description of the various Properties of Regular Sets

Week 4

Lecture 11

REGULAR EXPRESSIONS AND REGULAR SETS(Pumping Lemma for Regular Sets and its Application)

T-1:Ch-5

Discussion on Pumping lemma for regular sets and its application

The pumping lemma for Regular sets is a way to convince students that certain sets are not Regular

Lecture cum demonstrations

Lecture 12

REGULAR EXPRESSIONS AND REGULAR SETS(Construction of Finite Automata Equivalent to a Regular Expression) REGULAR EXPRESSIONS AND REGULAR SETS(Properties of Regular Languages)

T-1:Ch-5

Construction of the finite Students learn the automata from regular construction of finite expression automata from regular expression Description of the Students learn the properties of regular properties of regular languages along with its languages usage in pumping lemma Introduction to Grammars and its significance

Numerical Problem Solving

T-1:Ch-5

Slides

Week 5

Lecture 13

FORMAL LANGUAGES AND REGULAR GRAMMARS (Definition of a Grammar)

T-1:Ch-4

Student will understand Slides the concept of grammar and its Significance

FORMAL LANGUAGES AND REGULAR GRAMMARS (Languages Generated by a Grammar) Lecture 14 FORMAL LANGUAGES AND REGULAR GRAMMARS (Chomsky Classification of Languages) FORMAL LANGUAGES AND REGULAR GRAMMARS (Recursive and Recursively Enumerable Sets)

T-1:Ch-4

Introduction to languages Student will learn the Foundation of CFGs

Slides

T-1:Ch-4

Chomsky Classification of Languages

Students learn about Slides various types of Formal Languages An undecidable Slides problem is a decision problem for which it is impossible to construct a single algorithm that always leads to a correct yes or no answer Student will learn the Lecture cum relation between Finite demonstrations Automata and Regular Expressions

Lecture 15

T-1:Ch-4

Use of Recursive and Recursively Enumerable Languages in undecidability

FORMAL LANGUAGES AND REGULAR GRAMMARS (REGULAR GRAMMARS: Regular Sets and Regular Grammars)

T-1:Ch-5

A finite state machine can be converted to a regular expression and every regular expression can be converted into a non-deterministic finite state machine Chomsky Hierarchy of Languages

Week 6

Lecture 16

FORMAL LANGUAGES AND REGULAR GRAMMARS (Chomsky hierarchy of Languages)

T-1:Ch-4

Students learn about Slides various types of Formal Languages

Week 6

Lecture 17

FORMAL LANGUAGES AND REGULAR GRAMMARS (Languages and Automata)

T-1:Ch-5

Relation between languages and automata

Students learn the Slides relationship between languages and automata and their conversion Student will learn the Lecture cum relation between Finite demonstrations Automata and Regular Expressions

Lecture 18 Week 7 Lecture 19 FORMAL LANGUAGES AND REGULAR GRAMMARS (Converting Regular Expressions to Regular Grammars) T-1:Ch-5

Test2 A finite state machine can be converted to a regular expression and every regular expression can be converted into a non-deterministic finite state machine A finite state machine can be converted to a regular expression and every regular expression can be converted into a non-deterministic finite state machine

Lecture 20

FORMAL LANGUAGES AND REGULAR GRAMMARS (Converting Regular Grammars to Regular Expressions)

T-1:Ch-5

Student will learn the Lecture cum relation between Finite demonstrations Automata and Regular Expressions

Lecture 21

FORMAL LANGUAGES AND REGULAR GRAMMARS(Left Linear and Right Linear Regular Grammars)

T-1:Ch-5

Basics of Left Linear and Students learn Right Linear Regular aboutLeft Linear and Grammars Right Linear Regular Grammars

Slides

MID-TERM
Week 8 Lecture 22 CONTEXT- FREE LANGUAGES AND SIMPLIFICATION OF CONTEXT-FREE GRAMMAR (Context-Free Languages and Derivation Trees) CONTEXT- FREE LANGUAGES AND SIMPLIFICATION OF CONTEXT-FREE GRAMMAR (Leftmost and Rightmost derivations) Lecture 23 CONTEXT- FREE LANGUAGES AND SIMPLIFICATION OF CONTEXT-FREE GRAMMAR (Language of a Context Free Grammar) CONTEXT- FREE LANGUAGES AND SIMPLIFICATION OF CONTEXT-FREE GRAMMAR (Applications of Context Free Grammar) T-1:Ch-6 Description of Parse tree as it is another way to represent the derivation of a string from a grammar Different ways of deriving a grammar Studnet will learn the way of representation of Context Free Grammar Studnet will learn about Different ways of deriving a grammar Student will learn the construction of languages corresponding to a particular grammar Slides

T-1:Ch-6

Slides

T-1:Ch-6

Description of the languages generated corresponding to a particular grammar

Slides

T-1:Ch-6

Applications of context free grammar and relate this topic with syntax and semantic phases of compiler design.

Students learn about Slides real life examples of Context Free Grammars

Week 8

Lecture 23

CONTEXT- FREE LANGUAGES AND SIMPLIFICATION OF CONTEXT-FREE GRAMMAR (Sentential forms) CONTEXT- FREE LANGUAGES AND SIMPLIFICATION OF CONTEXT-FREE GRAMMAR (Pumping Lemma for Context Free Grammar) T-1:Ch-6

RW-1

How the grammars are derived

Student will learn the Lecture cum importance of language demonstrations and its derivation The pumping lemma for context free grammar is a way to convince students that certain languages are not context free The pumping lemma for context free grammar is a way to convince students that certain languages are not context free Student learn the ambiguity problem Lecture cum demonstrations

Lecture 24

Lecture 24....Discussion on Pumping lemma for context free language Lecture 25....Applications of pumping lemma for CFG Lecture 24....Discussion on Pumping lemma for context free language Lecture 25....Applications of pumping lemma for CFG Importance of checking embiguity in CFGs Why ambiguity checking is important Different ways to simplify Context Free Grammar

Week 9

Lecture 25

CONTEXT- FREE LANGUAGES AND SIMPLIFICATION OF CONTEXT-FREE GRAMMAR (Pumping Lemma for Context Free Grammar)

T-1:Ch-6

Lecture cum demonstrations

Lecture 26

CONTEXT- FREE LANGUAGES AND SIMPLIFICATION OF CONTEXT-FREE GRAMMAR (Ambiguity in Context Free Grammar) CONTEXT- FREE LANGUAGES AND SIMPLIFICATION OF CONTEXT-FREE GRAMMAR (Construction of Reduced Grammars) CONTEXT- FREE LANGUAGES AND SIMPLIFICATION OF CONTEXT-FREE GRAMMAR (Elimination of null and unit productions)

T-1:Ch-6

Numerical Problem Solving

Lecture 27

T-1:Ch-6

Student will learn the Numerical Problem concept of reduction of Solving grammars.

T-1:Ch-6

Different ways to simplify Context Free Grammar

Student will learn the Numerical Problem concept of reduction of Solving grammars.

Week 10

Lecture 28

CONTEXT- FREE LANGUAGES AND SIMPLIFICATION OF CONTEXT-FREE GRAMMAR (Normal Forms for Context Free Grammar -Chomsky Normal Form, Greibach Normal Form) CONTEXT- FREE LANGUAGES AND SIMPLIFICATION OF CONTEXT-FREE GRAMMAR (Normal Forms for Context Free Grammar -Chomsky Normal Form, Greibach Normal Form) PUSHDOWN AUTOMATA AND PARSING(Representation of Pushdown Automata)

T-1:Ch-6

Lecture 28 ....Describe Chomsky Normal Form Lecture 29..... different Lemmas to be used in GNF

How to reduce Numerical Problem grammar to a CNF and Solving GNF

Lecture 29

T-1:Ch-6

Lecture 28 ....Describe Chomsky Normal Form Lecture 29..... different Lemmas to be used in GNF

How to reduce Numerical Problem grammar to a CNF and Solving GNF

Lecture 30

T-1:Ch-7

Representation of Push Down Automata

Student learn the representation of Push Down Automata

Slides

Week 10

Lecture 30

PUSHDOWN AUTOMATA AND PARSING(Description and Model of Pushdown Automata)

T-1:Ch-7

A pushdown automaton or PDA is a type of automaton that uses a stack for temporary data storage Types of acceptance by Pushdown Automata

Student learn the basics Slides of Push Down Automata

Week 11

Lecture 31

PUSHDOWN AUTOMATA AND PARSING(Acceptance by Pushdown Automata) PUSHDOWN AUTOMATA AND PARSING(Pushdown Automata: Deterministic Pushdown Automata and non-deterministic Pushdown Automata) PUSHDOWN AUTOMATA AND PARSING(Context free languages and Pushdown Automata) PUSHDOWN AUTOMATA AND PARSING(Pushdown Automata and Context-Free Languages)

T-1:Ch-7

Student learn the Lecture cum acceptance of strings by demonstrations PDA Student learn the Lecture cum variation of push down demonstration automata

Lecture 32

T-1:Ch-7

Types of push down automata

T-1:Ch-7

Relationship between Student learn Lecture cum Pushdown Automata and theConversion between demonstration Context Free Languages CFL and PDA Relationship between Student learn Lecture cum Pushdown Automata and theConversion between demonstration Context Free Languages CFL and PDA

T-1:Ch-7

Lecture 33

PUSHDOWN AUTOMATA AND PARSING(Comparison of deterministic and nondeterministic versions)

R-1:Ch-12

Description about Comparison of deterministic and non-deterministic versions

Comparison of deterministic and nondeterministic versions

Slides

PUSHDOWN AUTOMATA AND PARSING(closure properties)

R-1:Ch-13

Desciption of the closure Student learn the properties of CNF closure properties of CNF Test3

Slides

Week 12

Lecture 34 Lecture 35 PUSHDOWN AUTOMATA AND PARSING(PARSING: Top-Down and Bottom-Up Parsing) PUSHDOWN AUTOMATA AND PARSING(LL (k) Grammars and its Properties) PUSHDOWN AUTOMATA AND PARSING(LR(k) Grammars and its Properties) T-1:Ch-7

Purpose of Parsing in automata

Student learn about Numerical Problem TopDown Solving and BottomUp Parsing Student will learn the Purpose of LL(k) in Parsing Student will learn the Purpose of LR(K) in Parsing Lecture cum demonstrations

Lecture 36

T-1:Ch-7

Purpose of LL(k) in Parsing

T-1:Ch-8

Purpose of LR(k) in Parsing

Lecture cum demonstrations

Week 13

Lecture 37

TURING MACHINES AND COMPLEXITY(Turing Machine Model)

T-1:Ch-9

A Turing machine is a device that manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules Various ways to represent Turing Machines

Student will learn the basics of Turing Machines

Slides

TURING MACHINES AND COMPLEXITY(Representation of Turing Machines)

T-1:Ch-9

Student Learn about different ways to represent Turing Machines

Lecture cum demonstrations

Lecture 38

TURING MACHINES AND COMPLEXITY(Design of Turing Machines)

T-1:Ch-9

Lecture 38...Discussion on designing of turing machines Lecture 39....Construction of turing machines Lecture 38...Discussion on designing of turing machines Lecture 39....Construction of turing machines Description of power of Linear Bounded Automaton

Student learn the designing and construction of Turing Machines

Lecture cum demonstrations

Lecture 39

TURING MACHINES AND COMPLEXITY(Design of Turing Machines)

T-1:Ch-9

Student learn the designing and construction of Turing Machines

Lecture cum demonstrations

Week 14

Lecture 40

TURING MACHINES AND COMPLEXITY(Power of Linear Bounded Automaton) TURING MACHINES AND COMPLEXITY(The Model of Linear Bounded Automaton)

T-1:Ch-9

Student learn the power Slides of Linear Bounded Automaton Slides

T-1:Ch-9

Description of Model of Student learn the need Linear Bounded of Automaton Model of Linear Bounded Automaton How NDTM are different from DTMs Students Learn about Non Deterministic Turing Machines Students Learn the halting Problem

Lecture 41

TURING MACHINES AND COMPLEXITY(NonDeterministic Turing Machines) TURING MACHINES AND COMPLEXITY(Halting Problem of Turing Machine)

T-1:Ch-9

Slides

T-1:Ch-10

Description of Halting Problem

Lecture cum demonstrations

TURING MACHINES AND COMPLEXITY(Post Correspondence Problem)

T-1:Ch-9

Description of Undecidable decision problems

Students Learn about Numerical Problem proofs of undecidability Solving

Week 14

Lecture 42

TURING MACHINES AND COMPLEXITY(Basic Concepts of Computability) TURING MACHINES AND COMPLEXITY(Decidable and Undecidable languages)

T-1:Ch-11

Describing about Computability An undecidable problem is a decision problem for which it is impossible to construct a single algorithm that always leads to a correct yes or no answer RW-2 Types of Complexity

Student learn about the Slides computability Student learn the Use of Slides Recursive and Recursively Enumerable Languages in undecidability

T-1:Ch-10

TURING MACHINES AND COMPLEXITY(Computational Complexity: Measuring Time & Space Complexity)

Learning about variants Lecture cum of Complexity demonstrations

SPILL OVER
Week 15 Lecture 43 Lecture 44 Lecture 45 Spill Over Spill Over Spill Over

Scheme for CA:


Component Test Frequency 2 Total :Out Of 3 Each Marks Total Marks 10 10 20 20

Details of Academic Task(s)


AT No. Objective Topic of the Academic Task Nature of Academic Task (group/individuals/field work Individual Evaluation Mode Allottment / submission Week 2/3

Test1

To test the Test 1- will be covering the syllabus from lecture 1 to lecture 8. understanding level of the students for the topics covered in class as mentioned in IP. To check the Test 2- will be covering syllabus from lecture 10 to lecture 17. abilities of the students to attempt questions before MTE based on the topics covered as per IP.

Evaluation of test would be based on Step by step execution of attempted questions. Step by step evaluation of questions attempted by students.

Test2

Individual

5/6

Test3

To test the Test 3- will be covering syllabus from lecture 19 to lecture 33. understanding level of the students for topics covered as mentioned in detail.

Individual

Step by step evaluation of attempted questions.

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